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Seminar report on super critical steam generator

A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON
SUPER CRITICAL STEAM GENERATORS

By
SREENATH K R
(REGISTER NO.: 15020560)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE, PALAKKAD, KERALA 678551

(AICTE APPROVED)

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Seminar report on super critical steam generator

CERTIFICATE

Certified that seminar work entitled SUPER CRITICAL STEAM


GENERATORSis a bonafide work carried out in the fifth and sixth semester by
SREENATH K R in partial fulfilment for the award of DIPLOMA IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING from Government Polytechnic College, Palakkad,
during the academic year 2017-2018

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT STAFF INCHARGE

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere grateful to MR A V PRAVEEN KUMAR, Head Of
Department of Mechanical Engineering for all his help for presenting this seminar.

I acknowledge with a deep sense of gratitude, the encouragement and advices


received from my class tutor T V MOHAN DAS, Lecturer in Mechanical
Engineering who permitted me to use his valuable knowledge and experience in this
seminar.
I owes an enormous debt of gratitude to the lecturers N. PARIJAKSHAN,
JAYACHANDRAN.M, K.M. SAIDHU, M. PRADEEP, SAJITH and other staffs in
the GOVERNMENT POLY-TECHNIC COLLEGE for their valuable time and
guidance in presenting this seminar.
I would like to memorise my friends and beloved peoples for their wishes.
The seminar report is being rightfully dedicated to my BROTHER and
OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS.

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INDEX PAGE
CHAPTER 01 ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 02 POWER SECTOR

2-1 HISTORY

2-2 INDIAN POWER SCENARIO

CHAPTER 03 BOILERS

3-1 INTRODUCTION

3-1-1 INDIAN BOILER REGULATIONS

3-2 PROPERTIES OF STEAM

3-3 CLASSIFICATIONS OF BOILER

3-4 FIRING METHODS IN BOILERS

3-4-1 STOKER FIRED

3-4-2 FLUIDISED BED COMUSTION

3-4-3 PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED

3-5 ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR BOILERS

3-6 PERFOMANCE ENHANCEMENT

CHAPTER 04 SUPER CRITICAL BOILERS

4-1 RANKINE CYCLE OF OPERATION

4-2 FEATURES OF SUPER CRITICAL BOILERS

4-2-1 ONCE-THROUGH CIRCULATION

4-2-2 FURNACE DESIGN

4-3 SUB-CRITICAL AND SUPER CRITICAL COMPARISON

4-4 PERFOMANCE IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES

4-4-1 EMISSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES

4-5 ADVANTAGES

4-6 DISADVANTAGES

4-7 MATERIAL REQUIREMENT FOR SCB

4-8 MODERN DEVELOPMENTS

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4-9 APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 05 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 06 REFERENCES

INDEX OF TABLES
TABLE NO.: 2.1 DESIGN EFFICIENCY AND STEAM

CHARACTERISTICS FOR DIFFERENT UNITS

TABLE NO.: 2.2 DEMAND FOR COMMERCIAL ENERGY FOR FINAL

CONSUMTION (BAU SCENARIO)

TABLE NO.: 2.3 INDIAS PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR POWER FOR ZERO
DEFICITPOWER BY 2011/12 (SOURCE TENTH AND
ELEVENTH FIVE-YEAR PLAN PROJECTIONS)

TABLE NO.: 3.1 VARIATION OF LATENT HEAT WITH PRESSURE

TABLE NO.: 4.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN SPIRAL AND VERTICAL


WALLS

TABLE NO.: 4.2 SUB CRITICAL VERSUS SUPER CRITICAL

TABLE NO.: 4.3 SUPER CRITICAL PLANTS IN INDIA

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INDEX OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.: 3-1 CHAIN GRATE STOKER

FIGURE NO.: 3-2 SPREADER STOKER

FIGURE NO.: 3-3 PULVERIZED CORNER FIRED BOILER

FIGURE NO.: 4-1 T-S DIAGRAM FOR SUB CRITICAL UNITS

FIGURE NO.: 4-2 T-S DIAGRAM FOR SUPER CRITICAL CYCLE

FIGURE NO.: 4-3 FLOW DIAGRAM OF SUPER CRITICAL PLANTS

FIGURE NO.: 4-4 SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF SC STEAM


GENERATOR

FIGURE NO.: 4-5 CIRCULATION METHOD

FIGURE NO.: 4-6 FEED WATER PUMP

FIGURE NO.: 4-7 ARRANGEMENT OF SPIRAL WATER WALL

FIGURE NO.: 4-8 STEAM SIDE OXIDATION, EROSION AND FIRE SIDE
CORROSION

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01 ABSTRACT
The report is the outgrowth of notes of seminar on super-critical steam generators.
Steam generators or boilers are used in industries for various applications such as
heating, power generation, farm machineries, locomotive propulsion, marine
propulsion, etc. There are two essential concepts of modern utility steam generators
for electric-power generating plants. They are (1) subcritical water tube drum type
and (2) supercritical once-through type. Here we are focusing on the super critical
once through type.

Generally boilers are using fossil fuels, but coal fired boilers are most favourable
because of their characteristics. The paper highlights and traces the development of
the super critical steam generators with their special aspects which make it reliable
for the purpose.

Super-critical technology was adopted for meeting the increasing energy


requirement with reduced impacts on climate change. Enhancing the performance of
a coal fired power plants means the adverse effects towards the nature is very less.

The first plant with super critical technology was commissioned on 1957s. The
research and development of these types of units resulted in the improved efficiency
for power plants. The hazardous emissions from boilers are also decreased to a lower
level. At present we can adopt SC units of large capacity up to 800 MW. Reduction
in specific fuel consumption reduces the cost of electricity produced. However the
super critical technology had developed to ultra- supercritical and advanced ultra-
supercritical which replaces the low efficient sub-critical units.

