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Proceedings of National Symposium for Post Graduate Students (NSPGS 2010), 24 25 April, 2010: Vol 4 Civil, Materials &

p; Metallurgy






Abstract measurement. Then, the experiment was

Universal joint in heavy trucks was simulated by three-dimensional thermal

replaced every 60,000 kilometer, during this elastic-plastic analysis by FEM. The

process the propeller shaft has been removed important fact that should be noted on

from the vehicle for fixing the new one. predicting the distortion with high accuracy

During the welding process the axis of is usually shown by comparing the results of

propeller shaft is deviated from the axis of the experimental results with the FEM

the universal joint by distortion. So this analysis.

distortion can be corrected by straightening 1.0 Introduction

machine, to make the axis as a co-axial one.
Then the total setup will be sent for non Conventional design methodologies either

destructive evaluation to confirm the ignore or use empirical techniques to

straightness. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of welding on the

analyse the distortion and to minimize the structural integrity and dimensional control

distortion by providing proper heat input and of welded structures (1*). In order to

by providing welding jig. Distortion analysis efficiently assess the effects of welding on

was done by using FEM. structural performance and effectively

implement various mitigation techniques to
In order to predict the distortion generated control or counteract welding distortion, a
by welding with high accuracy, distortion methodology for predicting the distortion
with butt and fillet welding was measured due to welding becomes necessary. When
by three-dimensional photographic the distortion occurs, the magnitude of
distortion tends to be very large.

Proceedings of National Symposium for Post Graduate Students (NSPGS 2010), 24 25 April, 2010: Vol 4 Civil, Materials & Metallurgy

Furthermore, buckling instabilities reduce A universal joint or U joint or Cardan

the structural integrity of a welded structure. joint or Hardy-Spicer joint, or Hooke's
Use of predictive analysis tools can joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the
determine the susceptibility of a design to rod to 'bend' in any direction, and is
the various types of distortion, and assist the commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary
selection of geometry configuration and motion. It consists of a pair of hinges
manufacturing processes that minimize located close together, oriented at 90 to
distortion(5*). Over the past fifteen years, each other, connected by a cross shaft. The
the finite element method has been used in material used in the universal joint is an
an attempt to predict distortion and residual unalloyed medium carbon steel with good
stresses due to welding. More recent tensile strength. It is normally supplied in
developments involve the inclusion of phase cold drawn or as rolled condition. Tensile
transformations and transformation strength is usually usually between 500-800
plasticity in the analyses. The majority of N/mm. The material confirms to EN8
these simulations focus on simple structural specifications.
components in the area immediately
C Si Mn S P
adjacent to the weld, and investigate residual
stress, local distortion, and microstructure. 0.40% 0.25% 0.80% 0.015% 0.015%

2.0 Universal joint


3.0 Welding Process

The process used in the present work

for welding universal joints in heavy truck is
manual metal arc welding process. The
welding parameters used were current of
175amps and the voltage of 30 volts with the
Figure.1 Universal Joint electrode type of E7018.

Proceedings of National Symposium for Post Graduate Students (NSPGS 2010), 24 25 April, 2010: Vol 4 Civil, Materials & Metallurgy

4.0 Distortion coupled three dimensional thermo-

mechanical analyses. In a section
Welding methods that involve the
perpendicular to the welding direction, the
melting of metal at the vicinity of the joint
longitudinal stresses during welding are
necessarily are prone to shrinkage as the
compressive at the weld zone and tensile
heated metal solidifies (4*). Shrinkage then
elsewhere. Furthermore, most of the plastic
introduces residual stresses and distortion.
deformations occur during welding and only
Distortion can pose a major problem, since
in the vicinity of the weld region. Therefore,
the final product is not in the desired shape.
the structural response of a large structure to
To alleviate certain types of distortion the
welding may be evaluated in two steps.
work pieces can be offset so that after
First, a two dimensional welding simulation
welding the product is in the correct shape.
can be performed to determine the residual
The following picture describes a type of
stress distribution. The model may be
welding distortion.
limited to a portion of the structure that
represents the mechanical restraints that are
used. Then, a three dimensional structural
(elastic) analysis can be performed using the
stress distribution of the welding simulations
as loading to determine if the structure will
Figure 2.0 Angular Distortion
buckle and the corresponding mode and/or

4.1 Distortion Prediction magnitude of deformation (2*).

5.0 Program of the finite element

Welding in large unrestrained
structures can cause significant distortions in
modes that simplified two dimensional
The finite element analysis of the
analyses of the weld region may not capture.
weld joint consists of two parts: (a)
Specifically, the parts may move relative to
calculation of thermal cycle and (b) calcu-
each other, and the weld may be placed in
lation of instantaneous stress (1*). A
different location than that of the
program was drawn up to calculate the
undeformed configuration. This type of
thermal cycle.
response necessitates the use of fully
Proceedings of National Symposium for Post Graduate Students (NSPGS 2010), 24 25 April, 2010: Vol 4 Civil, Materials & Metallurgy

