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Word class and word order

1 In the world today

In the world today, people speak around 2,700 different languages.


More than 750 million people use the English language.
But only about 350 million people speak it as a first language.

About 885 million people speak Chinese as their first language.


About 80% of the information on the worlds computers is in English.
There are 26
letters in the English alphabet. The sentence
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog uses all 26 letters.

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Word class and word order


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e\Wi[dj[dY[$
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Practice
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Dekdi0 ALPHABET LETTERS
Fhedekdi0
7Z`[Yj_l[i0
L[hXi0 HAS
My turn!
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Be
2 Are you my son?

J^[A_d]l_i_jij^[
fh_dY[eh_i^[j^
[feehXeo5$
King: I dont unders
J^[Fh_dY[WdZj^
[FWkf[h tand! Are you my so
'..'_iWXeea
XoCWha Tom: No, Im not a n?
JmW_d$J^[Xee
a_iWXekj
prince, Im poor.
jmeXeoi"JecW King: Are you sure?
dZ;ZmWhZ$ Your clothes are not
J^[oWh['+o[
WhiebZXkj very old!
j^[_hb_l[iWh[l[
hoZ_[h[dj$
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eoXkj y clothes. Theyre
;ZmWhZ_iWfh_d Edwards clothes. H
Y^Wd][fbWY[iX
Y[$J^[o
oc_ijWa[
es poor now.
ie;ZmWhZ_iWf King: Oh no! This is
WdZJec_iWfh_d
eehXeo terrible! Is it true?
Y[$J^[ebZ Tom: Yes, it is. Im re
al
You arent my father ly sorry, King Henry.
A_d]">[dhoL???
"_idejm[bb
Xkj^[_i;ZmWh
WdZ^[mWdjije
Zi\Wj^[h , youre my King.
adem
j^[jhkj^

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Be
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Practice
7 KdZ[hb_d[j^[Yehh[Yjefj_ed$  oekhcej^[h%j^[Gk[[d5
 Jec0 5
  ?X[%Wc%_ijm[bl[o[WhiebZ$
 ;ZmWhZ0 $
  J^[oX[%Wc%Wh[_dj^[]WhZ[d$
 m[%Xhej^[hi5
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 Jec0 5
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 ;ZmWhZ0 $?Zedj^Wl[W
  ?Wc%_i%Wh[_dj^[ijWj_ed$
Xhej^[h$
  ?jWc%_i%Wh[l[ho^ej$
 oekhi_ij[hi%^[h[5
  Coi_ij[hWc%_i%Wh[Wjmeha$
 Jec0 5
  ?X[%Wc%Wh[^kd]ho$
 ;ZmWhZ0 $J^[oh[_d<hWdY[$
  M[Wc%_i%Wh[ijkZ[dji$
 oek%l[hoh_Y^5
  J^[XeeaX[%_i%Wh[WXekjj_][hi$
 Jec0 5
 ;ZmWhZ0 $
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 _j%YebZ%_doekh^eki[5
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 Jec0 5
 J^[feehXeo^WideYeWj$>[ S YebZ$  ;ZmWhZ0 $?jiWbmWoimWhc$
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J^[o Xhej^[hi$
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My turn!
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(
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')
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'*
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: CWa[Jecigk[ij_edi"ki_d]j^[mehZi]_l[dWdZX[$  W _idjW  X Wh[dj  Y _idj
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 ;ZmWhZ0 $ CoJ[ijWdim[hi0'Y(W)Y*W+X

8[
Present simple 1: statements
3 Maybe you know her.

