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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.

325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

COMPARISON OF SOY MILK POWDER WITH SKIM MILK AND


STEVIA WITH SUCROSE TOWARDS THE CHARACTERISTIC OF
CHOCOLATE

Muhammad Rifqi 123020325 *)


Dr. Ir. Yusep Ikrawan, M.Eng.**) Ir. Hervelly, MP.***)
*)Mahasiswa Teknologi Pangan Universitas Pasundan
**)Pembimbing Utama, ***)Pembimbing Pendamping

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to determine the proper comparison between
soy milk powder with skim milk and stevia with sucrose in the manufacture of
Chocolate Candy.
The experimental design used in this research was factorial pattern (3x3)
in a randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The design of the
treatment carried out in this research consisted of two factors: the ratio of soy milk
powder with skim milk (A), which consists of three levels which are a1 = 1:0 (soy
milk powder : skim milk), a2 = 1:1 (soy milk powder : skim milk), and a3 = 0:1
(soy milk powder: skim milk) and a comparison of stevia with sucrose (B), which
consists of three levels which are b1 = 1:0 (stevia : sucrose), b2 = 1:1 (stevia :
sucrose), and b3 = 0:1 (stevia : sucrose). Therefore it has been obtained 27
experimental replication unit. Organoleptic response variables include taste,
flavor, texture and aftertaste. Chemical analysis conducted was fat content, protein
content, carbohydrate content, and moisture content as well as physical analysis
which was conducted towards the toughness of the Chocolate Candy.
The results indicated that the best Chocolate Candy product which is with
treatment a3b2 (comparison of soy milk with skim milk 0:1, and the comparison
of stevia with sucrose 1:1) based on panelist responses on organoleptic test by
11.05% fat content, 13.44% protein content, 25.28% carbohydrate content, water
content of 1.17% and has a toughness test value of 1.23 mm/sec/100gram.

into a product that can compete with other


INTRODUCTION cocoa-producing countries.
Background Cocoa products either in the form of
Cocoa is one of the plantation cocoa powder, cocoa butter or cocoa paste
crops that can contribute to increase is the raw material source of all chocolate
Indonesia's foreign exchange, other than based products. The composition of cocoa
that cocoa has high economic value. powder or chocolate pasta are
Cocoa production is increasing and as we polyphenols and flavonoids which acts as
know the utilization of cocoa are antioxidants and provide health benefits.
numerous, ranging from its seed until the The content of methyl santin (caffeine,
fat can be utilized as products. As one of theobromine, and theophylline) in the
the cocoa producers, Indonesia should be cocoa product is a stimulant of the central
able to improve the quality of cocoa beans nervous system and strengthens the heart
activity.

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

One of the processed products using powder, sugar, and lecithin. Excessive
cocoa beans as a base material of the amount of milk and sugar in the
manufacture is chocolate. These products manufacture of chocolate can lead to
becomes one of the preferred snack by health disorders, therefore the tested
many people. Indonesian people in treatment in this research was the addition
general consume imported chocolate of soy milk powder and skim milk with
where its manufacturing process uses varied comparison, as well as the addition
modern and sophisticated tools, making it of stevia sugar and sucrose also with
a good product quality. varied comparison. Therefore, this
In general, there are three types of research will perform a review towards
chocolate on the market, the three types the comparison of soy milk powder with
are chocolate candies, pralines and skim milk and stevia sugar with sucrose
truffles. Chocolate candy is a type of in the manufacture of Chocolate Candy.
chocolate with the addition of filling
material with a variety of fillers for Problem identification
example nuts or fresh fruits, while truffle Based on the description in the
is a type of other chocolate ingredients, background of the research, the problem
such as biscuits, nuts and fresh fruit, but can be identified as follows:
tends of not using molds. This is in 1. How is the effect on the comparison of
contrast with praline chocolate candy soy milk powder with skim milk towards
which are using molds. the characteristics of chocolate candy?
According to data from the 2. How is the effect on the comparison of
Central Bureau of Statistics (2007) stevia with sucrose towards the
production results of chocolate in characteristics of the chocolate candy?
Indonesia are, unsweetened chocolate 3. How is the effect on the interaction
powder with the quantity of 11,039,647 between the comparison of soy milk
kg, chocolate bar products by 3,106,336 powder with skim milk and stevia with
kg, chocolate grain products by 5,648,891 sucrose towards the characteristics of
kg, sweet chocolate powder products by chocolate candy?
26,011,959 kg, liquid chocolate products
by 415,320 kg, chocolate candy products Research purpose and objective
by 2,453,306 kg, and other chocolate This research aimed to
refined products to as much as 29,396,527 determine the precise comparison
kg. between soy milk powder with skim
Chocolate bar is one of the milk and stevia with sucrose in the
public's preferred products, especially for production of chocolate candies.
children, because of its sweet taste. The
business of chocolate production has a
Research benefits
good potential in Indonesia because cocoa
The expected benefits of this
plants can grow almost in all parts of
Indonesia. In addition, the fat contained in research is to provide information
cocoa butter is quite unique because at regarding the comparison of soy milk
room temperature (30oC) the shape powder with skim milk and stevia
remains solid with a melting point of with optimum sucrose in the
about 33-34oC therefore it melts at oral manufacture of Chocolate Candy. This
cavity temperature (37oC). In general, the is expected to enhance greater insight
manufacture of chocolate production and information about processing
consists of cocoa fat, cocoa powder, milk