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02 POWER SECTOR
2.1 HISTORY
The history of power development in India started since Independence when
installed capacity of power generation was only 1367 MW, consisting of mainly the
Hydroelectric Units of small capacity and few very small capacity coal fired units and
diesel sets as well. The demand of electricity continuously increased and installed
capacity also grew with installation of the thermal units in ratings of 30, 60, 82.5,
100, 110, 120, 140, 200/210 MW units. The units in ratings of 82.5, 110,120, 140 and
200 MW were reheat units. The rest were non-reheat units. This scenario continued
till the mid-seventies. The demand of electricity was still growing and the planners
attention was drawn to setting up of large capacity units commensurate with the
increase of grid size 500 MW units were then conceived. The first 500 MW units
were commissioned at Trombay Thermal Power Plant(TPP) of TATA Electric Co in
the year 1984.

The increase in unit size was associated with corresponding increase in steam
parameters(temperature and pressure) as well as efficiency of generation. Enhanced
efficiency implies lesser green- house gas (GHG) emissions. The design efficiency
and steam parametersassociated with various unit sizes starting from 30MW till
500MWare indicated in table 1.1. It is pertinent to mention that most of super-critical
units which are in operation in various countries are operating either with natural gas
as the fuel or better quality of coal (Higher calorific value is the order of 6000/7000
kCal/kg).very few numbers are in operation with coal of heating value or calorific
valueof around 3500kCal/kgas available India. The super-critical technology have
been adopted world-wide. These are in operation since 1950s especially in countries
like USSR, USA, Japan and others. The development of super-critical technology
leads to better efficiency as well as consequential higher unit sizes of800/1000
MWdue to techno economic considerations.

The first unit of 660 MW with supercriticalparameters was commissioned


with commercial operations only recently in 2013 byAdani Power at their Mundra
Power Station (at Gujarat) who became the first private developer in the country, to
have installed and commissioned the 660 MW units at the shortest periods of 3 years.

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Four 800 MW units with imported coal have also been commissioned by M/s
TATA Electric Company at Mundra. 800 MW unit size are the largest sizeoperating
today in the country.

TABLE 2.1 DESIGN EFFICIENCY AND STEAM CHARACTERISTICS FOR


DIFFERENT UNITS

Unit size Main steam Main Gross Design


(MW) Pressure(kg/cm2) steam/Reheat Efficiency (%)
Temperature (C)
30-50 60 482 28.20
60-100 90 535 31.30
210 LMZ 130 535/535 35.63
210 KWU 150 535/535 37.04
250 150 535/535 38.3
250 169 538/538 38.6*
*The supercritical units will have heat rates better by about 2% over those of
the subcritical units.

2.2 INDIAN POWER SCENARIO

The all India installed capacity of electric power generating stationsunder


utilities was 1,12,581 MW as on 31st May 2004, consisting of 28,860 MW- hydro,
77,931 MW - thermal and 2,720 MW-nuclear and 1,869 MW-wind (Ministry of
Power). The gross generation of power in the year 2002-2003 stood at531 billion
units (kWh).
Final energy consumption is the actual energy demand at the user end. This is
the difference between primary energy consumption and the losses that takes place in
transport, transmission& distribution and refinement. The actual final energy
consumption (past and projected) is given in Table 1.1

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TABLE 2.2 DEMAND FOR COMMERCIAL ENERGY FOR FINAL


CONSUMTION (BAU SCENARIO)
Source Units 1994-95 2001-02 2006-07 2011-12

Electricity Billion units 289.36 480.08 712.67 1067.88


Coal Million Tonnes 76.67 109.01 134.99 173.47
Lignite Million Tonnes 4.85 11.69 16.02 19.70
Natural gas Million Cubic 9880 15730 18291 20853
Meters
Oil products Million Tonnes 63.55 99.89 139.95 196.47
Source: Panning Commission BAU :Business As Usual

India currently has apeak demand shortageof around 14% and anenergy
deficit of 8.4%.Keeping this in viewand to maintain a GDP(gross domestic
product)growth of 8% to10%, the Governmentof India has very prudentlyset a target
of215,804 MW power generation capacity byMarch 2012 from thelevel of 100,010
MW ason March 2001, that is a capacity addition of 115,794 MW in the next 11
years (Table 1.3).In the area of nuclear power the objective is to achieve 20,000 MW
of nuclear generation capacityby the year 2020.

The Indian government have a programme called the the AUSC (Advanced
Ultra Super Critical) project under the ninth National Mission on Clean Coal
Technologies in keeping with the National Action Plan for Climate Change.

The Indian Material Research Programme was initiated in 2008 and was
estimated to cost at least RS 600010000 CRORE. The programme is being funded
and undertaken by a joint venture between the research institute Indira Gandhi Centre
for Atomic Research (IGCAR), the equipment manufacturer Bharat Heavy Electrical
(BHEL) and the power generating company National Thermal Power Corporation
(NTPC). IGCAR will develop the materials, Misra Dhatu Nigam and BHEL will
design, manufacture, and commission the equipment and NTPC will construct the test
loop and demonstration unit.

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TABLE 2.3 INDIAS PERSPECTIVE PLAN FOR POWER FOR ZERO DEFICIT
POWER BY 2011/12 (SOURCE TENTH AND ELEVENTH FIVE-
YEAR PLAN PROJECTIONS)
Thermal Gas/LNG/ Nuclear Hydro Total
(Coal) Diesel(MW) (MW) (MW) (MW)
(MW)
Installed capacity as Gas:10153
on March 2001 61157 Diesel:864 2720 2516 100010
Additional capacity 53333 20408 9380 32673 115794
(2001-2012)
Total capacity as on 114490 31425 12100 57789 215804
March 2012 (53.0%) (14.6%) (5.6%) (26.8%)

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03 BOILERS
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Boilers are devices which imparts or transfers heat energy to the working
substance (water) on the system until it become heated water or steam by the
combustion of fuels inside the combustion chamber or furnace. Since the mass and
energy crosses the boundary of the system, they are open systems in thermodynamic
point of view. The steam at pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a
process. When the water is boiled at atmospheric pressure (1.01325 bar at 100C) the
volume increases about 1600 times, producing a force that is almost as explosive as
gun power. This causes the boiler to be extremely dangerous equipment that must be
treated with utmost care.The process of heating a liquid until it reaches its gaseous
state is called evaporation.

