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20th Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering, (ICEE2012),May 15-17,2012,Tehran,Iran

Harmonics Analysis in Autotransformers Ferroresonance Circuit

l 2 3 4
Hamid Radmanesh, Hamid Fathi Seyed UsefMosazade, Hossein Hosseinian
Department of Electrical Engineering,Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic),
Tehran,Iran
l 2 3 4
hamid.Radmanesh@ aut.ac.ir, fathi@aut.ac.ir, anijdan@aut.ac.ir , hosseinian@aut.ac.ir
Tel: {+98-21)64543335, Fax: (+98-21) 88212072

Abstract: This paper studies the effect of iron core saturation sinusoidal supply via circuit breaker grading capacitance,
characteristic degree on the occurrence of harmonic modes in
an autotransformer. The selected transformer for study has a
has been studied in [2]. Voltage transformer
rating of 50 MVA, 635.1 kV. The magnetization characteristic ferroresonance from an energy transfer standpoint is
index of the autotransformer is chosen with q=5, 7, II. The given in [3]. Discussion of modeling and analysis
linear core loss is considered for transformer core. The
MATLAB software is used for analyzing existence harmonic
guidelines for ferroresonance slow transients has been
modes in the proposed power system. it is shown high order addressed in [4]. Fast ferroresonance suppression of
harmonics are occurred when degree of core nonlinearity is coupling capacitor voltage transformers was investigated
gone from 5 to 11.
in [5]. Magnetic core modeling for ferroresonance
computations using the harmonic balance method is given
Keywords: Linear core losses, Autotransformers, in [6]. This paper describes a modeling of the
harmonic modes, nonlinear core degree magnetization curve and the core losses appropriate for
ferroresonance computations using the harmonic balance
1. Introduction method. A harmonic and transient overvoltage analysis in
A sinusoidal voltage is a conceptual quantity produced arc furnace power systems has been given in [7]. In this
by an ideal AC generator. Since the distribution and paper, guidelines for analyzing harmonics and transient
winding magnetic field are uniform in a working AC overvoltages generated by arc furnaces are presented.
machine, voltage waveform distortions are created, and Computer simulation techniques for creating accurate
the voltage-time relationship deviates from the pure sine models for the analysis of arc furnace power systems are
function. The distortion at the point of generation is very discussed. Simulation guidelines are outlined in detail to
small (about 1% to 2%). Because this is a deviation from assist the power systems engineer in performing a
a pure sine wave, the deviation is in the form of a complete and accurate study of arc furnace power
periodic function, and by definition, the voltage distortion systems. Identification of problems when using long high
contains harmonics. In contrast, some loads cause the voltage ac cable in transmission system based on
current to vary disproportionately with the voltage during resonance and harmonic resonance has been studied in
each cyclic period. These are classified as nonlinear [8]. This paper focused on European countries power
loads, and the current taken by them has a non-sinusoidal system which replacing the transmission lines with
waveform. Waveform distortion can be mathematically cables. The project was supplying the power to the
analyzed to show that it is equivalent to superimposing greater Copenhagen area in early I990s. Recently, the
additional frequency components onto a pure sine wave. Danish TSO Energinet.dk has initiated a research project
These frequencies are harmonics (integer multiples) of for analyzing the HV underground cable in transmission
the fundamental frequency, and can sometimes propagate system. The objective of this paper and the companion
outwards from nonlinear loads, causing problems paper is to address the most important problems expected
elsewhere on the power system. One of the harmonic in transmission system with relatively larger share of long
cases in the power system is ferroresonance circuits. HV underground cables. Harmonic domain modeling of
Ferroresonance overvoltage is an unwanted electrical laminated iron core is given in [9]. Harmonic balance
phenomenon, which may cause overvoltages and over based bifurcation analysis of three-phase ferroresonance
currents in the electrical power. Ferroresonance with full scale experimental validation has been studied
overvoltage in electrical power systems were recognized in [10], [11]. The determination of ferroresonant
and studied as early as 1930s. Kieny first suggested oscillations in circuits with transformers is a highly
applying chaos to the study of ferroresonance in electric nonlinear problem due to the possible core saturation. It
power circuits [1]. Ferroresonant behavior of a 275 kV is achieved with an algorithm based upon the harmonic
electromagnetic voltage transformer, fed from a balance method in the frequency domain which is given