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

technology development in the According to Smanda (2008), two


manufacture of chocolate. properties of chocolate that should be
considered are flavor, and texture.
Framework Chocolate has a distinctive taste, solid
According to Minifie (1997), texture at room temperature, rapidly melts
substances used in the manufacture of in the mouth, it becomes liquid and soft
chocolate bars includes cocoa powder, on the tongue. There are various ways to
lecithin, milk powder, sugar, cocoa butter, process chocolate. One of them includes
and additional flavor. According to Yulia the steps of; mixing, softening, refining
(2006), the introduction in the (conching), tempering, and molding.
manufacture of chocolate, the formulation According to Siregar et al (2007),
used are 36% cocoa fat, 17% chocolate conching assist in the improvement of
powder, 18.1% skim milk, 28.4% starch taste, decrease the viscosity of the batter,
sugar, 0.1% salt and 0.4% lecithin. With reduce unpleasant odors and increase the
the addition of skim milk on chocolate distinctive aroma of chocolate.
candy products will increase the protein According to Syamsir (2011) all
content. chocolate products, ranging from cacao
According to Smanda (2011) (raw) to other dairy products should be
chocolate bars had a distinctive taste, stored in cold, dry room with good indoor
solid texture at room temperature, rapidly air circulation, protected from light and
melts in the mouth, it becomes liquid and strong-smelling materials. Temperature of
soft in the tongue. There are various ways 10-12 C with a humidity of 55-65% is
to make chocolate, one of which includes an ideal condition of chocolate storage
the stages of: mixing, softening, refining space.
(conching), tempering, and molding. The According to Saleh (2006),
materials used to make chocolate are conching process is performed to remove
varied, amongst them are: pasta or cocoa volatile acids, thereby it reduces the
liquor, refined sugar, milk, cocoa fat. The acidity in the chocolate. Conching process
material is mixed with a certain ratio. would generate chocolates with good
Mixing ingredients in powder form is an aroma, good fineness, making a
important process in the manufacture of homogeneous chocolate paste and causing
chocolate in this research. Chocolate the chocolate to have stable viscosity.
powder serves as a filler and determines According to Desy (2011), based
the quality of the resulting color and on a preliminary study with a time of 4
flavor of the product. Sugar serves as a hours, 6 hours and 8 hours of conching
sweetener, harden the texture, and as a time, it was obtained that the best
natural preservative. Milk serves as a treatment is for 8 hours at a temperature
flavor enhancer and delicacy. Cocoa fat of 45C.
serves to homogenize the raw material in According to Zogina (2015),
the mixing process, increases the levels of based on a preliminary study with a time
fat, and determines the density of of 6 hours, 8 hours and 10 hours of
chocolate which affects the texture of the conching time, it was obtained that the
product. White butter serves as a softener, best treatment is for 10 hours at a
stabilizer, and enhance the taste. Lecithin temperature of 60C.
serves to homogenize all raw materials The tempering process is a
and auxiliary materials and stabilize the process for bonding arrangement of
batter and lowering the viscosity of the crystals in cocoa butter. After heating the
batter. fat, respective bond structure are released