3-1-1 INDIAN BOLER REGULATIONS


The Indian Boilers Act was enacted to consolidate and amend the law relating to
steam boilers.Indian Boilers Regulation (IBR) was created in exercise of the powers
conferred by section 28& 29 of the Indian Boilers Act.

IBR STEAM BOILERS


According to IBR any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 litres in capacity and which
issued expressively for generating steam under pressure and includes any mounting
or otherfitting attached to such vessel, which is wholly, or partly under pressure when
the steam is shutoff.

IBR STEAM PIPE


According to IBR any pipe through which steam passes from a boiler to a prime
moveror other user or both, if pressure at which steam passes through such pipes
exceeds 3.5 kg/cmabove atmospheric pressure or such pipe exceeds 254 mm in
internal diameter and includes ineither case any connected fitting of a steam pipe.

3-2 PROPERTIES OF STEAM


Water can exist in the form of solid, liquid and gas as ice, water and steam.
Steam is a most popular and useful working substance that are used chiefly in the
industries due to their following characteristics:

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1. Highest specific heat and latent heat


2. Highest heat transfer c-efficient
3. Easy to control and distribute
4. Cheap and inert, etc.

ENTHALPY
Enthalpy is the total heat content in a substance. Heat is a form of energy that
transferred across the boundary of a system due to temperature difference. The sum
of internal energy and product of pressure and volume is the enthalpy. Its SI unit is kJ
or kCal.Enthalpy per unit mass of substance is known as specific enthalpy whose unit
is kJ/kg.

LIQUID ENTHALPY
It is the enthalpy of water / fluid when it has been raised to its boiling point
(saturation liquid point) to produce steam. It is the total heat content at the saturation
liquid point.

Liquid enthalpy, hf = s

Where, m= mass of water in kg

S= specific heat of water in kJ/kgK (approx.=4.186 kJ/kgK)

ts = saturation temperature of water w.r.t. pressure in K

SENSIBLE HEAT
The heat required to change to change the temperature of the substance is called
sensible heat. It is the enthalpy change during the pre-heating of water in economiser
units of a boiler.

Sensible heat, SH =

Where, = temperature change during heat addition in K

= t1 - t2

t1 = initial temperature of water in K

t2 = final temperature of water in K

ENTHALPY OF EVAPORATION OR CONDENSATION


It is the difference between heat content of dry-saturated steam and heat content of
water at liquid saturation point. It is also known as Latent Heat (hidden heat). It is a

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hidden heat energy absorption during the steam formation. The entire heat addition
takes place under iso-thermal and iso-bar conditions. The LH is utilised for the phase
change of saturated water to saturated steam. The latent heat may depend on the
pressure at which the water boiling. It is denoted by hfg. The LH absorption with
respect to the operating pressure of a boiler is given in the table 3-1.

Latent heat of evaporation, LH or hfg = hg - hf

Where, hf = liquid enthalpy

hg = enthalpy of saturated steam

TABLE 3.1 VARIATION OF LATENT HEAT WITH PRESSURE

Absolute Pressure Saturation Temperature Latent Heat


(bar) (C) (kJ/kg)
50 263.9 1639.7
150 342.1 1319.7
200 365.7 591.6
221.21 374.15 0
Reference: Steam tables R.S. KHURMI and N. KHURMI

Result: The latent heat absorption during the steam formation is get reduced
as the operating pressure of boiler increases. At certain point that will be 0 kJ /kg and
that point is known as Critical Point.

Latent heat addition gives the energy storing capacity of a substance during its
phase change occurs. As the enthalpy of evaporation or condensation increases, more
heat energy can be imparted to the working fluid during steam formationwhich can be
utilised for various processes in industries. Since LH dissipation from steam is high
in low pressure steam systems the industries are adopting LP boilers for their
operations such as tea leaf drying, sugar industries, district heating, etc. The power
plant working with high pressure steam system because they are not utilising the LH
of condensation or evaporation for producing the work. The turbines are mainly
utilising the het of super heat of super-heated steam.

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DRYNESS FRACTION
Steam containing wet particles are known as wet steam. The dryness fraction is the
fraction of steam contain in a steam-water mixture to represent how much portion of
water is turned into steam. . It has no unit

Dryness fraction, x = (mass of two phase mixture mass of water parts)


Mass of two phase mixture

ENTHALPY OF SATURATED STEAM


It is the enthalpy of steam at dry saturation state. At this state the Dryness Fraction of
steam becomes 1. They do not contain water particles. LH absorption completes at
this point.

Enthalpy of wet steam, hwet = hf + (x hfg)

ENTROPY
Entropy is the property of a substance which is the function of temperature. It is the
disturbance produced in a system due to heat adding. Its unit is kJ/K. The specific
entropy is the entropy of unit mass of substance (kJ/kgK). The entropy change
during the steam formation can be taken from stem tables or by using the mathematic
equation:

Entropy (at a state of stem) S = Enthalpy at that state


Temperature at that point

Change in entropy, ds = S2 S1

Where, S1 = Enthalpy at state1.

S2 = enthalpy at state 2.

TEMPERATURE
Temperature is the degree of coldness or hotness of a body. Its unit is C (decree
centigrade) or F or K. In the phase diagram of steam formation, each state points
have a particular value depending up on the condition of fluid. Temperature indicates
the quality of steam the increased temperature refers to the more heat content in the
working substance. The Carnot efficiency of steam power plant will increases with

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difference between the main steam temperature and the temperature of steam at outlet
of turbine. The temperature at which the fluid absorbs heat without changing its
temperature is known as the saturation temperature or boiling point.

PRESSURE
The pressure is the normal force exerted by system against the bounding area or
surface. Unit of pressure is Pascal. The atmospheric pressure is 1.01325 bar
(absolute).

DENSITY
Density is defined as the mass of substance distributed in unit volume of substance.
The unit is g/cc or kg/m3. It is also a rough measure of the mass of the substance. \

SPECIFIC VOLUME
The inverse of mass density is known as the specific volume. Or it is the volume of
substance per unit mass. Its unit is m3/kg or cc/kg. The specific volume line has more
slope than the constant pressure lines in Mollier diagram. It may be noticed that the
specific volume increases as the pressure of compressible fluid (steam) decreases.