978-1-4673-1148-9/12/$31.002012IEEE 354
in [10]. In all references sited above, harmonic modes in
L2 R2 Zth
voltage transformers based on ferroresonance
phenomenon have not been studied yet. This paper
la
focused on occurred harmonic modes in the voltage
transformer which is connected in the 275kV substation. +
The proposed power system in this paper is a case of Vm
Lm
ferroresonance that occurred on 1100 kV system of
Bonneville Power Administration as described in [12].
Also, Advantages over a time domain description are
discussed. Branches of solutions in relevant parameter
planes can be continued beyond bifurcation points and
Fig. 3. Initial circuit of the ferroresonance circuit
lead to a better understanding of the stability domains of
the periodic ferroresonant oscillations.
The circuit in Fig. 1 can be reduced to a simple form by
replacing the proposed power system with the thevenin
2. Circuit Descriptions and Modeling
final reduced equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 2. Also,
Fig. 3 shows the equivalent circuit of the power system
The power system circuit is shown in Fig. 1, while 1100 including auto transformer. By using the steady-state
kV transmission line which is shown in this figure solution, Eth and Zth were found to be:
reported in autotransformers. Ferroresonance
phenomenon occurred in phase A when this phase was Eth =130.1kv; Zth =-j1.01243E+O.5Q
switched off on the low-voltage side of the
autotransformer; phase C was not yet connected to the 3. Nonlinear dynamics and equation

transformer at that time [12]. The autotransformer is


The resulting harmonic circuit is shown in Fig. 3 where
modeled by a T-equivalent circuit with all impedances
Zth represents the thevenin impedance. By applying KVL
referred to the high voltage side. Iron core saturation
and KCL the behaviour of this power system can be
characteristic is given by:
described by the following nonlinear differential
equations.
(1)

(2)



C.B
la 2a
di
v1.2 =L2 (3)
dt
_:lb 2b
cm )mn ""-----
( 4)
2

16....-----_0
e

: l:
C (5 )
I
I ______----------- --------
Fig. I. System modelling of the power system
dvc

dt
[
= aA+bAY +h +
C O
_l_dA

Rm dt J ( 6)

The exponent q depends on the degree of the saturation of


transformer iron core. In this paper for proper
representation of the saturation characteristics of a power
[
i=(iLm +iRJ= aA+bA'1 +
_l_dA

Rm dt J ( 7)

transformer the exponent q may take the values 5, 7, and


11 and core losses is modelled by a linear resistance [13].

Ls
CB
v L2 =L2
di

dt
=L2 a [ dA

dt
qbA
,, -l dA
dt
+
2
_1_d A

Rm dt
2 J (8 )
L1 Rl L2 R2 Zth

ia la

+ iRm
Ea ru Vm (9)
Rm Lm
635.1<0 kv
130.1<-120 kv

The base values of the power system parameters are listed


in table I.
Fig. 2.Thevenin circuit of the power system

355
Fig. 4 Shows the FFT of voltage of the transformer with
q=5, according to this plot, trajectory of the system has a
period-l behavior. Corresponding FFT diagram in Fig.6
clearly shows the subharmonic oscillation behavior of the
Also, the per unit values of the nonlinear index
voltage on the transformer. Value of frequency is
coefficients are listed in table II.
considered as a normalized value where it is means
Table (II): Different value of q with its coefficient
horizontal axis is based on the normalized frequency. It
q/coetlicient a b means each 377 rad/sec is one unit, so when spectrum
shows the 0.16, its actual value is 60Hz. In Fig. 4,
5 0.0071 0.0034e(-19)
7 0.000375 7.3824e(-24)
Eth = Ip. u and coefficients of the transformer current are
11 0.000375 1.5648e(-37) listed in table (2). The degree of nonlinear core index is
considered q=5. According to this FFT plot, period-l is
4. Simulation Results and Discussion obvious and power system works under normal operation
condition. By increasing the value of Eth to 3p.u, some
In this case, fourth order Runge-Kutta method is used for odd harmonics are generated in the system behavior as
deriving harmonic modes validated against MATLAB shown in Fig. 5.
SIMULINK. The effect of changing in the value of 1 . ----------
X=Q,15 I
nonlinear core index on occurring harmonic modes is 0.9
I