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

according to the type of fat crystals and acids in soy milk are larger and contains
will form a bond of polymorphs and no cholesterol. Therefore, soy milk are
'. shape, is the most desirable form by used in the manufacture of chocolate bars
the cocoa industry as it has a melting so the products have higher protein
point of 29,5-36C and most stable at room contents than the general chocolate candy.
temperature (Talbot, 1999). The research of Akinwale (2002),
According to Hui (1992), the stated that the preference level towards
colour of cocoa powder can affect the the ratio between the milk powder and
creation of chocolate bar, by using cocoa soy powder in the manufacture of milk
powder it will produce a brown-coloured chocolate is at a ratio of 75% milk powder
chocolate. Meanwhile, using skimmed and 25% soy powder.
milk instead of chocolate powder in According to Zogina (2015),
making chocolate will produce white- chocolate products with a ratio of soy
coloured chocolate, in addition, the use of powder to milk powder of 1: 1 is
chocolate powder is a source of protein, considered better. Based on the findings
fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. of the chocolate-making, therefore this
In the manufacture of chocolate, research created the ratio of soy milk
in terms of its thickness (viscosity) is one powder with skim milk in Chocolate
of the important factors according to Candy with 1:0, 1:1 and 0:1.
Hartomo (1993). The addition of soy milk According to Dachlan (1984),
will also affect the texture of the generally sugar are capable of binding the
chocolate and to prevent the possibility of flavor and retains volatiles flavor thus the
clot when it is consumed. produced flavor was strong.
According to Hartomo (1993), the According to Syarief and Anies
addition of soy milk will also affect the (1988) who said that sugar plays an
texture of the chocolate and it can prevent important role in the manufacture of
the possibility of clumping when it is chocolate candy, other than functioning as
consumed. Therefore the addition of soy a sweetener but also as a filler material
milk in the manufacture of Chocolate (texture). High sugar levels will solidify
Candy are not only increasing the protein the chocolate candy.
content, but the addition of soy milk on According to Soraya (2010),
chocolate candies will also affect the stevia indicates marvelous sweet taste
texture of the chocolate itself. with the level of sweetness 300 times the
According to Salim (2012), sweetness of sucrose. In addition, stevia
processed soy products are a source of has a low calorific value, making it
vegetable protein, which is consumed by suitable for consumption on people with
almost all levels of Indonesian society, diabetes and those who are doing diets.
thus this contributes to food security and Stevia is not toxic, so it is safe for
improve the nutritional status of the consumption. Stevia sugar used in the
community. manufacture of chocolate bars makes
According to Radiyati (1992), soy chocolate candy products with low sugar
milk proteins owns amino acids which is content but sweeter than the regular
similar to cow's milk. Soy milk protein chocolate we usually consume therefore
content reach out to 1.5 times the protein consumers should not be afraid to
of cow's milk. Soy milk contains fat, consume large quantities of chocolate.
carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, iron, The comparison of sucrose with
vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and stevia sugar in the manufacture of
isoflafon. The content of unsaturated fatty chocolate will affect the quantity of the

