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WHAT IS ACETIC ACID? (Rayjohn, Nikoley)

Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid or methane carboxylic acid, is an organic chemical compound
best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.
It is the second-simplest carboxylic acids, after formic acid and has the chemical formula CH3COOH.
In its pure, water-free state, called glacial acetic acid, it is a colorless, hygroscopic* liquid that freezes
below 16.7C (62F) to a colorless crystalline solid.
*hygroscopic = (of a substance) tending to absorb moisture from the air
It is corrosive*, and its vapor irritates the eyes, produces a burning sensation in the nose, and can lead
to a sore throat and lung congestion. If ingested in its pure form, may cause serious intestinal damage,
abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting or shock. Hence, it can be a hazardous chemical if not used in a safe
and appropriate manner.
*corrosive = causes corrosion which is the deterioration of materials by chemical agents

STRUCTURE: (Jaash, Janessa)

Chemical Formula: C2H4O2
The chemical formula for acetic acid is C2H4O2: it has two carbon (C) atoms, four hydrogen (H) atoms and
two oxygen (O) atoms. Because it has a carbon in its chemical formula, it is an organic compound.
Skeletal Formula:

Acetic acid is a simple carboxylic acid consisting of the methyl

group (CH3) linked to its functional group, the carboxylic acid
group (COOH).
It can also be considered as the acetyl group (CH3CO) linked to
a hydroxyl group (OH).
And because it contains only one "COOH"group, acetic acid is a
monocarboxylic acid.
3D Shape: (akon ini Janessa)
For acetic acid, there is no single shape that can describe it because of the presence of three central atoms in
the molecule. However, if we divide it into three components with each component having only one central
atom we can visualize how the molecule looks like in 3-dimensions.
This is the Lewis structure of acetic acid and inside the red box are the three
central atoms of the molecule.
Focusing on the first central carbon atom, we can observe that it is surrounded
by four electron groups and the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
(VSEPR) Theory tells us that this will have a tetrahedral shape. Since there are
no lone pairs of electrons in the molecule, the bond angle for this specific
component of the molecule will be exactly 109.5 degrees.
The second central carbon atom of the molecule is surrounded by three electron groups and again by the
VSEPR Theory it tells us that this will have a trigonal planar shape. Thus, the bond angle for this part of the
molecule has a value of 120 degrees.
The central oxygen atom has 4 pairs of electrons in its valence shell and 2 of them are lone pairs. The
presence of the lone pairs affect the bond angle because of lone pair repulsion. A lone pair of electrons at the
central atom always try to repel the shared pair leading us to a bond angle of >109.5 degrees.
Having known all of the geometries of the 3 central atoms, we can describe the shape of acetic acid to be
trigonal planar on one end and tetrahedral on the other.

PROPERTIES: (Charlyn, Kate Gayrama, Queenchie)

Physical Properties:

Molecular Weight 60.052 g/mol

Exact Mass 60.021 g/mol

Boiling Point: 244 F at 760 mm Hg (NTP, 1992); 117.9 deg C

Melting Point: 61.9 F (NTP, 1992); 16.635 deg C

Flash Point*: 103 F (NFPA, 2010) but 104 F (NTP, 1992)

*Flash point, the lowest temperature at which a liquid (usually a petroleum product) will form a vapour in
the air near its surface that will flash, or briefly ignite, on exposure to an open flame. The flash point is a
general indication of the flammability or combustibility of a liquid. Below the flash point, insufficient
vapour is available to support combustion. At some temperature above the flash point, the liquid will
produce enough vapour to support combustion. (This temperature is known as the fire point.)

Solubility: Miscible* with water, ethanol, ethyl ether, acetone, benzene, glycerol; insoluble in carbon
disulfide; soluble in carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide
*Miscible = (of liquids) forming a homogeneous mixture when added together.
Density: 1.051 at 68 F (USCG, 1999)

Decomposition: When heated to decomposition it emits irritating fumes.

Corrosivity: Glacial acetic acid (100%) is highly corrosive, and its ingestion has produced penetrating
lesions of the esophagus and later strictures of the esophagus and pylorus in man.

