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MODULE 1

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1.1 THE MECHANICAL


ENERGY EQUATION

R.L Mott. Applied Fluid Mechanics 7th Ed, 2014


W. L. McCabe, J. L. Smith y P. Harriot Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering
AGENDA
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

1.1 The Mechanical Energy Equation

1.2 Series pipeline systems.

1.3 Branching pipeline systems.

1.4 Valves and pumps

1.5 Flow meters


INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

It refers to liquids flowing in pipelines

Only liquids? Why?

It applies in all types of industry (chemical, food, biotechnology,


pharmaceutical, etc.) and even in your homes and schools
CONTINUITY EQUATION
INTRODUCTION

An incompressible fluid is one whose density remains constant


even if there is a change in pressure.

The density of liquids changes with temperature, but this change


can be neglected in most cases.

Steady state means that its characteristics do not change in time.


Generally, industrial chemical processes operate in steady state
and we will only discuss this type of systems.
CONTINUITY EQUATION
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE

q = vS Eq. 1-1

for a tubular pipeline:


2 2
r D
S= = Eq. 1-2
2 4

Then:
q
v=
S
CONTINUITY EQUATION
MASS FLOW RATE

m! = q Eq. 1-3

The internal diameter of a circular pipeline is 1 in. Water at 25C


flows inside at 3 m/s. Calculate the volumetric flow and the mass
flow.
CONTINUITY EQUATION
MASS FLUX

m!
G = = v Eq. 1-4
S

The internal diameter of a circular pipeline is 1 in. Water at 25C


flows inside at 3 m/s. Calculate the mass flux
CONTINUITY EQUATION

In a steady state process in which a fluid enters and leaves the


system, the mass balance is:

min = mout

Using Eq 1-1 and 1-3: 1 v1S1 = 2 v 2 S2 Eq. 1-5

If the entrance diameter is D1 and the exit one is D2:


D12 D 22
1 v1 = 2 v 2
4 4
2 Eq. 1-6
1 v1 D 2
= 2
2 v 2 D 1
CONTINUITY EQUATION
INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS

Can we simplify the equation to the following?


2
v1 D 2
v1S1 = v 2 S2 Eq. 1-7 = 2
v2 D 1

q1 = q2

Applied-Fluid-Mechanics-7th Ed, 2014 Mott.pdf


CONTINUITY EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-1 FLUIDS

In Fig. 6.2 the inside diameters of the pipe at sections 1 and 2 are 50
mm and 100 mm, respectively. Water at 70C is flowing with an
average velocity of 8.0 mis at section 1. Calculate the following:

a. Velocity at section 2
b. Volume flow rate
c. Weight flow rate
d. Mass flow rate
CONTINUITY EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-2

Crude oil with sg 60 F / 60 F = 0.887 flows through the pipe shown


below. Tube A is 2 in schedule 40, tube B is 3 in, schedule 40 and
each C tube is 1.5 in, schedule 40. An identical amount of fluid runs
through each C tube. The volumetric flow rate in tube A is 30 gal/
min. Calculate for each tube:

(a) the mass flow rate

(b) the average velocity


A B C
(c) the mass flux

C
BERNOULLIS EQUATION
ENERGY AND WORK

PE = mgy

KE = 1/2 mv2

FE = PSL = PV
BERNOULLIS EQUATION
ENERGY AND WORK

E = FE + PE + KE

1 2
E = PV + mgy + mv
2
Eq. 1-8
BERNOULLIS EQUATION
ENERGY & WORK

Dividing by V:

1 2 1 2
P1 + v1 + gy1 = P2 + v2 + gy2 Eq. 1-9
2 2
Pressure

Kinetic
Potential

IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO USE THE SAME TYPE OF PRESSURE


IN POINTS 1 AND 2: EITHER ABSOLUTE OR GAGE
BERNOULLIS EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-3
In the figure, water at l0C is flowing from section 1 to section 2. At
section 1, which is 25 mm in diameter, the gage pressure is 345 kPa
and the velocity of flow is 3.0 m/s. Section 2, which is 50 mm in
diameter, is 2.0 m above section 1. Assuming there are no energy
losses in the system, calculate the pressure P2.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
MODIFYING THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

Adding terms:

Energy lost from a system through friction as the fluid flows through
pipes

Energy lost as the fluid flows through valves, or fittings where the
fluid must travel in complex paths, accelerate or decelerate, or
change direction

Energy added to the system by a pump as it provides the impetus for


the fluid to move and increases the fluid pressure

Energy removed from the system by fluid motors or turbines that use
the energy to drive other mechanical systems.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
MODIFYING THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

The Mechanical Energy Equation (MEE) states that the Energy in a


fluid flowing through tubes and equipments from point A to B,
changes its form reversibly, but also irreversibly as it transforms into
internal energy.