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

resulting chocolate paste. This is because which is located at Jalan Dr. Setiabudhi
in the manufacture of chocolate products, No. 193 Bandung, starting in May 2016
sucrose provides mass and viscosity that until completion
can not be replaced by other sweeteners.
Sucrose accounted one-third part of the MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND
resulted chocolate products mass. METHODS
Research results of Andrae-Nightingale et
al (2009) found that the mass of chocolate Research materials and devices used
and sugar affects the matrix of chocolate The raw material used in this
products. research is cocoa powder, cocoa fat, soy
According Zoogina (2015), milk powder, skim milk and sucrose
chocolate products with the addition of purchased from grocery store of PD
1.49% lecithin are assessed better. Based Kijang Mas Bandung, stevia sugar
on the research of chocolate bars purchased from Depok, and lecithin
production, therefore the chocolate are purchased from PT Brataco Chemical
made with lecithin concentration of Bandung. The materials used for analysis
1.49% in this research. is diethyl ether, petroleum ether, distilled
According to Winarno (1992), water, 6N sulfuric acid solution, 1.5
taste is affected by several factors such as grams of KI, sodium thiosulfate, 9.5 N of
chemicals, temperature, concentration, HCN solution, 10 N NaOH solution and
and the interaction of other components. the solution of schoorl Luft.
According to Kartika, et al (1997), the
sweet taste is caused by organic Tools utilization
compounds containing hydroxyl group The tools used in the research was
(OH), some amino acids, aldehydes, and an electric scales (Miettler Toledo),
glycerol. conching tool (arfe), stainless steel pot for
mixing the mixture, spatulas, molds,
Research hypothesis washcloth, and refrigerator. Tools for
Based on the framework chemical analysis is weighing/porcelain
described above, the hypothesis proposed bottle (Germani), exsiccator (Pyrex),
in this research could be expected as soxhlet extraction tool (Pyrex), condenser
follows: (Pyrex), round basic flask (Pyrex),
1. Comparison of soy milk powder with destilator (Pyrex), 100 ml flask, 10 ml
skim milk have an effect towards the pipette and 250 ml Erlenmeyer.
characteristics of chocolate candy.
2. Comparison of stevia sugar with Met Research methods
sucrose have an effect towards the This research is divided into
characteristics of chocolate candy. two parts, namely the preliminary
3. The existence of interactions between study and the main study.
the ratio of soy milk powder with skim .
milk and stevia sugar with sucrose have Research introduction
an effect towards the characteristics of The preliminary research was
chocolate candy. done by making chocolate candy products
using chocolate powder with several
Time and place of research brands: Tulip Bergundi, Delfi, and
This research was conducted at the Bensdrop with the addition of cocoa fat,
Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty skim milk, sucrose, and lecithin.
of Engineering, University of Pasundan, Furthermore, chocolate candy obtained

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

were then performed organoleptic testing used was mixing device which is a mixer,
using Hedonic scale that is transformed used for 15 minutes and the temperature
into a numerical scale. Panelists used used is 60 C.
were 30 people with the attributes 3. Mixing II (conching)
assessed which was the taste, flavor, Mixing I results, sucrose, skim milk, and
texture and aftertaste, afterwards the lecithin is mixed using an agitator at 60
chocolate powder that was selected are C for 8 hours.
used in the main study. In addition, the 4. Tempering
main ingredients used were also The batter as result of mixing II were left
performed chemical analysis, including for 20 minutes or until the batter has a
analysis of fat content with Soxhlet temperature of 25oC.
method, protein content with the method 5. Printing
of kjedahl, and sugar level with Luft Batter of mixing II results were printed
Schoorl method (Sudarmadji, 2010). using a mold that has been provided, the
batter has been printed.
Main research 6. Cooling
Primary research conducted is Batter that has been cooled in the cooling
a continuation of the preliminary process, is again re-cooled at a
research. This research performed the temperature of 5 C for 10 minutes in the
additional ratio of soy milk powder refrigerator.
and skim milk by varied comparison, Main Research Description
Procedures for making chocolate
and the additional ratio of stevia and candy products on the main research are
sucrose. as follows:
1. Material Preparation
Experiment description The raw material used in this research is
Preliminary experiments carried selected cocoa powder, cocoa butter, soy
out by making Chocolate Candy products milk powder, skim milk, sucrose, stevia
by using variety cocoa powder with each sugar, and lecithin. The materials that
cocoa powder brand which are Tulip have been prepared are weighed in
Bergundi, Delfi, and Bensdrop therefore accordance to the predetermined basis.
the formulation resulted the best cocoa 2. Mixing I
powder in the products of Chocolate The selected cocoa powder and cocoa
Candy. butter were mixed to obtain cocoa liquor.
Description of preliminary The tool used was mixing device which is
research experiment are as follows: a mixer, used for 15 minutes and the
1. Material Preparation temperature used is 60 C.
The materials used in the manufacture of 3. Mixing II (Conching)
Chocolate Candy products are several Mixing I results, sucrose, skim milk, and
brands of cocoa powder: Tulip Bergundi, lecithin is mixed using an agitator at 60
Delfi, and Bensdrop, cocoa butter, C for 8 hours.
sucrose, skim milk, and lecithin. The 4. Tempering
materials that have been prepared are The batter as result of mixing II were left
weighed in accordance to the for 20 minutes or until the batter has a
predetermined basis. temperature of 25oC.
2. Mixing I
Cocoa powder and cocoa butter were
mixed to obtain cocoa liquor. The tool

