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The APMG-International Change Management and Swirl Device logo is a trade mark of The APM Group Limited.

Start and finish Course style

Coffee and breaks Lunch

M00 - Course introduction 2/8 2/186

Individual approaches and attitudes to improve
effectiveness during change
How to guide teams through their development
The nature and dynamics of achieving change in
The competencies, demands and practice
of leading change
Understand broad range of approaches
and tools that will improve your ability
to succeed with change
Main goal
Attempt Foundation exam with confidence
Secondary goal
Benefits and value of Change Management
Understand core principles and required skills of
Change Management
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Please share with the class:
Your name and surname
Your organization
Your profession
Title, function, job responsibilities
Your familiarity with the
project/programme management
Your familiarity with the change
Your familiarity with soft-skills aspects
Your personal session expectations

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Foundation Exam
Paper based and closed book exam
Only pencil and eraser are allowed
Simple multiple (ABCD) choice exam
Only one answer is correct
60 questions, pass mark is 30 (50%)
1 hour exam
No negative points, no Tricky Questions
No pre-requisite for Foundation exam
Sample, one (official) mock exam is
provided to you

Candidates completing an examination in a language that

is not their mother tongue, will receive additional time

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Practitioner Exam
Paper based and open book exam
Reference to Making Sense of Change
Management book ONLY allowed
Book is provided for students during exam
3 hours exam
Complex multiple choice - Objective Test
4 x 20 complex multiple choice questions =
80 question items/lines
Pass mark 50% / 40 marks
Dictionary / translation lists allowed
Foundation certification is required

Candidates completing an examination in a language that

is not their mother tongue, will receive additional time

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Change Management syllabus section code and title

IC Individual Change

TC Team Change

OC Organizational Change

LC Leading Change

Module slide number / total module slides

Change Management Change Management Slide number /

syllabus section code handbook page total slides

Module number
and name
M00 - Course introduction Syllabus Handbook Page 7/8 7/186
Mirosaw Dbrowski linkedin.com/in/miroslawdabrowski
Agile Coach, Trainer, Consultant twitter.com/mirodabrowski
(former JEE/PHP developer, UX/UI designer, BA/SA) miroslaw_dabrowski

Creator Writer / Translator Trainer / Coach

Creator of 50+ mind maps from PPM and related Product Owner of biggest Polish project English speaking, international, independent
topics (2mln views): miroslawdabrowski.com management portal: 4PM: 4pm.pl (15.000+ views trainer and coach from multiple domains.
Lead author of more than 50+ accredited materials each month) Master Lead Trainer
from PRINCE2, PRINCE2 Agile, MSP, MoP, P3O, ITIL, Editorial Board Member of Official PMI Poland 11+ years in training and coaching / 15.000+ hours
M_o_R, MoV, PMP, Scrum, AgilePM, DSDM, CISSP, Chapter magazine: Strefa PMI: strefapmi.pl 100+ certifications
CISA, CISM, CRISC, CGEIT, TOGAF, COBIT5 etc. Official PRINCE2 Agile, AgilePM, ASL2, BiSL methods 5000+ people trained and coached
Creator of 50+ interactive mind maps from PPM translator for Polish language 25+ trainers trained and coached
topics: mindmeister.com/users/channel/2757050 linkedin.com/in/miroslawdabrowski

Agile Coach / Scrum Master PM / IT architect Notable clients

8+ years of experience with Agile projects as a Dozens of mobile and ecommerce projects ABB, AGH, Aiton Caldwell, Asseco, Capgemini, Deutsche Bank,
Scrum Master, Product Owner and Agile Coach IT architect experienced in IT projects with budget Descom, Ericsson, Ericpol, Euler Hermes, General Electric,
Coached 25+ teams from Agile and Scrum above 10mln PLN and timeline of 3+ years Glencore, HP Global Business Center, Ideo, Infovide-Matrix,
Interia, Kemira, Lufthansa Systems, Media-Satrun Group,
Agile Coach coaching C-level executives Experienced with (traditional) projects under high
Ministry of Defense (Poland), Ministry of Justice (Poland),
Scrum Master facilitating multiple teams security, audit and compliance requirements based
Nokia Siemens Networks, Oracle, Orange, Polish Air Force,
experienced with UX/UI + Dev teams on ISO/EIC 27001 Proama, Roche, Sabre Holdings, Samsung Electronics, Sescom,
Experience multiple Agile methods 25+ web portal design and development and Scania, Sopra Steria, Sun Microsystems, Tauron Polish Energy,
Author of AgilePM/DSDM Project Health Check mobile application projects with iterative, Tieto, University of Wroclaw, UBS Service Centre, Volvo IT
Questionnaire (PHCQ) audit tool incremental and adaptive approach miroslawdabrowski.com/about-me/clients-and-references/