Theres a new girl at sch


ool.
Maybe you know her.
She has beautiful black
hair down to her waist
.
Her big, brown eyes are
pools of chocolate.

ery day. We
M y si st er an d I see her ev
name is Layla. r
e corner of ou
The new girls s in th e ap artments on th pp y.
. She live . I hope she
is ha
think shes 15 lib ra ry after school
es to th e
street. She go gether. Her m
um
r. Th ey w al k to school to o n t
ung brothe ypt. I d
Layla has a yo ol . Sh e co mes from Eg
eaner at our
sc ho in Cairo.
works as a cl d sa ys th at it never rains
My da
about Egypt.
? Jhk[eh<Wbi[5 BWobWb_l[i_d;]ofj$
7dim[h0<Wbi[
know much

Present simple 1: statements


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j^_d]ij^WjWh[WbmWoiehkikWbbojhk[ M_j^ceijl[hXi"`kijWZZ#iW\j[hj^[l[hX$
?jd[l[hhW_di_d9W_he$ j^_da^[j^_dai
h[]kbWhehh[f[Wj[Z[l[dji 7\j[hl[hXim^_Y^[dZ#e"#Y^"#i^"#ii"#n"WZZ#[i$
J^[omWbajeiY^eebje][j^[h$ ]ei^[]e[i
YWjY^^[YWjY^[i
ijWj[i"m_j^l[hXiikY^Wi\[[b"^Wj["adem"b_a["
fki^i^[fki^[i
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c_ii_jc_ii[i
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ni^[n[i
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7ZZ#im_j^^["i^[WdZ_j$ WZZ#_[i$
oj^[X_hZ_[i
ijWj[c[dj
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?%Oek%M[%J^[o j^_da fbWo^[fbWoi
[d`eoi^[[d`eoi
>[%I^[%?j j^_dai
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tip ?dj^[fh[i[dji_cfb["j^[l[hX
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X I[[fW][\ehceh[if[bb_d]hkb[i$

Practice
A Change the infinitive without to of these verbs into the C Complete Layla's letter using the correct present
correct present simple form with it. simple forms of the verbs in brackets.
1 play it ptoijS 2 do 3 enjoy
4 fix 5 miss 6 say
1
Every morning 1 Wiki (make)
7 teach 8 think 9 try breakfast for my brother and me.
10 wash I 2
(walk) to school with my
3
brother. We (see) the same two
B Complete these facts about Egypt. Use the correct 4
girls. They always (say) 'hello'.
present simple forms of the verbs in the box. 5
1 (feel) lonely sometimes, but I
buy come have have live show study visit really like my new school. The school
6
(have) a very good library.
1 Egypt fi&5 a population of around 80 million.
2 17 million people in Cairo. My brother ' (go) to primary
3 The name 'Egypt' from the Greek word
8
school. He always (wear) his
Egyptos. old red coat. My mother 9
(go) to
4 Around 6,000,000 tourists Egypt every year. work early in the morning. She 1 0

5 Every tourist presents from a night market. (work) very hard.


6 Egypt about 100 pyramids. 1 1
Thank you for the card. You
7 Tourist guides people the pyramids of Giza.
(write) very good letters.
8 An egyptologist is a person who Egyptian
history from a long time ago. Write again soon!
Love, Layla

about your school morning.


1 Every morning I (vave breakfast with ituj famitij.
2 I always
3 You never
4 My teacher
5 The school
6 My friends sometimes
7 We

| Circle the correct option.


I 1 to the shops. a They walks b She walk c He walks
2 Layla's mum by bus. a go b gos c goes
3 in Cairo. a It never rains b It never rain c It's never rain
4 big brown eyes. a Layla have b Layla haves c Layla has
5 Her mum English. a study b studys c studies
3C 3fc Bf 37 :T : S J B M S U E iisai Aw

Present simple 1 11
Present simple 2: negatives and questions
4 Do you like zoos?

n o n
cv

Do you (ike zoos?


Do you think zoos are a good idea?
Welcome t o A n i m a l World Park i n California, USA.
The park i s different from other zoos. We h e l p animals
in danger. When i t i s p o s s i b l e , we r e t u r n young
animals to their homes.

We h a v e m o r e t h a n 30 gorillas
in t h e park. A mother gorilla
doesn't h a v e many b a b i e s . A baby-
gorilla stays with i t s mother for
three years.

atotot money.
You often find colobus monkeys i n
zoos. They a r e i n danger because
they have b e a u t i f u l f u r . Young
c o l o b u s monkeys don't have black
and white fur - their fur i s
white.