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

5. Printing texture and aftertaste it can be determine


Batter of mixing II results were printed that Tulip cocoa powder are mostly used
using a mold that has been provided, the compared with Bensdrop cocoa powder,
batter has been printed. and Delfi cocoa powder especially in
6. Cooling terms of taste.
Batter that has been cooled in the cooling Hedonic test or fondness test is a test
process, is again re-cooled at a in which the panelists will address the
temperature of 5 C for 10 minutes in the response in the form of happy or unhappy
refrigerator. about towards the characteristics of
Observations response are materials or products tested. In this test
imposed with fat content test, protein each panelist was asked to express their
content test, carbohydrate content test, opinion spontaneously, without
water content test qualitatively and comparing with standard samples or
quantitatively, toughness test and samples tested previously (Kartika, 1988).
organoleptic test to 30 panelists by According to the Indonesian National
scoring attributes of flavor, taste, texture Standard (SNI), cocoa powder is powder
and aftertaste. form of cocoa product obtained from
cocoa mass after most of the fat is
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION removed with or without alkalization
treatment.
Research introduction According to Smanda (2011), cocoa
The preliminary study that has powder serves as a chocolate filler and
been carried out aimed to determine cocoa determines the quality of the resulting
powder that varies with each cocoa color and flavor of the product. Sugar
powder brand which are Tulip Bergundi, serves as a sweetener, strengthens the
Delfi, and Bensdrop therefore the best texture, and as a natural preservative.
formulation cocoa powder in Chocolate Milk serves as a flavor enhancer and
Candy products are produced and may delicacy. Cocoa fat serves to homogenize
represent the most preferred ones by the the raw materials in the process of
consumers. The best, selected Chocolate mixing, binding fat content, and
candy resulted from the organoleptic test determine the density of chocolate that
by using hedonic test involving 30 affects the texture of product.
panelists and the test parameters used for According to Helmy (2008) flavor
the product is the taste, flavor, texture and produced in chocolate candy comes from
aftertaste. cocoa powder and other additives such as
Table. Organoleptic result of Hedonic vanilla powder.
Test According to Vogt et al., (1994)
Chocola Parameter Ave chocolate powder or cocoa powder are
te Tast Flav Textu Aftertas rage
Powder e or re te made from oilcake or dregs of the cocoa
Tulip 2.35 2.31 2.10 2.20 (b) 2.24 bean that has been separated from the
(007) (b) (b) (c) cocoa fat. This oilcake is dried and finely
Delfi 1.95 2.00 2.09 1.70 (a) 1.94
(070) (a) (a) (b) milled to form chocolate flour. There are
Bensdro 2.02 2.25 2.00 2.12 (a) 2.10 two types of chocolate powder, namely
p (023) 3 (b) (a) through the natural process (non-alkalized
(a)
cocoa powder) and the second through a
Note: every alphabet indicates significant
dutch process (alkalized cocoa powder).
differences in the level of 5%
Natural cocoa powder has a lighter color,
The table, as the observation
while the Dutch cocoa powder has a
result of hedonic test towards taste, flavor,