Accreditations/certifications (selected): CISA, CISM, CRISC, CASP, Security+, Project+, Network+, Server+, Approved Trainer:
(MoP, MSP, PRINCE2, PRINCE2 Agile, M_o_R, MoV, P3O, ITIL Expert, RESILIA), ASL2, BiSL, Change Management,
Facilitation, Managing Benefits, COBIT5, TOGAF 8/9L2, OBASHI, CAPM, PSM I, SDC, SMC, ESMC, SPOC, AEC, DSDM Atern,
DSDM Agile Professional, DSDM Agile Trainer-Coach, AgilePM, OCUP Advanced, SCWCD, SCBCD, SCDJWS, SCMAD, ZCE 5.0,
ZCE 5.3, MCT, MCP, MCITP, MCSE-S, MCSA-S, MCS, MCSA, ISTQB, IQBBA, REQB, CIW Web Design / Web Development /
Web Security Professional, Playing Lean Facilitator, DISC D3 Consultant, SDI Facilitator, Certified Trainer Apollo 13 ITSM

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1. The Organizational Context
2. Individual Change
3. Team Change
4. Organizational Change
5. Leading Change

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In groups:
Q1 - In organizations that youre familiar
with what types of change do you see
Q2 - From a people perspective - what
seems to work well in managing change
and what doesnt?
Q3 - What effect on the business might
badly managed change have?
Q4- What might some of the benefits be of
managing change well?

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Individual Change

Team Change

Organizational Change

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Psychological learning
and adaptation space

Learning is not just the

acquisition of knowledge,
but also its practical use.

Based on Cognitive Theory and Motivation
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Unconscious Unconscious
Competence Incompetence




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Establish ways in which peoples competence can be assessed in
the new and to be improved areas
Design, develop and deliver training and coaching programmes
Use strategies from the Learning Dip

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Doing something new Observation of new things
Start a discussion Time to think about changes
initiating action Viewing progress
Trying things Participation in the study
Volunteering Concrete Planning

Having an Experience

Practical Reflective
Planning the Reviewing the
Experimentation Next Steps Experience
(Pragmatist) (Reflector)

Concluding from the


Concepts Reading theory
Practical things to do
Creating Action Plans (Theorist) Noticing inconsistencies
Experimentation Analysis of complex issues
Implementation of new knowledge Matching pieces of a larger picture
Implementation of projects questioning the assumptions

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Q1. For a typical self-assembly task,
what is your Kolb learning
preference? Position yourself in
relation to one or more of the
learning styles
Q2. Why are you in that position?
What is your strongest preference?
How does this reflect your preferred
approach to learning?

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Nature of change Losers? Organizational history
Who benefits?
External or internal? Track record?
Evolutionary or revolutionary? Prevailing culture?
Routine or One-off? Capacity & Expertise?
Mundane or Transformative? Resources?
Expansion or Contraction? Vision?

Individual history Type of individual

Previous Exposure? Personality?
Level of knowledge, skills and Motivation (power, status,
experience? money or affiliation and
Work-life balance/stability? inclusion)?
Past trauma?
Positive previous experience?

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Changing Behaviours with Changing Behaviours with
Two approaches: Two approaches:
Positive Reinforcement Punishment
Pleasurable and increases probability of Unpleasant (for example, an electric
repeat behaviour shock) leading to decrease in repeat
Stopping something unpleasant
Avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus Negative reinforcement
increases the likelihood of repeat Removal of a pleasant stimulus
behaviour decreases the likelihood of repeat

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e.g. bonus, prize, tangible reward
Feedback - e.g. performance, coaching
Social - e.g. praise, recognition, name and shame

