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Simulation-Enabled 5G

Antenna Design

Martin Leung

CST COMPUTER SIMULATION TECHNOLOGY | www.cst.com


Agenda
1. 5G Motivation and Challenges

2. Antenna Array Simulation, MIMO

3. Mobile Device Antenna Array Example


Element -> Array Design
Device level performance
System level performance

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5G Motivation and Challenges
Consumer device bandwidth requirements increasing at
rapid rates

Historical (4, 3G) bands below 3 GHz increasingly


crowded

Push for 28+ GHz frequency for 5G


subject to relatively high atmospheric attenuation
- smaller wavelength more susceptible to multipath loss

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5G Motivation and Challenges
Efficiency is critical, Gain of 12 dB for mobile device and 25 dB targeted

Gain cannot come at the expense of coverage beam steered arrays ideal solution

Diversity Gain can also be leveraged - MIMO

High frequency and array topology pose simulation challenges (memory, system
complexity)

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Antenna Arrays Categories
Large Arrays Small Arrays

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Small Arrays
All elements need to be simulated.

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Distributed Computing
Multiple ports, frequency points, and parameter values
can be simulated simultaneously.
Port 1

CST STUDIO frontend Port 2


with 22 port model

Port 3


Port 22

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Array Postprocessing
Use Combine Results and Correlation Coefficient result
templates to achieve a desired beam shape.
Purely postprocessing, no further 3D simulations
needed!

How can I achieve


a pattern like this?

All amplitudes = 1 Amplitudes = ????


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Array Postprocessing
Initial beam shape
Template Based
Postprocessing as a
Simulation type
Parameters for
amplitude weights

Desired beam shape Achieved beam shape

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Array Feeding Networks
CST DESIGN STUDIO
ideal parts
analytical blocks
other 3D models

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO


(nearfield and farfield)
results updated to take
into account the
attached circuitry!

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Large Arrays
Can be approximated as an
infinite array which
requires the simulation of
only a single element.

To include edge effects


and other physical
realities, the entire array
needs to be modeled.

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Finite Array Analysis
As the array becomes larger, the center element pattern
starts to resemble the infinite array results.

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CST ARRAY WIZARD

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CST Array Wizard Sim Proj

Grid Angle 60

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Drag&Drop your Unit Array Element

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Finite Array Sim. Proj.

Set Elements Active/Passive/Empty

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MIMO Antennas

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Communication Networks
Communication antennas need to cope with a complex environment

All base-station antennas are Multi-path signal transmission


placed near the horizontal plane may lead to destructive signal
Mean Effective Gain (MEG) overlay, resulting in local deep
dips (called Rayleigh-Fading)
Diversity/MIMO

Tilted reflecting planes change


signal polarization
Cross Polarization Rate (XPR)

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Diversity / MIMO Antennas
Simple Maximal Signal Diversity Gain
Multi-path signal transmission may
lead to destructive signal overlay
resulting in local deep dips
(called Rayleigh-Fading)

Antenna 1

Antenna 2
Multiple antennas (antenna diversity)
may overcome this problem
best of (diversity gain)

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Diversity / MIMO Antennas
Select from:
Diversity Gain
Envelope Correlation Coefficient
Multiplexing Efficiency
Mean Effective Gain

Load farfield of second antenna

Envelope Correlation from Farfield: Envelope Corr. from S-Parameters:

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Mobile Antenna Array

Element -> Array Design


Device level performance
System level performance

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Antenna Magus

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Mobile Antenna Element Design

Magus Antenna Synthesis generates initial square


patch design for 28 GHz operating frequency

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Mobile Antenna Element Performance

Magus also provides


performance estimation for
initial design qualification

Initial design is clearly


approximate Microwave
Studio can be used to optimize
and modify

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Mobile Antenna Element Performance

3D Simulation Results show similar performance issues in initial design

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Optimization

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Results

Retuned for 28 GHz, at the expense of


impedance match quality

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Mobile Antenna Array Synthesis

Synthesize planar array for 8 dB gain from


Array Factor @ 28 GHz

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Mobile Antenna Array Synthesis

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Finite Array Generation

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Finite Array Performance

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Best Achievable Pattern
Envelope Theta = 0 deg
Phi = 0 deg

Theta = 15 deg
Phi = 30 deg

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Achievable Array
Patterns Theta=10

Theta=45 Theta=85

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Installed Performance

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System Assembly Modelling

System Assembly Modelling provides


convenient layout assembly to bring in
phone + other antenna models

Several copies of array independently


placed and parameterizable

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Layout Modelling
After wiring system, switch to layout view
and align antenna arrays

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Layout Modelling

Lower hemispherical array needs


to be flipped to aim downward

Rotate on axis for diversity

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Simulation Task

In this case, all models will


be solved together in 3D by
MWS T solver

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Simulation Performance

3.5 Minutes simulation time per excitation on dual CPU workstation with nVIDIA
Kepler 20 GPU (10% GPU capacity)

3.48 GB of system Memory utilized for initial Matrix Calculation

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Installed Performance - Coupling

Both arrays operating (boresight), pattern intact


In band coupling to WIFI antenna, GPS coupling at 5G operating freq
Designing Clean Mobile Devices CST Webinar available at
https://www.cst.com/webinar14-10-23~

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Installed Performance - Envelope

Relatively, low coupling to GPS at 28 GHz, but radiation angles towards GPS antenna
are affected

Best Achievable Pattern envelope clearly shows performance degraded


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System Level Bio Models

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Posable CTIA Hand Models

CST Installation Help Files include both static and posable CTIA Hand (+spacer)
models

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System Assembly Modelling

Add posed hand model to System


model and align to spacer in Layout
mode

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Simulation Performance

15 Minutes simulation time per excitation


on dual CPU workstation with nVIDIA Kepler
20 GPU (~35% GPU capacity)

8.5 GB of system Memory utilized for initial


Matrix Calculation

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Effects of Hand Model
Top hemisphere array is largely unaffected

Bottom array highly dependent on finger proximity

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Summary
5G Antenna Device design will require high efficiency devices at
frequencies approaching mm wave

CST Array Simulation Workflows provide smooth design process for


large and small finite arrays

Antenna Magus provides Antenna and Array synthesis for rapid


design exploration

System level simulation increasingly important for antenna


performance
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Thank you for your attention

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