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

darker color. Most chocolate powder sold Tulip Bergundi cocoa powder to
in the market is a kind of natural cocoa determine the levels of fat, protein, and
powder. Natural cocoa powder is made carbohydrates in the raw material until it
from the pulp of chocolate or dark becomes the products which can be seen
chocolate block, by eliminating much of in the following table.
the fat down to 18% -23%. This type of Table. Tulip Bergundi Chocolate
chocolate powder, contains less fat, and Powder Analysis Results
tastes bitter.
The organoleptic test results towards No Parameter Analysis
the texture showed Tulip Bergundi cocoa Result
powder significantly different with 1 Fat 10.01%
chocolate candies texture so that these 2 Protein 10.48%
results shows that the resulting texture on 3 Carbohyrate 52.09%
chocolate candy are preferred by
According to the Indonesian
consumers. In this research, chocolate
National Standard (SNI), cocoa powder is
candies texture point out the similarity
a powder form of chocolate product
with general chocolate candy products,
obtained from cocoa mass after most of
which is in line with the research of
the fat is removed with or without
Prasetya (2009), the texture is the most
alkalization treatment.
important thing in making Chocolate
Natural cocoa powder is made
Candy. This is because a good chocolate
from the pulp of chocolate or bittersweet
should have a smooth texture (smooth and
chocolate block, by eliminating much of
buttery) which can melt gently and slowly
the fat down to 18-23%. This type of
in the mouth with complex and enjoyable
chocolate powder, contains less fat, and
flavors. Chocolate should be melted in the
tastes bitter. Many people use this type of
mouth, which doesn't need to leave the
cocoa powder as ingredients to make a
tough impression when it is consumed.
cake.
Waxy texture (waxy mouth feel) indicates
Cocoa powder is a usual food
that chocolate contains some fat.
consumed by Indonesian society. Cocoa
Chocolate is a dispersion of the particles
powder contains an energy of 298
that are blocked by fat crystals that act as
kilocalories, 8 grams protein, 48.9 grams
an adhesive cement. Therefore the
carbohydrates, 23.8 grams fat, 125
physical properties and sensory of
milligrams of calcium. Other than that,
chocolate directly associated with the
cocoa powder also contained as much as
crystallization of cocoa butter.
30 IU of vitamin A, 0.12 milligrams of
Texture is an important factor in
vitamin B1 and 0 milligrams of vitamin C
determining the quality of Chocolate
(Anonymous, 2001).
Candy products therefore samples with
In connection with the data that
Tulip Bergundi chocolate powder is the
has been obtained, the content of fat and
selected sample and is used as a raw
protein in Tulip Bergundi chocolate
material in the main study.
powder are relatively low, while its
carbohydrate content are relatively high.
Raw Material Analysis Tulip Bergundi cocoa powder included in
Raw materials analysis is
the natural cocoa powder where most of
performed to determine the level of fat,
the its fat content has been removed. So
protein, and carbohydrates contained in
Tulip Bergundi cocoa powder is a source
the raw materials to be used in the
of protein, fats, and carbohydrates in the
manufacture of Chocolate Candy, namely
products of Chocolate Candy (Hui, 1992).

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Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

Results of preliminary research Organoleptic Test


with variety of cocoa powder can be Taste
concluded that the selected products are Based on the results of statistical
Tulip Bergundi cocoa powder which will calculations, comparisons between soy
then proceed to the main research with milk with skim milk and stevia with
two factors, namely the addition of a sucrose have a significant effect towards
comparison between soy milk and skim the taste of chocolate candies, and there is
milk as well as comparisons between interactions between each factor towards
stevia and sucrose. the taste of Chocolate Candy which can
be seen in the following table.
Main research Table. Interaction Effects on the
Main research is the advanced Comparison of Soy Milk with Skim Milk
research from the preliminary research. and Stevia with Cucrose towards the
The main research carried out the Taste of Chocolate Candy
examination of chocolate candy using Factor A Factor B
additional ingredients which is the b1 b2 b3
comparison of soy milk and skim milk a1 3.87 4.18 4.61
and the comparison of stevia and sucrose a2 4.38 4.35 5.89
by using the best chocolate powder a3 4.76 4.83 5.28
obtained from the preliminary research. Note: lowercase indicates the significant
Main research carried out are aimed to differences on Duncan test at the level of
determine the effects on adding the varied 5%, uppercase indicates the significant
comparison of soy milk and skim milk as differences on Duncan test at the level of
well as stevia and sucrose towards the 5%
characteristic of chocolate candy, with the The table, shows that the ratio
ratio between soy milk powder and skim between soy milk and skim milk, as well
milk of 1:0, 1:1 and 0:1, and the ratio as comparisons between stevia and
between stevia and sucrose of 1:0, 1:1 and sucrose gives significant difference
0:1. towards the taste of chocolate candies
The chocolate candy produced mainly on a2b3 factor which owns the
carried out organoleptic test to determine highest average value.
the preference of the panelists towards the In general, food ingredients or
product with hedonic test methods with food products are not only consist of one
the usage of parameter, such as taste, flavor, but a combination of various
flavor, texture and aftertaste. Afterwards, flavors in an integrated manner so that it
chemical analysis are carried out, which has a perfect flavor (Kartika, et al, 1987).
includes fat contents by soxhlet methods, According to Winarno (1992),
protein contents by kjedahl methods, taste is affected by several factors such as
carbohydrate content by Luft Schoorl chemicals, temperature, concentration,
methods, and water content by gravimetri and the interaction of other components.
method qualitatively and quantitatively, According to Kartika et al (1997), the
on the best sample resulted from sweet taste is caused by organic
organoleptic test. Physical analysis are compounds which contains hydroxyl
also carried out which is toughness test by group (OH), some amino acids,
penetrometer method. aldehydes, and glycerol.
Soy milk has a distinctive flavor;
which is slightly sweet whereas skim milk
tasted sweet because soy milk contains