investigated in this paper. The values of initial conditions 0.6

are:
'8 07
, - - - ""1 - - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I - ----

i 0.6

-1 =0,0; vm =1.67 pu; Vc =1.55pu 8


0.5

04
.

Simulation has been done in three categories, first: g 0.3

:: j
system simulation with linear core losses effect
considering degree of core nonlinearity q=5, second,
considering degree of core nonlinearity q= 7 and finally l I
:
- - -+ - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ----
I I
0...
. l..o_____.L___________l.________________ ____________________________________1_____ __
0.5 1 .5 25 35
investigation of harmonic modes by considering q=11. 1 2
Normalized Frequency (rad/sec)
. 3 .

Fig. 6. Harmonic analysis considering q7, Ethlp.u


1

I I
0.9- - --------1--- ---1--------
I I ---1-
I
08
. - - - - - - - - - - - -
T - - - -1- ------- I I I
09 - - - i1illatn rmrrrrnptc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I - ----

;
:3 0.7 I I I
08
, -;:/- I - - - - 1- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I - ----
06- - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - -1- - - -l- --- - ----
:3 0.7




05
, - __ _ ________ 1.. ____1____ L ___ _ ____
06 --- ------- - -------- - --- ---
04
.
05
, _ __ ..1 __ ___ _ ________ _ ___ -.J _____
1\
" I I ---1--
I
, -
03 - - - - - - - - - - -
T - - - -1- ------
04
.

02
, - - - - - - - - - - - - i - - - -1- - - -1 --- - ---- 1\
"
03
,

01.

-a -- L-
,
0 05-- -- 5 ---- ---25. -- -- 35
Normalized Frequency (rad/sec)

35
.
Fig. 4. Harmonic analysis considering q5. Ethlp.u Normalized Frequency (rad/sec)

Fig. 7. Harmonic analysis considering q7. Eth3p.u


0.9

0.6 In this section, FFT of voltage on transformer with q= 7 is


'8 , -
7 - - - - - - - - - - - i - - - -1- - - -1 - -- - ---- analyzed as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. It is shown when the
i 0.6
degree of q increases from 5 to 7, main harmonic value is
8
0.5 I remained the same as q=5 behavior. Fig. 7 shows the
Hly
H-3
.. l ___
system behavior with some subharmonic resonance in it.
04
. - ___ _______
I H-9
It is shown that when q is increased, nonlinear
g 0.3

H-l1
phenomena in the transformer are begun in the low value
of the input voltage, so the subharmonic modes begin at a

:::- - - t value of Eth = 3p. u, which represents the amplitude of Eth.


- - -- - ----

o ... 1_.

___
0.5
.l_______
- - - +-
1
r - - - -:-
___________________________
1 .5 2
- - _____________
-
25
.
.;..._________
3 35
.
Normalized Frequency (rad/sec)

Fig. 5. Harmonic analysis considering q5,Eth3p. u

356
1-. --------
the other cases. With q = I I, settling down to higher order
--
harmonics is more dangerous and should consider
09
protecting tool on this transformers such as damping
08
.
resistor, MOSA and other suppressing circuits.
0.7- -- - -------- T --- ---- r --- - ----

0.8 References
0.5

04
. -
[I] C. Kieny, Application of the bifurcation theory in studying and
understanding the global behavior of a ferroresonant electric
0.3
power circuit,IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 6, 1991,
0.2 pp. 866-872.
[2] Emin, Z. ; AI Zahawi, BAT.; Tong, Y. K. ; , "Voltage transformer
01. - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - -1- - - - +- - - - - - - - -
I I I ferroresonance in 275 kV substation," High Voltage Engineering,
-UL-
------ L---- ------
0 05 , 5 - 2.5 35 1999. Eleventh International Symposium on (Con! Publ. No. 467)
Normalized Frequency (rad/sec)
,voU,no. ,pp.283-286 voU, 1999.

