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AN INTEGRATED PREPAID ENERGY METER


USING GSM

Article January 2014

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International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982 Volume-2, Issue-5, May-2014

AN INTEGRATED PREPAID ENERGY METER USING GSM


1
K.SHEELASOBANARANI, 2S.DINESHRAJA, 3B.DHANARAJ, 4K.MANICKAM, 5K.KARTHICK
RAJA
1
Associate Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology,
Coimbatore
2,3,4,5
Student, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology,
Coimbatore
Email:1yuvsheka@gmail.com,2dinesrja@gmail.com,3dhanarajbs@gmail.com,4manikece93@gmail.com,
5karthickkrish93@gmail.com

Abstract - This paper presents a prepaid energy meter to facilitate energy consumption measurement and to know
consumers maximum demand. The prepaid energy meter concept is shown by Proteus 8 software simulation. The major
components are PIC microcontroller, Voltage and Current transformer, LCD, Relay and a load. Electricity has become one
of the basic requirements for people and widely used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes.
The energy billing system used nowadays are labour and time consuming. Errors are inevitable at every stage of billing,
some are human errors while noting down the meter readings, errors while processing the paid bills and the due bills. There
is no proper way to know the consumer's maximum demand, usage details. This paper demonstrates the use of prepaid
energy meter system. If we use this system it will be beneficial for the consumer to manage power. It is easy to operate and
cost effective. Another advantage of the prepaid system is that the human errors in taking meter readings and processing bills
can be reduced to a large extent.

Keywords: Current transformer, Potential transformer, PIC microcontroller, LCD, PROTEUS 8 software.

I. INTRODUCTION recharged amount to the Microcontroller and send


message to the consumers end. The message consists
In recent years many attempts have been made to of details like recharged amount and power
design the energy meter with instant billing technique consumption. In the energy provider side this system
but till now the designed energy meters are not is used to update the consumer account and the
efficient and do not provide replacement. Now-a-days database.
the number of Electricity consumers are increasing in
great extent. It is hard to handle and maintain the II. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
power due to growing requirements. Maintenance of
the power is an important task as the human operator Functional Block Diagram of the desired prepaid
goes to consumers house and produces the bill as per energy meter is shown in fig 2. This system is
the meter reading. The billing process takes much designed based on PIC Microcontroller which acts as
time if the consumers is not in the house while taking a data processing and transmission system. The
readings on energy consumption. It requires a lot of current transformer is connected in series and the
time and more labour to analyse energy consumption potential transformer in parallel with the line. Two
and generating the bill. If the consumer did not pay comparators are used as Zero Cross Detectors for the
the bill, the Foreman needs to go to their houses to current and voltage signals. The zero cross detected
disconnect the power supply. These consumes time signals of the current and voltage are applied to the
and difficult to handle. The manual operator cannot interrupt inputs of the microcontroller to measure the
find the Un-authorized connections or malpractices phase difference between two signals. The
carried out by the consumer to reduce or stop the microcontroller can therefore evaluate the power
meter reading/power supply. Some of the energy factor at the measurement terminals. The output from
meters which had been implemented are prepaid but the potential transformer is also taken as input of a
it needs Smart card to recharge it. The major full bridge rectifier to convert 12V AC voltage to a
disadvantage of that method is that it needs internet 12V DC voltage. The rectified voltage is then passed
and the computer interface. In this paper we propose through a network of some capacitors, switch, voltage
a method which uses GSM Network which eliminates regulator to obtain a voltage of 5V, which is
the need of internet. sufficient as the working voltage for the
An Integrated Prepaid Energy Meter using GSM microcontroller and LCD. The LCD is used for the
system consists of Energy Meter and the GSM purpose of displaying the current, voltage and the
network. The system provides efficient power meter remaining units. It also displays the low balance and
reading, usage notification and consumers maximum the zero balance messages.
demand using GSM network. GSM modem utilizes Proteus software is used for simulation. Proteus
the GSM network to send equivalent unit for the combines mixed mode SPICE circuit simulation,
animated components and microprocessor models to

An Integrated Prepaid Energy Meter Using GSM

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International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982 Volume-2, Issue-5, May-2014

facilitate co-simulation of complete microcontroller


based designs. HI-TECH PICC Compiler is a high-
performance C compiler for the PIC microcontrollers.