RELATIVE DENSITY
The density of substance can also be represented relative to the density of standard
fluid (water). It is also known as the specific gravity. The ratio of density of
substance to the density of water is called specific gravity. Since it is a fraction, it has
no unit.

STEAM TABLES
Steam are the tabular representation of the properties of steam from which the state of
steam can be directly found out. It is the reference to be taken for plotting the Mollier
diagrams.

MOLLIER CHARTS
Mollier diagrams are the graphical representation of properties of steam by taking
specific enthalpy on y-axis and specific entropy on x-axis. They are also termed as h-
s diagram.

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3-3 CLASSIFICATIONS OF BOILER


Steam generators can be classified from the point of view of applications as follows:

1. Utility steam generators


2. Industrial steam generators
3. Marine steam generators

Steam generators can further classified into the following types:

1. Fire-tube boilers
2. Water tube boilers
3. Natural-circulation boilers
4. Controlled-circulation boilers
5. Once-through flow

The hot flue gases flow through tubes surrounded by water in a shell is called fire
tube boilers. Water-tube boilers water from a drum flows through the tubes and hot
flue gases flow over them.

Utility steam generators


They are used by utilities for electric- power generating plants and are our main
concern in this seminar. Depending up on whether the pressure of steam below or
above the critical pressure (221.21bar or 3208.2psig) modern utility steam generators
are essentially of two types:

i. Sub-critical water-tube drum type


ii. Super-critical once-through type.

SUB-CRITICAL BOILERS
They are water drum type and they usually operate at between 130 -180 bar
steam pressure (1900 to 2600 psig). They are purchased most widely during the
1970s in power plants.

SUPER-CRITICAL STEAM GENERATORS


The super-critical steam generators operate at about 3500 psia (240 bar) and
higher, above the steam critical pressure of 3208.2 psia (221.21 bar). They are once-
through forged circulation type steam generators.

Industrial steam generators

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These include water tube pulverized coal units similar to those used by utilities, but
they also may burn stoker (lump) col, oil or natural gas, often in combination, as well
as municipal refuse and process wastes or by-products. Some are heat recovery types
that use waste heat from industrial processes. They usually dont produce super-
heated steam. The operating pressure is around 105 bar.

3-4 FIRING METHODS IN BOILERS


There are several firing methods are employed in different types of boilers for their
efficient operations. Also furnace arrangement for boiler will depends on the firing
employed in a boiler. Some important firing methods are given below.

3-4-1 STOKER-FIRED BOILER


Stokers are classified according to the method of feeding fuel to the furnace
and by the type of grate. Grate is the supporting frame for combustible matter (or
fuel) at the bottom of combustion chamber having meshes for supplying air for the
combustion.The main classifications are:
1. Chain-grate or traveling-grate stoker
2. Spreader stoker
CHAIN-GRATE STOKER
Coal is fed onto one end of a moving steel chain grate. As grate moves along the
length of the furnace, the coal burns before dropping off at the end as ash. Some
degree of skill is required, particularly when setting up the grate, air dampers and
baffles, to ensure clean combustion leaving minimum of unburnt carbon in the ash.
The coal-feed hopper runs along the entire coal-feed end of the furnace. A
coal gate is used to control the rate at which coal is fed into the furnace, and to
control the thickness of the coal bed and speed of the grate. Coal must be uniform in
size, as large lumps will not burn out completely by the time they reach the end of the
grate. As the bed thickness decreases from coal feed end to rear end, different
amounts of air are required- more quantity at coal-feed end and less at rear end.
figure 3-1 shows a travelling grate arrangement.

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FIGURE 3-1 CHAIN GRATE STOKER

SPREADER STOKER
Spreader stokers utilize a combination of suspension burning and grate burning. The
coal is continually fed into the furnace above a burning bed of coal. The fine coal
particles are burned in suspension and the larger particles fall to the grate, where they
are burned in a thin, fast burning coal bed. This method of firing provides good
flexibility to meet load fluctuations, since ignition is almost instantaneous when
firing rate (more fuel can be supplied for combustion per unit time) is increased.
Hence, the spreader stoker is favoured over other types of stokers in many industrial
applications. The arrangement is shown in figure 3-2.

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FIGURE 3-2 SPREADER STOKER

3-4-2 FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION


In this system we are supplying air at high velocity to a bed of finely divided solid
particles (coal) such as sand supported in a mesh. As the air velocity increased, a
stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream the
bed is called Fluidised. Fluidisation depends largely on the particle size and the air
velocity.

The mean solid velocity increases at a slower rate than does the gas velocity. The
difference in mean solid velocity and mean gas velocity is called as slip velocity.
Maximum slip velocity is desirable for good heat transfer and intimate contact.

If sand particles in the fluidised bed is heated to the ignition temperature of


coal, and coal is injected continuously into the bed, the will burn rapidly and bed will
attain a uniform temperature.

There are three basic types of fluidised bed combustion boilers:


1. Atmospheric classic Fluidised Bed Combustion System (AFBC)
2. Atmospheric circulating (fast) Fluidised Bed Combustion system (CFBC)
3. Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion System (PFBC).

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1. AFBC / BUBBLING BED TYPE


In AFBC, coal is crushed to a size of 1 10 mm depending on the rank of coal, type
of fuel feedand fed into the combustion chamber. The atmospheric air, which acts as
both the fluidization air and combustion air, is delivered at a pressure and flows
through the bed after being preheated bythe exhaust flue gases. The velocity of
fluidising air is in the range of 1.2 to 3.7 m /sec. The rateat which air is blown
through the bed determines the amount of fuel that can be reacted.Almost all AFBC/
bubbling bed boilers use in-bed evaporator tubes in the bed of limestone,sand and
fuel for extracting the heat from the bed to maintain the bed temperature. The bed
depthis usually 0.9 m to 1.5 m deep and the pressure drop averages about 1 inch of
water per inch of beddepth. Very little material leaves the bubbling bed only about
2 to 4 kg of solids are recycled per tonne of fuel burned. The main special feature of
atmospheric fluidised bed combustion is the constraint imposed by the relatively
narrow temperature range within which the bed must be operated. With coal, there is
risk of clinker formation in the bed if the temperature exceeds 950C and loss of
combustion efficiency if the temperature falls below 800C. For efficient sulphur
retention, the temperature should be in the range of 800C to 850C.