5.1 Programming: 6.0 Welding simulations

6.1 Thermal analysis
The basis of the finite element technique
Two dimensional nonlinear transient heat
(to tackle the thermal elastic-plastic problem) is to
flow finite element analyses are performed
change the non-linearity relation of the stress and
in the plane perpendicular to the welding
strain into a linear one during the loading process.
direction. Heat conduction, quadratic,
The external force does not have any effect on
quadrilateral elements are used. To simulate
welding. But loading is due to the change in
the heat losses to the support during
temperature. The procedure to tackle this problem
welding, a support plate connected to the
is to calculate the increment of the load with
panel with gap conductivity elements is
change in temperature, T, then add up these to the
added in the model. The gap conductivity is
structural elements. The centre axis was
back-calculated for each case investigated to
symmetrical and free boundary conditions were
correlate computed temperatures to
assumed. The finite element analysis of the
measured values. For simplicity, the
thermal elastic-plastic stress was conducted using
criterion for the back calculation is a visual
ANSYS software. As a first step, the component
best fit. The heat generated by the welding
was divided into several finite elements. The
process is modeled with a "double ellipsoid"
thermo-physical parameters were entered and the
heat source model for each butt, where the
distribution of thermal field of welding was found
heat generated by welding is simulated with
out. The determination of stress field followed.
a power density moving along with the
Using the non-linear instantaneous stress analysis,
torch. Radiation and convection boundary
heat and structure unit were combined in the
conditions are assigned for all free surfaces..
calculation. These thermo-physical
The thermal conductivity is increased
parameters change with the change in
artificially for temperatures above the
temperature. For the sake of convenience,
melting point to simulate the convective heat
the parameters such as coefficient of heat
transfer of the weld pool (5 &6 *).
conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of
linear expansion and density were
6.2 Mechanical Analysis
extrapolated assuming a linear variation
Generalized plane strain quasi static
with temperature (2*). finite element analyses are performed using

Proceedings of National Symposium for Post Graduate Students (NSPGS 2010), 24 25 April, 2010: Vol 4 Civil, Materials & Metallurgy

ten node, quadratic, reduced integration, 7.0 Prevention Method

quadrilateral elements. The mesh is identical
Welders have faced the problem of
to that used for the thermal analysis,
weld distortion at one time or another. The
excluding the support plate. Symmetry
parts start off straight and square, and after
boundary conditions are used on the left
welding, the finished part is warped. Thinner
edge of all models. Elastic-plastic material
material is more susceptible, as it has less
response is assumed with kinematic work
stiffness. Also stainless steels are more
susceptible, as it has greater thermal
expansion and lower thermal conductivity
than carbon steels.

Weld metal is deposited at a high

temperature, above the melting point of
material. For steel, this is around 2,500F
(1,370C). As the weld cools to room
temperature, it shrinks, but is restrained
from doing so by the adjacent cold base
metal, workpiece holding the ends. This is
the reason that the base metal moves, or
springs back, when the clamps holding the
workpiece are removed, distorting the part.

8.0 Design of JIG

A jig was designed(6*) for distortion

free welding process. The clamping were
provides restraints to the bending distortion
by means of arresting all the degree of

Figure 3.0 Distortion Simulation

Proceedings of National Symposium for Post Graduate Students (NSPGS 2010), 24 25 April, 2010: Vol 4 Civil, Materials & Metallurgy

has been designed for distortion free

welding process.


1) L. E. Lindgren, Finite element

modeling and simulation of welding.
Part 1. Increased complexity, J.
Therm. Stress. 24( 2001)141 192.

2) S. Sarkani, V. Tritchkov, G. Michaelov,

An Efficient Approach for Computing
Residual Stresses in Welded Joints,
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design,
v.35, n.3, June 2000, p.247-268.
Figure 4.0 Design of JIG
3) Michaleris, P., DeBiccari, A., 1997.
Conclusion Prediction of welding distortion.
Weld. J. 76( 6),172 181.
A methodology for predicting
welding distortion and assessing the 4) Ueda, Y., Yamakawa, T., 1971.

structural integrity of welded structures is Analysis of thermalelastic- plastic

presented. Thermo-elastic-plastic finite stress and strain during welding by

element analysis for welding simulation finite element method. Trans. Jpn.

along with three dimensional elastic and Weld. Soc. 12( 2),90 100.

eigen value finite element analyses are 5) White,J. D., Leggatt,R. H., Dwight,J.
performed to predict both the applied weld B., 1980. Weld shrinkage prediction.
load and the structure's distortion. The Weld. Met. Fabr.,567 596.
approach is particularized on evaluating
distortions under longitudinal stresses and 6) Edward G Hoffman, Jigs & Fixture

implemented on structures of heavy trucks. A jig Design, Thomson- Delmar

Learning, Singapore 2004.