Reinforcement can take both

positive and negative forms

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Theory X Assumptions (Behavioural):
People dislike work
They need controlling and direction
They require security
They are motivated by threats of punishment
They avoid taking responsibility
They lack ambition
They dont use their imagination

a.k.a. authoritarian
management style Douglas McGregor

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Theory Y Assumptions (Humanistic):
People regard work as natural and normal
They respond to more than just control or coercion, for
example recognition and encouragement
They commit to the organizations objectives in line with
the rewards offered
They seek some inner fulfilment from work
Given the right environment people willingly accept
responsibility and accountability
People can be creative and innovative

a.k.a. participative
management style Douglas McGregor

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Hygiene Factors: Motivators:

Pay Achievement
Company Policy Recognition
Quality of supervision/management Responsibility
Working relations Advancement
Working conditions Learning
Status The type and nature of the work

Frederick Herzberg

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Assumption: The clearer the goal, the greater
the likelihood of achievement.

Self-concept &
Beliefs Attitudes Feelings Behaviours Results

What are my What are my What is my most What do I What specific

core values? limiting beliefs effective state? need to be outcomes do I
and attitudes? doing? want?

If you keep on doing what you are doing

youll keep getting what you get
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Positive Listings I am good at
Affirmations I am always enthusiastic when
Visualizations This is the way I want to be
Reframing I can reduce my negative feelings
Pattern Breaking That wasnt me, this is me
Detachment I can step outside of myself
Anchoring and resource states I can remember a time
s I can prove this is irrational!

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Self esteem

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Foreign Transform-ing
element idea

New status
Old status
quo Integration
& practice


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Helps understand the reactions of people during change
Gain an understanding of why people react the way they
do - what is going on in the inner world
Can be a complex process - individuals may not be aware
of going through these phases
The phases themselves may not have clear beginnings or
People experience a range of different emotions that play
out in their behaviours
The highs and lows of transitions are perfectly natural and

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Combines insights from other approaches
Focus on:
Importance of subjective awareness
Importance of taking responsibility
Significance of the person as a whole entity
Emotional self-awareness
Ability to engage with others on an emotional level
Addresses motivation and behaviour

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Self-esteem needs
Love and belonging needs Maslow

Safety needs
Physiological needs

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Conditions for change to occur on the journey towards
becoming a person:
Genuineness and congruence
Unconditional positive regard
Empathetic understanding
Seven stage process that people go through - consistently
recurring qualities

Carl Rogers

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Key concepts when managing change at an individual
Facilitating environment and stance of the change agent
(encouraging openness)
Surface and work through negative feelings
(get to the underlying issues and feelings)
Allowing creativity and risk-taking to occur
(opening up the opportunity)
Generating greater self-responsibility and choice
(increasing options and self-responsibility)

Carl Rogers

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Mobilisation of energy
of energy

Sensation Resolution
or closure

of attention

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How the Gestalt Cycle maps onto stages in managerial
Sensation - our direct and immediate experience
Awareness - present, past, future, experiences, others
Mobilization - focus on specific target, foreground
Action - release of energy, take action
Contact - make contact in and with the outside world
Closure - resolution, fade into background

Edwin Nevis

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Q1. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of each of the 4
Q2. How might you use each
approach to enable people to

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From the Behavioural Perspective: From the Psychodynamic Perspective:
Ensure new behaviours are clearly Acknowledge the emotional side of
communicated change
Treat people as adults
Policies and procedures (especially
reward and recognition) are aligned Surface negative feeling and talk
Communicate expectations Seek to fulfil emotional needs

From the Cognitive Perspective: From the Humanistic Perspective:

Link organizational goals with Reinforce two-way communication
individual goals channels
Focus on results Address peoples higher aspirations
Develop motivating visions Develop a learning organization

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Minimize shock
Give full and early communication of intentions
Communicate possibilities
Show overall direction of change

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Be patient
Discuss implications of change with individuals
Notice and pay attention to peoples small

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Listen, empathise, offer support,
Do not suppress conflict and expression of
difficult views or emotions
Help individuals weather the storm
Recognize how change can trigger off past
experiences in individuals
Try not to take others reactions personally
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Help others complete
Allow others to take
Create goals

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Encourage risk
Exchange feedback
Set up

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Discuss meaning and learning
Overview of experience
Celebrate success

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Prepare to move on

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Different people respond to change in different ways
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) identifies eight
different personality preferences
Each individual has a preference for one particular
combination over the others
Four typical MBTI type combinations
help understanding of the change process

Meyers Briggs

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Type Indicators Description

Extraversion Where people prefer to focus their attention and

Introversion draw energy.