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

monosaccharide that is naturally The interaction between the ratio


contained in soy and skim milk contains of soy milk with skim milk and stevia
sucrose therefore both affects the taste of with sucrose exists because both factors
chocolate candy, especially if they are have the same functions and contributions
reviewed at the level of each treatment on thus affects the taste of the chocolate bar.
the comparison between soy milk and Bitter flavor is natural, distinctive
skim milk which is quite different flavor in chocolate. The flavor comes
comparison, thus it contributes on from the components of alkaloid
providing the sweetness besides other theobromine, caffeine, fenoik
material such as sugar powder to relieve components, pyrazine of several peptides
bitterness in chocolate derived from cocoa and free amino acids. The bitter taste of
powder. (Erlita, 2002). chocolate is often disconcerting with the
The presence of carbohydrates astringent taste because people do not
contained in soy powder and sugar added fully understand the different nature and
in the manufacture of chocolate candy taste between the two, especially tannins
products will lead the carbohydrate to and polyphenols in chocolate as the most
undergo degradation of protein and sugar responsible component for the astringent
which will form a new compound called and bitter taste (Armita, 2009).
Amadori compounds, namely i-amino-i
deoxy- D-fructose. The formation of these Flavor
Amadori compounds can impacts the taste Based on the results of statistical
of the processed chocolate products where calculations, comparisons between soy
more addition of soy milk will give more milk with skim milk and stevia with
bitterness on the chocolate products sucrose have a significant effect on the
(Widiantara, 2004). taste of Chocolate Candy, and interaction
Unsweetened chocolate product between each factor towards the taste of
tastes bitter and even couldn't be eaten, chocolate candy can be seen in the
hence the addition of sugar in the following table.
manufacture of chocolate products Table. The effect of Interaction on the
intended to give the flavor of sweet to the Comparison of Soy Milk with Skim Milk
chocolate products. The savory flavor and Stevia with Sucrose towards the
found can be caused by the presence of fat flavor of Chocolate Candy
content apart from the chocolate fat, but it Factor A Factor B
can also come from soy milk and skim b1 b2 b3
milk. a1 4.64 4.13 4.90
Differences in taste of chocolate a2 4.48 4.39 5.49
products allegedly cause by the chemical a3 4.17 5.88 4.77
composition of foods that can cause taste, Note: lowercase indicates the significant
is a combination of various components differences on Duncan test at the level of
of the integrated flavoring substances, 5%, uppercase indicates the significant
which cause different taste of foods. Milk differences on Duncan test at the level of
is one of the factors that leads to different 5%
taste in chocolate products because of the The table shows that the ratio
suspected use on the type of milk, which between soy milk and skim milk as well
is soy milk and skim milk with the taste as comparisons between stevia and
of milk, different composition of the milk, sucrose gives significant difference to the
are expected to cause different taste in taste of chocolate candies mainly on a3b2
chocolate products produced.

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Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