Physical Description:
Color: Clear, Colorless

States of Matter: Liquid, crystalline solid (below 62F)

Smell: Pungent, characteristic odor; sour, vinegar-like odor

Taste: Burning taste (Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine)

Chemical Properties:

When dissolved in water, acetic acid undergoes dissociation to form hydrogen (H+) ion. Because of the release of a
proton, acetic acid has an acidic character. It turns blue litmus paper red, indicating that it is acidic in nature.
However, it is a weak acid because it does not dissociate completely in aqueous solution.
Acetic acid is corrosive to many metals including iron, magnesium, and zinc, forming hydrogen gas and metal salts
called acetates. An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic
base. Aluminium, when exposed to oxygen, forms a thin layer of aluminium oxide on its surface which is relatively
resistant, so that aluminium tanks can be used to transport acetic acid. With the notable exception of chromium(II)
acetate, almost all acetates are soluble in water.

Reactivity Profile: ACETIC ACID, reacts exothermically* with chemical bases. Subject to oxidation (with heating) by
strong oxidizing agents. Dissolution in water moderates the chemical reactivity of acetic acid, a 5% solution of
acetic acid is ordinary vinegar. Acetic acid forms explosive mixtures with p-xylene and air.

*An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

Water is the chief impurity in acetic acid although other materials such as acetaldehyde, acetic
anhydride, formic acid, biacetyl, methyl acetate, ethyl acetoacetate, iron and mercury are also
sometimes found.

USES: (Ranilyn, Kate Pader, Anthonette)

Acetic Acid in Vinegar

Let's start with acetic acid's claim to popularity: vinegar. We use vinegar for so many things - for cooking, cleaning,
laundry and many other household uses, like unclogging drains. It is also used in a popular science project - the
volcano science experiment - where the lava is vinegar reacting with baking soda colored in red food coloring.
Vinegar is most definitely a cook's friend. It is so important in the kitchen that we may even have many different
types of vinegar: balsamic vinegar, apple cider vinegar, red and white wine vinegar, and more.

Production of Vinyl Acetate Monomer

A majority of the acetic acid that is produced is used to produce vinyl acetate monomer, or VAM. What is so
important about VAM? Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is a building block that is used in many industries to make
paints, adhesives, packaging, and more.

Production of Acetic Anhydride

Here is another major application of acetic acid; it is used to produce a chemical called acetic anhydride. What is
acetic anhydride used for? The major application of acetic anhydride is to make a substance called cellulose
acetate, which is used to make a cellulose acetate film that is used in photography. Acetic anhydride is also used to
produce heroin as well.

Production of Ester
Acetic acid also produces esters. Below, it shows some esters produced from acetic acid, like ethyl acetate and
isobutyl acetate. The esters from acetic acid are used in inks, paints, and coatings.

Industry Uses
1. Adhesives and sealant chemicals
2. Adsorbents and absorbents
3. Agricultural chemicals (non-pesticidal)
4. Corrosion inhibitors and anti-scaling agents
5. Dyes
6. Intermediates
7. Odor agents
8. Oxidizing/reducing agents
9. Paint additives and coating additives not described by other categories
10. Pigments
11. Plasticizers
12. Processing aids, not otherwise listed
13. Processing aids, specific to petroleum production
14. Solvents (for cleaning or degreasing)
15. Solvents (which become part of product formulation or mixture)

Biologically, acetic acid is an important metabolic intermediate, and it occurs naturally in

body fluids and in plant juices.
Acetic acid has been prepared on an industrial scale by air oxidation of acetaldehyde, by
oxidation of ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and by oxidation of butane and butene. Today acetic
acid is manufactured by a process developed by the chemical company Monsanto in the
1960s; it involves a rhodium-iodine catalyzed carbonylation of methanol (methyl alcohol).

Liquid- and vapor-phase oxidation of petroleum gases (with catalyst); ... oxidation of acetaldehyde; ...
reaction of methanol and carbon monoxide (with catalyst; this is the most cost efficient method and has
been in general use for some years); ... fermentative oxidation of ethanol.
It is an important chemical reagent andindustrial chemical, mainly used in the production of cellulose acetate
for photographic film and polyvinyl acetate for wood glue, as well as synthetic fibers and fabrics. In households,
dilutedacetic acid is often used in descaling agents. In the food industry, acetic acid is used under thefood
additive code E260 as an acidity regulator and as a condiment. As a food additive it isapproved for usage in
many countries, including Canada, the EU, USA and Australia and NewZealand.Acetic acid is a weak acid
which is probably most famous for being the primary acid in vinegar. Infact, acetic acid has a wide range of
uses beyond sprinkling on salads, and it is produced in largevolumes all over the world. People have been
working with this acid in a number of contexts for centuries, with acetic acid being one of the substances
explored by alchemists, the predecessors of modern chemists