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# Internal Forced Convection

## 858 A 15-cm x 20-cm printed circuit board whose

components are not allowed to come into direct
contact with air for reliabilityreasons is to be cooled
by passing cool air through a 20-cm-long channel of
rectangular cross section 0.2 cm x 14 cm drilled into
the board. The heat generated by the electronic
components is conducted across the thin layer of the
board to the channel, where it is removed by air that
enters the channel at 15 degC. The heat flux at the
top surface of the channel can be considered to be
uniform, and heat transfer through other surfaces is 8130E A concentric annulus tube has inner and
negligible. If the velocity of the air at the inlet of the outer diameters of 2.5cm. and 10cm., respectively.
channel is not to exceed 4 m/s and the surface Liquid water flows at a mass flow rate of 0.05kg/s
temperature of the channel is to remain under 50 through the annulus with the inlet and outlet mean
degC, determine the maximum total power of the temperatures of 20 degC and 120 degC, respectively.
electronic components that can safely be mounted on The inner tube wall is maintained with a constant
this circuit board. As a first approximation, assume surface temperature of 120 deg C, while the outer
flow is fully developed in the channel. Evaluate tube surface is insulated. Determine the length of the
properties of air at a bulk mean temperature of 25 concentric annulus tube.
degC. Is this a good assumption?

## 8111 Liquid mercury is flowing at 0.6 kg/s through

889 Hot air at 60 degC leaving the furnace of a a 5-cmdiameter tube with inlet and outlet mean
house enters a 12-m-long section of a sheet metal temperatures of 100 degC and 200 deg C,
duct of rectangular cross section 20 cm x 20 cm at an respectively. The tube surface temperature is
average velocity of 4 m/s. The thermal resistance of maintained constant at 250 degC. Determine the tube
the duct is negligible, and the outer surface of the length using (a) the appropriate Nussclt number
duct, whose emissivity is 0.3, is exposed to the cold relation for liquid metals and (b) the Dittus-Boelter
air at 10 degC in the basement, with a convection equation. (c) Compare the results of (a) and (b).
heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2.K. Taking the
walls of the basement to be at 10 degC also,
determine (a) the temperature at which the hot air
will leave the basement and (b) the rate of heat loss
from the hot air in the duct to the basement. Evaluate 8106 A silicon chip is cooled by passing water
air properties at a bulk mean temperature of 50degC. through microchannels etched in the back of the
Is this a good assumption? chip, as shown in Fig. below. The channels are
covered with a silicon cap. Consider a 10-mm x 10-
mm-square chip in which N = 50 rectangular
microchannels, each of width W = 50 mm and height
H = 200 mm have been etched. Water enters the
microchannels at a temperature Ti = 290 K, and a
total flow rate of 0.005 kg/s.
The chip and cap are maintained at a uniform (a) The water outlet temperature, Te
temperature of 350 K. Assuming that the flow in the (b) The chip power dissipation, We
channels is fully developed, all the heat generated by
Evaluate liquid water properties at a bulk mean
the circuits on the top surface of the chip is temperature of 298 K. Is this a good assumption?
transferred to the water, and using circular tube
correlations, determine:

## 8127 A house built on a riverside is to be cooled in

summer by utilizing the cool water of the river,
which flows at an average temperature of 158C. A
15-m-long section of a circular duct of 20-cm
diameter passes through the water. Air enters the
underwater section of the duct at 258C at a velocity
of 3 m/s. Assuming the surface of the duct to be at
the temperature of the water, determine the outlet
temperature of air as it leaves the underwater portion
of the duct. Also, for an overall fan efficiency of 55
8125 A geothermal district heating system involves percent, determine the fan power input needed to
the transport of geothermal water at 110 degC from overcome the flow resistance in this section of the
a geothermal well to a city at about the same duct.
elevation for a distance of 12 km at a rate of 1.5
m3/s in 60-cm-diameter stainless steel pipes. The 8128 Repeat Prob. 8127 assuming that a 0.25-
fluid pressures at the wellhead and the arrival point mm-thick layer of mineral deposit (k 5 3 W/m?K)
in the city are to be the same. The minor losses are formed on the inner surface of the pipe.
negligible because of the large length-to-diameter
ratio and the relatively small number of components
that cause minor losses. (a) Assuming the pump-
motor efficiency to be 65 percent, determine the
electric power consumption of the system for
pumping. (b) Determine the daily cost of power
consumption of the system if the unit cost of
electricity is \$0.06/kWh. (c) The temperature of
geothermal
water is estimated to drop 0.5 degC during this long
flow. Determine if the frictional heating during flow
can make up for this drop in temperature.