CFBC / CIRCULATTING BED


These types of boilers eliminates the some limitations of AFBC boilers.This CFBC
technology utilizes the fluidised bed principle in which crushed (6 12 mm size) fuel
and limestone are injected into the furnace or combustor. The particles are suspended
in a stream of upwardly flowing air (60-70% of the total air is primary air supply),
which enters the bottom of the furnace through air distribution nozzles. The fluidising
velocity in circulating beds ranges from 3.7 to 9 m/sec. The balance of combustion
air is admitted above the bottom of the furnace as secondary air (40-30% of total air).
The combustion takes place at 840-900 C, and the fine particles (<450 microns) are
elutriated out of the furnace with flue gas velocity of 46 m/s. The particles are then
collected by the solids separators and circulated back into the furnace. Solid recycle
is about 50 to 100 kg per tonne of fuel burnt.There are no steam generation tubes
immersed in the bed.CFBC requires huge mechanical cyclones to capture and recycle
the large amount of bed material, which requires a tall boiler.

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ADVANTAGGES
I. Suitable for large to medium capacity boilers
II. Sulphur emission and NOxcontrol is strictly reduced.
III. The boiler is required to fire low-grade fuel or fuel with highly fluctuating
fuel quality can be used in this type of firing system.
IV. It has a high processing capacity because of the high gas velocity through
the system.
V. The temperature of about 870 C is reasonably constant throughout the
process because of the high turbulence and circulation of solids. The low
combustion temperature also results in minimal NOx formation..
VI. It has high combustion efficiency.
VII. Erosion of the heat transfer surface in the combustion chamber is reduced,
since the surface is parallel to the flow. In a bubbling bed system, the
surface generally is perpendicular to the flow.
PFBC
Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion (PFBC) is a variation of fluid bed technology
that is\ meant for large-scale coal burning applications. In PFBC, the bed vessel is
operated at pressure up to 16 ata (16 kg/cm2).
The off-gas from the fluidised bed combustor drives the gas turbine. The steam
turbine is driven by steam raised in tubes immersed in the fluidised bed. The
condensate from the steam turbine is pre-heated using waste heat from gas turbine
exhaust and is then taken as feed water for steam generation.
The PFBC system can be used for cogeneration or combined cycle power
generation.
PULVERIZED COAL FIRED
Most coal-fired power station boilers use pulverized coal, and many of the larger
industrial water-tube boilers also use this pulverized fuel. This technology is well
developed, and there are thousands of units around the world, accounting for well
over 90% of coal-fired capacity. The coal is ground (pulverised) to a fine powder, so
that less than 2% is +300 micro metre (m) and 70-75% is below 75 microns, for a
bituminous coal. It should be noted that too fine a powder is wasteful of grinding mill
power. On the other hand, too coarse a powder does not burn completely in the

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combustion chamber and results in higher unburnt losses. The pulverised coal is
blown with part of the combustion air into the boiler plant through a series of burner
nozzles. Secondary and tertiary air may also be added. Combustion takes place at
temperatures from 1300-1700C, depending largely on coal grade. Particle residence
time in the boiler is typically 2 to 5 seconds, and the particles must be small enough
for complete combustion to have taken place during this time.
This system has many advantages such as ability to fire varying quality of coal, quick
responses to changes inload, use of high pre-heat air temperaturesetc. One of the most
popular systems for firing pulverized coal is the tangential firing using four burners
corner to corner to create a fireball at the centre of the furnace (refer Figure 3-3).

FIGURE 3-3 PULVERIZED CORNER FIRED

3-5 ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR BOILERS


The primary fuel which are burned to release heat and generate steam in boilers
arefossil fuels in the form of coal, fuel oil (eg: diesel oil, furnace oil, LSHS oil) and
natural gas. Besides these, industrial wastes like blast furnace gas, coke oven gas,
refinery gas, sugar factory refuse (bagasse), saw mill wood dust, rice husk, etc. are
also used as fuels in boilers, often to boost primary fossil fuels. When more than one

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type of fuel is simultaneously burned to meet the total heat requirement, the boiler is
said to have combination firing.

04 SUPER CRITICAL STEAM GENERATORS


STATE OF SUBSTANCE
Critical point is the thermodynamic state of a fluid at which there is no clear
distinction between liquid and gaseous phase. At this state of water or steam has the
following specified properties:
a) Critical pressure = 221.21 bar (3208.2 psia)
b) Saturation temperature = 374.14C (705.452F or 587.27K)
c) Specific volume of fluid (water) = specific volume of gas (steam)
d) Specific enthalpy of water = specific enthalpy of steam (hf = hg)
e) No Latent heat absorption (hfg=0 kJ/kg)
f) Also there is no change in entropy
g) It is the meeting point of saturated liquid line and saturated gaseous line in a
steam phase diagram

4-1 RANKINE CYCLE


The Rankine cycle was devised by William John M. Rankine (1820-1872). It is
readily accepted as the standard for steam power plants and remains today. The
Rankine cycle is a liquid-vapour cycle.
PROCESSES OR SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
For each processes in the vapour power cycle, it is possible to assume a hypothetical
or ideal process which represents the basic indented operation and does not produce
any extraneous (like heat loss). The sequence of operation of a typical low pressure
steam power plants and super critical power plant are represented as a temperature
entropy diagram on figure 4-1, figure 4-2 respectively.
The left side line of the bell shaped curve is known as saturated liquid line and the
right side line is known as the saturated steam line. The loci of the bell shaped
parabola is known as the Critical point. The regions to left of the parabola is the sub-
cooled regions and to the left is known as superheated regions. The intermediate
region is known as two-phase mixture region.