Find t h e n a m e s o f t h e a n i m a l s in t h e p h o t o s .
m
Xa>|uoui snqo]03 e pile B||uo8 E :J9MSUV

Present simple 2: negatives and


questions
1 To m a k e n e g a t i v e f o r m s in t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e , use don't 2 To m a k e a q u e s t i o n , use do or does in f r o n t o f t h e subject.
a n d doesn't + t h e i n f i n i t i v e f o r m w i t h o u t to o f t h e v e r b . Do you like zoos ?
They don't have black and white fur. Does the park cost a lot of money?
A mother gorilla doesn't have many babies.
3 U s e do or does in t h e a f f i r m a t i v e s h o r t a n s w e r a n d don't
negative X or doesn't in t h e negative short answer.
Yes, I do.
1/ You / W e / T h e y d o n o t ( d o n ' t ) believe
No, he doesn't.
He/She/It d o e s n o t (doesn't) believe
question ? s h o r t answer / X

Do 1 / y o u / w e / t h e y like...? Yes, (1) d o .


T h e r e is no -s o n t h e m a i n v e r b a f t e r does o r doesn't. No, (1) d o n ' t .
She doesn't think... N O T She doesn't thinks...
Does she know? N O T Does she knows ? Does he / she / i t like...? Yes, (he) does.
N o , (he) d o e s n ' t .

12
Practice
A Underline t h e correct o p t i o n . D R e a d p a r t o f an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a g o r i l l a k e e p e r .
C o m p l e t e h e r a n s w e r s , u s i n g t h e v e r b s in t h e b o x .
1 I don't know /doesn't know the answer.
2 M o s t trees don't grow/doesn't grow very quickly.
n o t eat not fight g o t up n o t go h o m e have
3 Do/Does Sara u n d e r s t a n d this?
have not look after love
4 Do/Does y o u w a n t t o t a l k a b o u t it?
5 The price don't include/doesn't include service. 1 Yes, I tyt U.p at 6.30 every m o r n i n g .
6 I don't think/doesn't think he's very nice. 2 Yes, b u t t h e y bananas all t h e t i m e . They
7 We don't see/doesn't see o u r g r a n d p a r e n t s very o f t e n . like a l o t o f o t h e r f r u i t , t o o .
8 They don't live/doesn't live very near. 3 The gorillas in t h e park are all f r i e n d s . They
4 Yes, it does. The park m o r e t h a n 5 0 gorillas.
B Complete t h e t e x t a b o u t black rhinos using t h e correct 5 Yes, t h e y d o . W e a baby g o r i l l a in t h e park
present s i m p l e f o r m s o f t h e v e r b s in b r a c k e t s . at t h e m o m e n t .
We 1
WW (have) a large n u m b e r o f rhinos 6 Yes, b u t s o m e t i m e s a m o t h e r
living here. Black r h i n o s 2
( n o t live) in her baby. T h e n w e help t h e baby.
groups. T h e y 3
(prefer) t o live alone. 7 Yes, I give t h e baby m i l k every f o u r hours, day and
Black rhinos are in danger because o f t h e i r horns. People night. I in t h e evening. I sleep at t h e park.
4
(use) t h e 8 I m y j o b ! N o day is t h e same!
horns as medicine.
A mother black r h i n o
5

many babies. A baby


(not have)
mum
J W h a t d i d t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ask? M a k e p r e s e n t s i m p l e
6
(stay) w i t h
q u e s t i o n s u s i n g t h e w o r d s in b r a c k e t s a n d w r i t e t h e m
its mother f o r t h r e e t o f o u r
in y o u r n o t e b o o k .
years. The m o t h e r r h i n o
1 P o j S M f c t ap earUjf* (early)
7
(not stay) w i t h t h e father.
Rhinos 8
(not f i g h t ) w i t h o t h e r animals in 2 ? (bananas)

the park. In fact, t h e y are f r i e n d l y animals. 3 ? (fight)


4 ?(a l o t o f gorillas)
C Make p r e s e n t s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e w o r d s , t h e n 5 ?(have babies)

answer t h e q u e s t i o n s in y o u r n o t e b o o k u s i n g s h o r t 6 ? (stay w i t h its m o t h e r ]