The way people prefer to take in information.

The way they prefer to make decisions.

Judging How they orient themselves to the outside world

Perceiving and their lifestyle.

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IS Thoughtful Realist IN Thoughtful Innovator

Leadership through attention to what Leadership through ideas about what

needs doing needs doing

Cautious & careful about change Plan and generate ideas and visions
Lets keep it! Lets think about it!

ES Action-oriented Realist EN Action-oriented Innovator

Leadership through action, doing Leadership through enthusiasm

Energy & enthusiasm to get things done Will be wanting to move into new areas
Lets do it! and soon.!
Lets change it!

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Focus: Irritates others by:
Practical considerations, continuity Wanting to take their time over things
Wants: Looking into the detail
To see the difference between what Being unwilling to embrace change for
should be preserved and what could be changes sake
changed You can help them by:
Concerned: Ensuring that something stays the
With what needs to be kept. same
Hates: Giving them plenty of time to adjust
Brainstorming, being rushed, empty Giving them relevant things to read and
promises think about

If it isnt broke dont fix it

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Focus: Irritates others by:
Practical actions, results Starting without thinking
Wants: Ignoring interpersonal niceties
To get things to run more effectively Bulldozing things through
and efficiently You can help them by:
Concerned: Giving them some practical first steps
With improving results to get on with
Hates: Establishing clear targets for them
Reviews, theoretical discourse, long Setting a focused direction

Lets just do it

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Focus: Irritates others by:
Thoughts, ideals, vision Taking too much time to think things
To develop an internal vision of the Wanting to know how everything fits
future which stacks up together
Planning at the expense of doing
With new ideas and theories about You can help them by:
what needs doing Ensuring that the big picture makes
Giving them time & space to think
Instruction manuals, training courses,
things through
things that dont make sense
Making sure theres room for new
ideas and strategies

Lets think about it!

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Focus: Irritates others by:
Systems, relationships, change Wanting to change things quickly
Wants: Moving from change initiative to
To talk with others, be creative and try another
something different Having too much enthusiasm for
change rather than consolidation
With putting new ideas into practice You can help them by:
Allowing them to take charge of a
Hates: significant area of work
Small chunks of disconnected work,
Talking things through with them
long periods of reflection, repetition,
lack of vision
Tapping into their creativity

Lets change it!

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Personality and Change
Large groups vs 1-1s

Oral communication vs Written communication

Immediate response vs Considered reaction

Why change things? vs Heres the new Vision

Specific Detail vs Big Picture

Business case vs How it affects people

Tight project plan vs Potential for changes

When communicating change and attempting to get people on board

you need to communicate different things in different ways
to different personality types.
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Q1. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of each of the four
Myers Briggs Type Combinations?
Q2. Which personality
types/combinations are most useful
when managing individual responses
to change?

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Q1. Why do people resist change?
Q2. What does resistance to change
look like?

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Id much prefer to do it the way Ive Why do we need to change the way
always done it we do things?
I dont want to step outside my I dont know what to do
comfort zone I dont know how to do it
I cant be bothered I dont see where I fit in
I might fail I dont have the technical support
Im afraid people will think Im stupid I dont have the management support
Ive lost all my support networks.

Edgar Henry Schein


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Change occurs in 3 stages:
Stage 1 - Unfreezing: creating the motivation for change:
Creation of survival anxiety/guilt
Creation of psychological safety to overcome guilt.
Stage 2 - Learning new concepts and meanings from old concepts:
Creation and identification of role models
Scanning for solutions and trial and error learning.
Stage 3 - Internalizing new concepts:
Incorporation into self concept and identity
Incorporation into ongoing relationships

Edgar Henry Schein


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2 principles for transformative change to work:
Survival Anxiety > Learning Anxiety
(Will I fail? Will I be exposed?) (What if I dont change?)

Must be greater
Must be reduced
than Learning Anxiety

Edgar Henry Schein


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A compelling vision of the future
Formal training
Involvement of the learner
Informal training of relevant family groups/teams
Practice fields, coaches, feedback
Positive role models
Consistent systems and structures
Imitation and identification
versus scanning and
trial and error Edgar Henry Schein

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When it comes to change
some people make it happen,
some people let it happen, and
some people wonder what happened.


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