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Following are the processes in a super- critical Rankine cycle;

Line 1-2 :- The adiabatic compression of boiler feed water in a multi-stage pump
(centrifugal or turbine type having 35-40 stages)which imparts a pressure head about
3500 psi (241 bar) to the sub-cooled water. The pressurised fluid is then passed to the
header (large cross-sectional pipes) of economiser in the boilers.

Line 2-3 :- It is the constant pressure (iso-baric)heat additionto the boiler feed water
in a once-through circulated boiler. The boiler provides super heated steam for
spinning the turbines. The heat addition can be sub-divided into water pre-heating in
economiser, heating in water walls, (LH addition) super-heating in super-heaters.

Line 3-6 :- The super-heated steam is allowed to expand isentropically (adiabatically)


through some convergent-divergent nozzles in a set of turbine blades. The higher
temperature, pressure steam spins the High Pressure (HP) turbines at rpm about 8000-
10000 (line 3-4). At the end of expansion the steam will also exhibiting high quality -
low temperature but high-pressure. If the steam is allowed to pass in to a condenser at
this stage, there will be major losses in the efficiencies of a power plant. So the steam
is the re-heated through two or more stages in a boiler (line 4-5). The reheated steam
is then allowed expand in Intermediate Pressure turbines, Low-Pressure steam
turbines (HP, LP respectively) (line 5-6).

Line 6-1 :- it is the constant pressure heat rejection from the working substance (two-
phase mixture or wet steam) to the heat sink (coolant) which has large capacity to
absorb heat from the substance without changing the temperature of sump. The
process called Condensing in carried out iso-thermally. The sink may be a sea or lake
which supplies large quantity of cooling water to condense the steam. Then the water
is fed to the cycle by a re-circulating pump. Then the cycle is being repeated.

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(TO BE COPIED FROM)


FIGURE 4-1 T-S DIAGRAM FOR SUB-CRITICAL UNITS

FIGURE 4-2 T-S DIAGRAM FOR SUPER-CRITICAL RANKINE CYCLE

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FIGURE 4-3 FLOW DIAGRAM OF SUPER CRITICAL PLANTS

FIGURE 4-4 SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF A SUPERCRITCAL


STEAM GENERATOR

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4-2 SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS


The super critical steam generators has the following special features:

4-2-1 ONCE- THROUGH CIRCULATION


Both natural circulation and assisted or forced circulation steam generators are
designated as re-circulating units, since only a fraction of water is evaporated in the
riser tubes (water tubes) and the steam separated in the drum proceeds to the super
heater.

The super critical boilers are once through type boilers. In once-
through boilers, the feed water goes through the economiser, furnace walls, and super
heater sections, changing sequentialy to saturated water, saturated steam and
superheated steam in one continuous pass. No steam drum is required to separate
saturated steam from boiling waterand no water recirculation takes place (but in
actual cases steam separators are provided at the inlet of super-heater headers and
collected moisture will fed into the boiler economiser). Reheating of steam after iot is
expanded in the High Pressure is performed in a re-heater in ausual manner.

The once- through boiler is only one type which is suited to super-
critical operation because there is no Latent Heat addition involved, and water on
being heated at constant (assumed) super-critical pressure suddenly flashes into
vapour, there being no saturation temperature as such, and the vapour is further
heated to desired temperature in the super-heaters. Water enters the boiler at one end
of a number of parallel paths and emerges at the outlet as super-heated steam.
Movement of water is created by a feed pump. Usually the pump (figure 4-6)may
centrifugal type with several stages of impeller (about 30 to 40 stages) for making a
mass flow through the water tubes. The block diagram of a once-through system is
given in the figure 4-4. The different boiler circulation method is shown in figure 4-5.

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FIGURE 4-5 CIRCULATION METHOD

FIGURE 4-6 FEED WWATER PUMP

4-2-2 FURNACE DESIGN


For obvious reasons the tangential firing concept works best in a quadratic
furnace. In order to position the burners correctly the 4 corners are cut off forming an
octagonal geometry. The long slim flames from the low NOx burners have optimal
conditions used in tangential firing. As the flames wind upwards they do not create
local hotspots but smoothens out the heat flux.
Since the problem with the flame length has diminished the cross section of
the furnace is more or less determined by the vertical flue gas velocity entering the

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convection pass. The height of the furnace is adjusted to meet the required furnace
gas exit temperature and ensuring that the residence time (time for completing the
combustion) for complete combustion will be sufficient.
A general problem for the once through boiler is to ensure an effective
cooling of the membrane walls in the burner zone where the radiation level is high.
Several solutions for this have been seen over time. Traditional solution has been the
spiralled membrane wall designed to provide satisfactory cooling by means of
water/steam velocity and an evenly distributed heat flux. Spiral water wall is arranged
at the bottom of combustion chamber and the top portion are of vertical water walls.
From an engineering point of view this design is a complication compared to
solutions with vertical tubes. However, the experience is that the spiralled membrane
wall contributes to form a uniform steam exit temperature profile of the membrane
wall tubes.
The spiral water walls are arranged at a helix angle of 30 with the
horizontal axis (figure 4-6). So the bottom portion of water walls are similar to that of
a cross-flow heat exchangers in the radiator section in the automotive cooling system.
The flow of flue gas crosses the water tubes. The schematic arrangement of a water
wall is shown in figure 4-6. The comparison between vertical and spiral water walls
are given in the table 4-1.