A simpler form of the MEE is known as the Bernoulli Equation.


MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
MODIFYING THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

The Mechanical Energy Equation (MEE) expressed per unit mass of fluid is
as follows:

2 2
Pa v a Pb v b
+ gya + + Wp = + gyb + + h f + Wm
2 a 2 b
Eq. 1-10

= correction factor for the average velocity (0.5 in laminar flow; turbulent
you can assume 1, it has no units)

ANALYZE ALL UNITS


MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
MODIFYING THE BERNOULLI EQUATION

A.S. Foust, et al., Principles of Unit Operations, 2nd ed.


MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
PUMP WORK W P

In the figure, a pump is used to ingrese the


mechanical energy of the fluid.

Wp is the work per unit mass of fluid done by


the pumps motor.

The efficiency of the pump, , takes into


account the energy losses that occur due to
mechanical friction in pump components (shaft,
seals, stuffing box, bearings), fluid friction in
the pump, and excessive fluid turbulence in the
pump, so not all of the input power is delivered
to the fluid. Its value is between 1 and 0.
http://www.ntnamericas.com/en/products/ball-bearings

http://www.engineersedge.com/pumps/latern_rings.htm
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
WORK DELIVERED TO FLUID MOTORS W M

The energy delivered by the fluid to a mechanical device such as a


fluid motor or a turbine is denoted in the general energy equation
by the term Wm.

It is a measure of the energy delivered by each unit weight of fluid


as it passes through the device.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-4

Water flows from a large reservoir at the rate of 1.20 ft3/s through a
pipe system as shown. Calculate the total amount of energy lost
from the system because of the valve, the elbows, the pipe
entrance, and fluid friction.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-5

The volume flow rate through the pump shown is 0.014 m3/s. The
fluid being pumped is oil with a specific gravity of 0.86. Calculate
the energy delivered by the pump to the oil per unit mass of oil
flowing in the system. Energy losses in the system are caused by the
check valve and friction losses as the fluid flows through the piping.
The magnitude of such losses has been determined to be 18.25 J/
kg.

Using the sections where the pressure gages are located as the
sections of interest, write the energy equation for the system,
including only the necessary terms.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-5

The volume flow rate through the


3
pump shown is 0.014 m /s. The fluid
being pumped is oil with a specific
gravity of 0.86. Calculate the energy
delivered by the pump to the oil per
unit mass of oil flowing in the
system. Energy losses in the system
are caused by the check valve and
friction losses as the fluid flows
through the piping. The magnitude
of such losses has been determined
to be 18.25 J/kg.

Using the sections where the


pressure gages are located as the
sections of interest, write the
energy equation for the system,
including only the necessary terms.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
EXAMPLE 1-6

For the pump test arrangement shown in Fig. 7.9, determine the
mechanical efficiency of the pump if the power input is measured to
be 3.85 hp when pumping 500 gal/min of oil, whose density is 56 lb/
ft3
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
ENERGY LOSS DUE TO FRICTION

The friction generated by the fluid can be defined as any Mechanical Energy conversion to
heat, which is absorbed by the fluid.

The term hf represents all the friction created per unit of fluid mass, as the fluid goes from
point a to b. This term is different from the other equation terms in two basic points:

1. The mechanical terms describe conditions in specific points (a and b), while hf
represents the mechanical energy losses in all points between a and b.

2. Friction can not go back to mechanical energy, it is transformed in heat.

The sign of hf in Eq. 1-10 is always positive.


MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
ENERGY LOSS DUE TO FRICTION

The friction is divided in two terms: wall friction (skin friction or skin
drag) and form friction or form drag. Wall friction occurs when the
fluid is in touch with a wall, creating a non-separated boundary layer.

When the boundary layer is separated and eddies are formed,


additional energy is liberated inside the eddies. This type of friction
is called form friction.
MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION
ENERGY LOSS DUE TO FRICTION

Figure 7.14 shows a setup to


determine the energy loss due to a
certain piece of apparatus. The inlet
is through a 2-in Schedule 40 pipe
and the outlet is a 4-in Schedule 40
pipe. Calculate the energy loss
between points A and B if water is
flowing upward at 0.20 ft3/s. The
gage fluid is mercury (sg = 13.54).