7 ? (drink milk)
answers.
8 '(like)
1 a mechanic / f i x cars
N o w t h i n k o f a t least t h r e e m o r e p r e s e n t s i m p l e q u e s t i o n s
Dees a mechanic {i cars?
f o r t h e g o r i l l a k e e p e r a n d w r i t e t h e m in y o u r n o t e b o o k .
2 y o u / w o r k at t h e w e e k e n d

Oojoa worfc. attkt, wukudL


3 a vet / l o o k a f t e r animals
4 zoo k e e p e r s / w o r k in shops
Circle t h e correct option.
5 a young colobus m o n k e y / have w h i t e f u r B: No, I d o n ' t ,
1 A: t o go t o t h e zoo?
a You w a n t s b W a n t you c Do you want
6 w e / g o t o school o n Sundays 2 We zoos very o f t e n ,
a aren't v i s i t b don't visit c doesn't visit
7 nurses / w o r k in a h o s p i t a l 3 M y sister zoos.
a doesn't like b doesn't likes c d o n ' t like
8 y o u / d o sport in t h e evening 4 She says t h e animals a v e r y happy life,
a n o t have b doesn't have c d o n ' t have
5 A: D o t h e rhinos f i g h t w i t h o t h e r animals?
B:No,
a doesn't t h e y b it doesn't c they don't

DCJ Of E (\l 0\ :SJ9AASUE j;S3J_ A"\AJ


'.VSOTWSVVVWWW
Present simple 2 1 3
Mark: Hi, Monica. Are youlookingfor Nicole'
i f Y ,ve'rewairingforherartheparry.

iar k: No, she isn't. She's lying on the



Monica: Are you serious Everyone's arriving now.
Mark: She isn't feeling well.
M o ^ ^ a s ^ e ^ ^ X
plavinghis new gmtar and some peop
'strange g ^ B i a ^ i . ^ ^ ^ ^
yellow dress and a green hat. She s... a y
Mark: Wait a minute... Nicole is coming now .J
O W h o is ill? a Mark b M o n i c a c Nicole See you there, Monica.
:j3Msuy

Present continuous
1 The present continuous describes statement / negative X
a t e m p o r a r y activity in progress
1 a m ('m) w o r k i n g 1 a m n o t f m not) w o r k i n g
at o r around now.
She is lying on the sofa now. You / W e / They a r e ('re) w o r k i n g You / W e / They a r e n o t (aren't / 're n o t ) w o r k i n g

He / She / It is fs) w o r k i n g He / She / It is n o t (isn't /'s n o t ) w o r k i n g


present future

I'm reading this book at the question ? s h o r t answer / X


moment.
A m 1 working? Yes, 1 a m .
Mark is speaking on the phone.
No, 1 a m n o t f m not).
Are you listening?
Are you / we / they working? Yes, (you) a r e .
2 M a k e present continuous
N o , (you) a r e n o t ( a r e n ' t / 're n o t ) .
s t a t e m e n t s w i t h am / is / are +
-ing form o f the verb. Is he / she / i t w o r k i n g ? Yes, (he) is.
/ am watching TV. N o , (he) is n o t (isn't /'s n o t ) .
Monica is washing her hair.
We are drinking coffee. I f a v e r b e n d s i n -e, d r o p t h e -e.
dance -* People are dancing. NOT... danccing
3 M a k e negatives, questions and
short f o r m s like this: I f a verb ends in o n e v o w e l and o n e consonant, d o u b l e t h e consonant.
stop The train is stopping. NOT... stoping
/ am not watching TV.
Is Monica washing her hair? See page 182 f o r more spelling rules.
A: Are they drinking coffee? See Units 6 and 18 f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e present continuous.
B: Yes, they are.