TABLE 4.1 COMPARISON BETWEEN SPIRAL AND VERTICAL WALLS

VERTICAL WALLS SPIRAL WALLS

Since the vertical wall is parallel to flow More ash deposition due to the wall
less ash deposition on water walls. made obstructions to the flue gas flow.
Erection of tubes is less Erection is more
Head loss is less Head loss is high
Boiler height is high for the same Boiler height can be reduced
capacity
More number of tubes are required Less number of tubes are required
Less maintenance Periodic maintenance is strict
Non uniform heating of water walls Uniform heating of water walls

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FIGURE 4-7 ARRANGEMENT OF SPIRAL WALLS

4-3 SUB-CRITICAL AND SUPER CRITICAL UNITS


TABLE 4.2 SUB CRITICAL VS SUPER CRITICAL
DESCRIPTION SUPER CRITICAL SUB CRITICAL
(660-800 MW) (500-600 MW)
Coal and ash handling capacity less more
Pollution low high
Latent heat addition Nil. It is high
Specific enthalpy less more
Specific coal consumption Less (0.6 kg/kWh) More (0.68 kg/kWh)
Air flow, dry flue gas loss low high
Inner tube diameter less more
Overall efficiency High Low
(40-42%) (36-37%)
Boiler height for same capacity less more
Blow down loss Nil high
Type Drum less type Drum type
Circulating pump Not used required

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4-4 PERFOMANCE IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES


It is well known that the efficiency of the water/steam cycle used in conventional
power plants can be optimized by
1) Increasing live steam parameters (temperature and pressure)
2) Reducing the condenser pressure by means of a cold and effective cooling media
preferably sea water
3) Using reheat and maybe double reheat
4) Optimising the feed water temperature
5) Selecting the single train mono component solution for the air/flue gas path.
Further the total heat input to the boiler can be reduced by focussing on the
increase of the boiler efficiency by:
6) Reduced Unburned Carbon (UBC) in the fly ash by effective and improved
combustion
7) a reduced air excess and thereby a reduced flue gas loss
8) reduced leakage in the air pre-heater
9) reduced pressure loss of the water/steam cycle
10) selecting the single train mono component solution for the air/flue gas path
Some of these measures have been taken into account developing the high efficient
Ultra Super Critical Power Plants in both Europe and Japan achieving plant
efficiencies of nearly 48%.
Recently a number of new candidate materials for the last super heater tube
bundles as well as steam lines have been introduced to the market making live steam
temperatures of 620C possible.
Double reheat seems to add an extra 1.5% point to the cycle efficiency of the
single reheat water/steam cycle. However, the latter has more or less become the
standard water/steam cycle for the coal fired units of today. Demands for ever higher
cycle efficiencies might though give the double reheat cycle the advantage over time.

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EMISSION CONTROL TECHNIQUES


The waste management and emission control is very necessary in a super critical
power plants for their ultimate performance. Here we are discussing some methods
for solid and gaseous waste management.

ELECTRO-STATIC PRECIPITATOR
It is a traditional and effective attachment for a boiler to remove particulate matters
and fly ash from the flue gases. They are arranged at the flue gas exit line. The flue
gas flows through asets of electrodes whose potential difference is 20 to 100kV. The
electrodes are being charged by an external DC source. Since high voltage is passed
through the electrodes there will be a blue luminous glow called corona will form
and it will ionises the gases and the ions will be get discharged. Then they are
collected in collecting plates and it is periodically removed. The collected fly ash
particles are used as an additive for making mortar in combination with cement for
better binding and to provide finish to the object.

FABRIC FILTERS AND BAGHOUSES


Fabric filters are used in power plants to remove dust particles from a gas stream.
They are made of porous materials which retains particulate matter while the carrier
gas flows out through the voids.

A fabric filter system contains a large number of fabric filter elements arranged in
parallel rows. It is called a bag-house. The gas is passed through the bag-filters. It
will remove the contaminants in the flue gases and stored at the conical shaped cup
provided at the bottom of the arrangement.

DESULFERIZATION UNIT
The oxides of sulphur are removed by this units. They may be dry wet flue gas type
and dry flue gas type. In wet system the lime stone (CaCO3)is crushed and mixed
with water to produce a aqueous slurry. This slurry is brought into contact with the
flue gas by various techniques, absorbs the SO2 in it. The produced gypsum is used
for cement manufacturing for controlling the setting time of concrete

The wet scrubbing method is represented below:

CaCO3 CaO + CO2

2CaO + 2SO2 = 2CaSO4 (GYPSUM)

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4-5 ADVANTAGES
i. Cycle efficiency is primarily (40-42%).
ii. Fuel consumed per unit electricity generated (kg/kWh) is less.
iii. Less water consumption.
iv. Auxiliary power consumption (needed for effective working) is less.
v. Better temperature control and load change flexibility can obtained.
vi. Reduced green-housegas emissions as compared to sub-critical boilers
vii. Great plant efficiencies over wider range of part loads than sub-critical
boilers with drum.
viii. Quicker start up
ix. There is no water drum is used and hence the accumulation of water
for a shorter or temporary period is not.
x. Due to high temperature difference working substance at inlet and
outlet of the steam turbine, the Carnot efficiency is high.
xi. The emissions from the stack is very less.
xii. Since the FBC or Pulverized Coal Technology is adopted, the
combustion bed temperature maintained at a range of 750 to 900C
there is no slagging occurs in the furnace and easy ash removal is
possible.
xiii. Once-through circulated boilers will increases the mass flow rate and
velocity of fluid through tubes which will increase the heat transfer
rate.
xiv. The most of waste heat from the flue gasses can be recovered by the
effective waste heat recovery section on the boiler.
xv. The overall efficiency of the Super Critical Plant is 40-42% and it is
around 44-47% for Ultra-Super Critical Plants and it is near 50% for
the Advanced Ultra Super Critical Units.
xvi. The sliding or variable pressure operation is suitable in this type of
units
xvii. Operating cost of super critical plants are less as compared to sub-
critical units.

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xviii. Since the major part of water walls are arranged in spiral water walls,
the height of the boiler will get reduced as that of the same capacity of
a sub-critical boiler.
xix. Adoption of re-heat stages will prevent the condensation of steam at
turbines which will reduce blade damages due to pitting of water
particles, cavitation, etc.

4-6 DISADVANTAGES
a. Since they are operating at high temperature and pressure, the safety measures
and precautions to prevent the disaster to be followed strictly. Also it
enhances maintenance cost.
b. The water is directly passed through the narrow tubes and hence scaling or
fouling should be prevented by water treatment.
c. Since the water tube crosses the flow of flue gases the fly ash deposition and
erection of metallic parts are considerably high.
d. Since there is no latent heat absorption during evaporation, they arent used
for heating processesin industries (such as street heating /district heating,
sugarmills, tea leaf drying, etc.)
e. Water chemistry is more stringent in this types of boilers (Ph value, salinity,
etc.)
f. The metallurgical challenges limits the efficiency of such plants.
g. Since the water walls are complex in shape they are costlier.