Fig. 8. Harmonic analysis considering qll, Ethlp.u [3] Andrei, R. G. ; Halley, B. R. ; , "Voltage transformer ferroresonance
from an energy transfer standpoint," Power Delivery, IEEE
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In Fig. 8, harmonic analysis is done for q=II. In this plot, [4] Yunge Li; Wei Shi; Furong Li; , "Novel analytical solution to
value of the input voltage is Ip.u, so only main harmonic fundamental ferroresonance-part I: power frequency excitation
is obvious. By increasing Eth to 3p.u, some extra sub characteristic," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on , vol.21,
no.2,pp. 788- 793,April 2006.
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[5] Ajaei, F. B. ; Sanaye-Pasand, M.; Rezaei-Zare, A; Iravani, R. ; ,
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0.9-
I
---1-------- Engineering Society General Meeting, 2003, IEEE, vol.3, no. , pp.
4 vol. 2666, 13-17 July 2003.
08
. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -r- - - - - - - -
T [7] Mendis, S.R. ; Gonzales, D. A; , "Harmonic and transient

;
:3 0.7 overvoltage analyses in arc furnace power systems," Industrial
- - - - - - - - - - - + - - - -1- - - -l- - - - - - - - - and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference, 1990.
08-
H'l Conference Record. Papers Presented at the 1990 Annual
05
, - _ 1.. ____1____ L ___ _ ____
I I I Meeting, vol., no. , pp.42-50, 30 Apr-3 May 1990.
04
. [8] Rahimi, S. ; Wiechowski, W. ; Ostergaard, 1.; Nielsen, AH. ; ,
"Identification of problems when using long high voltage AC
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Exposition, 2008. T&D. IEEEIPES, vol., no. , pp.1-8, 21-24 April
2008
[9] Semlyen, A; Rajakovic, N.; , "Harmonic domain modeling of
Normalized Frequency (rad/sec)
laminated iron core," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on ,
Fig. 8. Harmonic analysis considering qll, Eth3p.u vol.4, no. I, pp.382-390, Jan 1989.
[10] van Craenenbroeck, T. ; van Dommelen, D. ; Stuckens, c.;
Janssens, N. ; Monfils, P.-A; , "Harmonic balance based
In the real system, when the input voltage due to the bifurcation analysis of three-phase ferroresonance with full scale
abnormal switching or other unwanted phenomena experimental validation," Transmission and Distribution
reaches to 4p.u, transformer core is heated and can cause Conference, 1999 IEEE, vol.2, no. , pp.772-777 vol.2, 11-16 Apr
1999.
transformer core failure. This overvoltage has some
[111 Hamid Radmanesh, G. B. Gharehpetian & Hamid Fathi,
harmonics modes which can cause dangerous cases for "Ferroresonance of Power Transformers Considering Non-linear
power system equipments. Core Losses and Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Effects ", Electric
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5. Conclusions [12] Radmanesh,Hamid,"controlling ferroresonance in autotransformer
considering linear and Nonlinear Core Losses Effect, International
The harmonic modes of an autotransformer are shown by Review of electrical engineering (I. R. E. E), Vol. 5 N. 6, Part A,
the dynamical tool and graphical tools such as FFT NOV-DEC 2010.
analysis. In this paper, effect of changing the value of 113J H. Radmanesh, M. Rostami, "Effect of circuit breaker shunt
resistance on chaotic ferroresonance in voltage transformer,"
degree q on occurring harmonics is studied. It is shown
" Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 3,
the nonlinear iron core and its degree" q has a great pp. 71-77,2010.
effect of occurring nonlinear oscillation in the
autotransformer. When q is II, occurred harmonics are
more nonlinear and amplitude of this case is higher than

357