14
Practice
A Underline t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n . D C o m p l e t e t h e sentences using t h e present continuous o f

1 She is walking/are walking d o w n t h e s t r e e t . t h e verbs in t h e box. Some are negatives or questions.

2 People is singing/are singing t o o l o u d l y .


carry feel play stay study
3 We isn't waiting/aren't waiting in t h e r i g h t place.
talk try watch wear write
4 I am running/is running because I'm late.
5 Hello? Are I speaking/Am I speaking t o Lucy? 1 flrejjoa watcfvuuj this film?
6 The guests is not enjoying /are not enjoying t h e p a r t y 2 I very w e l l .
much. 3 A: Be q u i e t ! W e t o listen t o t h e radio!
7 A t the m o m e n t I am living/are living w i t h m y f r i e n d . B: Sorry.
8 /s that boy smiling/Are that boy smiling a t me? A: M y t e a m are l o s i n g again!
B: T h e y very w e l l t h i s season.
B Complete t h e s e n t e n c e s u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s
5 Sarah, m y red dress?
o f t h e verbs i n b r a c k e t s . 6 A: W h e r e ' s R o b e r t ?
1 It's raining. (rain) B: H e a letter.
2 The baby is not crijituj now. ( n o t cry) 7 A: you
3 We o u r holiday, (plan) a n y t h i n g dangerous w i t h y o u , Sir?
4 I t o school, (walk) B: N o , there's n o t h i n g dangerous in m y suitcase.
5 They very fast, ( n o t run) 8 Everyone a b o u t her purple hair.
6 The cat some m i l k , (drink) 9 Alice
7 I a g o o d t i m e , ( n o t have) Economics at university?
8 He a c o m p u t e r upstairs, (carry) 10 A: Can I p h o n e y o u at t h e h o t e l ?
9 She hard today, ( n o t w o r k ) B: N o , I there.

C Complete t h e t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t

/
continuous o f t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s . S o m e a r e n e g a t i v e s
or questions.
A n s w e r t h e questions in y o u r n o t e book using short
'Hello, Dad. Yes, I'm s t i l l at t h e party. W h a t ' s happening?
answers.
Well, everyone 1
i ddhdh^ (dance) b u t I 2

(sit) on the sofa. G e o f f (tell) some f r i e n d s 1 Is i t raining? 2 A r e y o u w a t c h i n g TV?


about his holiday and he 4
(show) t h e m t h e Yes, i t is. Klo, I'm. w t .
pictures. Diego and B i a n c a 5
(look) at t h e 3 A r e y o u w e a r i n g jeans?
pictures because t h e y t h i n k t h e y are b o r i n g . W h a t ? O h , 4 A r e any o f y o u r f r i e n d s s i t t i n g near you?
that's Helen. S h e 6
(shout), she j u s t speaks 5 A r e y o u f e e l i n g hungry?
very loudly. I'm glad she 7
(sing) - she is a 6 Is y o u r m o b i l e p h o n e r i n g i n g ?
terrible singer! W a i t . . . N i c o l e 8
(come) in t h e 7 A r e y o u w r i t i n g t h i s w i t h a black pen?
door. She looks O K now. Everyone 9
(smile). 8 Is y o u r w a t c h / t h e clock s h o w i n g t h e r i g h t t i m e ?
Anyway, w h a t a b o u t y o u , Dad? 1 0
(do) 9 A r e y o u l i s t e n i n g t o any music?
anything interesting? I see. Great, t h e y 1 1

(bring) the f o o d . I'm h u n g r y ! I'll p h o n e later. Bye.'

| Circle t h e c o r r e c t o p t i o n .
1 w e l l , so I w a n t t o stay in b e d . a I amn't feeling b I aren't f e e l i n g c I'm n o t f e e l i n g
2 A: t h e guitar? B:Yes, he is. a Is D i e g o p l a y i n g b D i e g o is p l a y i n g c Is p l a y i n g D i e g o
3 Everyone at t h e p a r t y a aredanceing b dancing c is dancing
4 A: Is Bianca w e a r i n g a y e l l o w dress? B:Yes, a she wears b she are c she is
5 Mark t o Monica. a isn't l i s t e n i n g b not listening c d o n ' t listen

eg ~>y ->i E ox : s j 9 M 5 u e \\<&\_ X

Present continuous 1 5