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4-7 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SC BOILERS


The following are the metallurgical challenges faced by the existing technology

FIGURE 4-8 STEAM SIDE OXIDATION, EROSION AND FIRE SIDE


CORROSION

STEAM SIDE OXIDATION is the oxidation of metal surfaces exposed to the steam
in the steam loop; this will be most prevalent in higher temperature locations, such as
pipes, tubes, valves and steam turbines. Steam side oxidation consists of three stages.
Firstly, oxide scale builds up causing materials to overheat, which decreases material
strength. Secondly, the oxide scale eventually exfoliates, gradually reducing the
materials cross-sectional area, which again decreases material strength. Finally, the
oxide scale fragments and erodes the entire steam loop, further decreasing strength.
In short, steam side oxidation will lower steam turbine efficiency and decrease
material strength and may lead to pipe blockages, see left picture and middle picture
in Figure 4-7.

FIRESIDE CORROSION (OR HOT CORROSION) is a term used to describe the


chemical attack of metal surface in boilers by flue gases and molten coal ash
containing elements such as sodium, sulphur and chlorine. The pipework, valves and
turbines are not exposed to fireside corrosion. The accumulation of corrosion by-
products on metal surfaces, see far right picture in Figure 4-7, has two effects. Firstly,
heat transfer rates are decreased resulting in reduced thermal efficiency. Secondly,
material strength is reduced through overheating and the gradual reduction of cross
sectional area. Fireside corrosion occurs in the high temperature gas phase, high
temperature gas and liquid phase and low temperature liquid phase.

MECHANICAL STRESSES arecaused by pressures and physical loading.


THERMAL STRESSES are induced by temperature gradients.Stresses result in two
kinds of damage mechanisms, creep and fatigue.

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CREEP is time-dependent deformation of material with time due to constant stress.


Creep damage is seen as strain in the material, internal damage, cavitation and cracks
on the metal surface and will terminate in rupture. Turbine blades have to withstand
creep damage, as contactwith turbine casing would result in catastrophic failure.

FATIGUE is caused by cyclic stresses and can result in internal cracking. Generally,
cyclic stresses have increased with more vigorous cyclic operation in super critical
plant over the last two decades (due to market forces and the use of renewable
energy).

CREEP-FATIGUE is the combined interaction of creep and fatigue.

Ultimately, a complex interaction between chemical attack, thermal and mechanical


stresses will cause material failure.

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4-8MODERN DEVOLOPMENTS
In pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plant, increasing the maximum
temperature of the steam cycle increases the electrical efficiency, which in turn
lowers both coal consumption and flue gas emissions. However, the maximum steam
temperature is limited by materials that can operate at these conditions for practical
service lifetimes without failure. The EU, USA, Japan, India and China all have
material research programmes aiming for the next generation of increased steam
temperatures and efficiency, known as Advanced Ultra-Super Critical (AUSC) or
700C technology.

`Historically, the steam parameters have increased with the development of


improved steels. The first generation of PCC plant operated at subcritical steam
parameters, achieved with low alloy C-Mn and Mo ferritic steels. The next generation
was supercritical (SC) steam parameters, achieved with low alloy Cr-Mo steels and
912% chromium martensitic steels. Ultra-supercritical (USC) steam parameters
followed with improved martensitic 912% chromium steels (such as grade 92) and
austenitic steels (such as HR3C and Sanicro 25). State-of-the-art USC technology has
reached a super-heater temperature of 604C and electrical efficiencies of 47% (net,
LHV, hard coal). The new target is advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) steam
parameters reaching super-heater temperature of 700C with electrical efficiency
estimated at 50% (net, LHV, hard coal). However, AUSC steam parameters will
require the use of nickel alloys in high temperature components.

IGCAR (Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research) will design and develop
new 70% nickel alloys capable of 710C and 35 MPa super-heater steam
parameters, raising net efficiency from 3840% to 46% (LHV) and reducing carbon
dioxide emissions by 1520%. IGCAR have experience with new nickel alloys
through its prototype fast breeder nuclear reactor project. Materials include Super
304H, Inconel 617, Haynes 230, T92 and T91.However the research and
developments of new technologies are needs several years.

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4-9 APPLICATIONS

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05 CONCLUSION
The generation of electricity will in India continue at least for 40 to
50 years by coal fired steam power plants because of their cheapness, availability and
deposits of fuel. About 12% of coal fired power plants in India are working with
super-critical technology. Theybecomes favourable because of their high cycle
efficiency and large capacity generation.

Development and application of clean, high efficiency, large capacity


coal fired power plant is a long term requirement in India. So development of Super
Critical, Ultra Super Critical and Advanced Ultra Super Critical technology provides
a future plan for thermal power plants.

In order to meet our increasing demand for electric power, aswell as to


improve coal utilization efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions from coalfired
power plants, we have to develop domestic supercritical/Ultra supercritical units.

In order to adopt the technology, there are many challenges towards these
technology to adopt it effectively such as material consideration as mentioned above.
However the technology replaces old thermal power plants in the world.

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06 REFERENCES
[1] M. M. EI-Wakil, Power Plant Technology, McGraw-Hill Book Company, First

Edition of 1984.

[2] D.S. Kumar, Heat and Mass Transfer, S.K.Kataria & Sons publishers, Sixth

Edition.

[3] P.K. Nag, Power Plant Engineering: Steam and Nuclear, Tata McGraw-Hill

Publishing Company Limited, First Edition.

[4] R.S. Khurmi and N. Khurmi, Steam Tables with Mollier Diagram, S. Chand

Publications, Ninth Edition.

[5] Chapter 2: Boilers Bureau of Energy Efficiency.

[6]INDIAN Power Sector to India July 2011 International Seminar-Base paper for

International Seminar on supercritical technology. 28th January 2011, New Delhi.

[7] P.K. Nag, Engineering Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill Publications, Fourth

Edition.

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