Fig 1. Zero Crossing Detector

Fig 3. Flowchart for Microcontroller Programming

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS

Fig 4 shows the circuit diagram of Prepaid Energy


Fig 2. Functional block diagram Meter which is shown below.

III. MICROCONTROLLER
PROGRAMMING

Microcontroller coding has been done in HI-TECH C


Compiler. At first using the ADC subsystem of the
microcontroller, analog data inputs of voltage and
current have been taken. Digital value is generated
for both the sinusoidal waves of voltage and current. Fig 4. Circuit Diagram
Peak value is monitored only when the wave is at
rising period. After that voltage peak is determined Fig 5 shows the circuit diagram of Prepaid Energy
and actual voltage value is calculated. Similar Meter at initial condition which is shown below.
procedure is applied for determining current value.
After that power factor is calculated. Timer
subsystem is used for the calculation of power factor.
After getting all necessary values, the energy
consumption is calculated and updated according to
the time. The readings obtained are stepped down as
the microcontroller (PIC 16F877A) has a working
voltage of 5V, which, if exceeded will damage it.
The microcontroller always monitors the number of Fig 5. Initial Condition
units recharged. First the microcontroller checks
whether the units are greater than zero or not. If the Fig 6 shows the circuit diagram of Prepaid Energy
units are not greater than zero, the controller displays Meter at running condition which is shown below.
Recharge Your Account else it gets current and
voltage value from current and potential transformer,
the power factor and the remaining units are
calculated and they are displayed in the LCD display.
The units are decremented according to the usage of
power and when the value becomes zero, the load is
disconnected from the supply and the microcontroller
display the message Recharge Your Account. Then
the same cycle of operations are repeated. Fig 6. Running Condition

An Integrated Prepaid Energy Meter Using GSM

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International Journal of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, ISSN: 2347-6982 Volume-2, Issue-5, May-2014

Fig 7 shows the circuit diagram of Prepaid Energy CONCLUSION


Meter when the balance becomes low which is shown
below. GSM based energy meter is easy to install and
beneficial for both energy Provider and Customer.
This reduces revenue cost and reduces the human
errors and problems like over running of the meter,
over load. This leads to reduction of outstanding dues
.This device improves usage level and energy
monitoring.
In the present work prepaid energy meter system is
designed to continuously monitor the meter reading
and to shut down the power supply remotely
whenever the recharged units become zero. It avoids
the human intervention, provides efficient meter
Fig 7. Low Balance reading, avoid the billing error and reduce the
maintenance cost. It displays the corresponding
Fig 8a and Fig 8b shows the circuit diagram of information on Mobile for user notification.
Prepaid Energy Meter when the balance becomes
zero which is shown below. REFERENCES

[1] Md. Mejbaul Haque, Md. Kamal Hossain, Md. Mortuza Ali,
Md. Rafiqul Islam Sheikh Microcontroller Based Single
Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering
and Billing System International Journal of Power
Electronics and Drive System (IJPEDS)Vol.1, No.2,
December 2011.
[2] B.O.Omijeh and G.I.Ighalo Modeling of GSM-Based
Energy Recharge Scheme for Prepaid Meter IOSR Journal
of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE)
ISSN: 2278-1676 Volume 4, Issue 1 (Jan. - Feb. 2013).
[3] O.Homa Kesav, B. Abdul Rahim Automated Wireless
Fig 8a. Zero Balance Meter Reading System for Monitoring and Controlling
Power Consumption International Journal of Recent
Technology and Engineering (IJRTE) ISSN: 2277-3878
Volume-1, Issue-2, June 2012.
[4] Md. Ashiquzzaman, Nadia Afroze, Taufiq Md.Abdullah
Design and Implementation of Wireless Digital Energy
Meter using Microcontroller Global Journal of Researches
in Engineering Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Volume 12 Issue Version 1.0 February 2012.
[5] B.O.Omijeh, G.I.Ighalo Design of A Robust Prepaid
Energy Metering And Billing System JORIND 10
(3),December, 2012. ISSN 1596-
8308.ww.transcampus.org./journals.
[6] Abhinandan Jain, Dilip Kumar, Jyoti Kedia Design and
Development of GSM based Energy Meter International
Journal of Computer Applications (0975 888) Volume 47
No.12, June 2012.
Fig 8b. Zero Balance

An Integrated Prepaid Energy Meter Using GSM

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