factor which owns the highest average between soy milk and skim milk affects
value. the aroma (Erlita, 2002).
Flavor or odors may be defined as More concentration of soy milk in
something that can be observed with the the ratio of soy milk and skim milk added,
sense of smell. Flavor substances can then the chocolate products produced will
evaporate, slightly insoluble in water and be disliked. This is caused because there
slightly insoluble in fats. The smell or is a slight of unpleasant scent from the
flavor generated by food can determine soy milk even though it has undergone a
the delicacies of the food (Winarno, process of heating and addition of sugar.
1997). According to Dachlan (1984),
According to Minifie (1999), generally sugar is capable of binding
screening leads to the development of flavor and retains volatile flavor so that
specific flavor in chocolate with the the resulting flavor was strong.
existence of Maillard reaction; sugar The interaction between each
caramelization, protein degradation, and factor happens due to the same nature of
the formation of volatile components such both factors where soy milk and skim
as pyrazin which is one component of the milk has a distinctive flavor which is the
desired flavor. typical unpleasant smell of soy milk, and
Flavors of chocolate products the typical sweet flavor of skim milk
comes from volatile compounds contained which can bound by sugar. Therefore
in cocoa fruit, other than that flavor in each of the factors effects the aroma on
chocolate products can be formed due to Chocolate Candy.
the addition of flavoring substances such According Prasetya (2009),
as like milk, where the mixing of this chocolate flavor formed during roasting
additional substances will form of cocoa beans which is a raw material in
decomposition of lactose in the fat of milk the manufacture of cocoa powder. Amino
by the activity of microorganisms. acids, peptides, sugars reducer and
The distinctive flavor of soy milk, quinone are group compounds of alcohol,
which is unpleasant smell, effects the ether, furan, tiazoi, piron, acid, ether,
aroma of chocolate candy even though the ester, aldehidal, imine, amine, oksazoi,
smell are not too oppressive just like other pyrazine, and pyrrole. This shows that the
processed soy products. Because the distinctive flavor of chocolate is not only
flouring process of soybean undergo the determined by one component. But a
inactivation of lipoxygenase enzyme function of hundreds constituent
which can hydrolyze unsaturated fatty components. Compounds are formed
acids to make volatile compounds that during the process of preparing the seeds,
cause the reduction of unpleasant flavor, especially during fermentation and
whereas the typical flavor of skim milk is drying. During the screening of
sweet because there are no irregularities compounds candidates, flavor formed
in the milk. If there is irregularities in the react with each other to produce volatile
milk then its scent will probably change. components and unique flavor of
This is because the nature of the milk are chocolate.
able to absorb the flavor of the
environment around the milk. Therefore, Texture
these two materials has a distinctive and According to the results of
seared flavor therefore these are statistical calculations, each of these
substances that makes the comparisons factors do not affect the texture of
chocolate candies, and there is no

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Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

interaction of each factor on the texture of in a liquid phase of cocoa fat. In room
chocolate candy. temperature particles are blocked by fat
The results showed that the observations crystals that act as an adhesive cement.
towards organoleptic in terms of texture Therefore, physical and sensory
are not significantly different at the level characteristics of chocolate directly
of 5% with a mean value which is not so associated with the crystallization of
significant and there is no interaction on cocoa butter.
the comparison between soy milk and According to Smanda (2011)
skim milk powder as well as, the chocolate candy has a distinctive taste,
comparison between stevia and sucrose. solid texture at room temperature, rapidly
Soy milk used has a very smooth texture melts in the mouth, it becomes liquid and
without rough yield so it does not affect soft on the tongue. There are various ways
the texture of chocolate candies, because to process chocolate, one of which
the main factor which affects the texture includes the stages of: mixing, softening,
of the chocolate candies is the conching refining (conching), tempering, and
process. This also resulted in the lack of molding. The materials used to make
interaction between each factor. chocolate varies, including: pasta or cocoa
According to Minifie (1999), cocoa fat liquor, refined sugar, milk, cocoa fat. The
will contribute to the melting and material is mixed with a certain ratio. In
crystallization characteristics so it rapidly this research, mixing ingredients in
melts at body temperature when powder form is an important process in
consumed. the manufacture of chocolate. Chocolate
It was alleged that the use of soy milk in powder serves as a filler and determine
the manufacture of chocolate can produce the quality of the resulting color and
smoother texture on chocolate products. flavor of the product. Sugar serves as a
This is because soy milk contains sweetener, harden the texture, and as a
phosphatides, which contains 1.5-3% soy natural preservative. Milk serves as a
phosphatides, which acts as an emulsifier. flavor enhancer and delicacy. Cocoa fat
Phosphatides will help the formation of serves to homogenize the raw material in
oil emulsion in water as phosphatides will the mixing process, enhance the levels of
gather between the oil and water which fat, and determine the density of
will reduce the surface tension so that the chocolate which affects the texture of the
emulsion can be formed. Therefore the product.
more soy milk added to the comparison of Sifting process will affect the
skim milk used in the manufacture of texture of the chocolate. Because the
chocolate products, will produce a smooth sifting itself can homogenize particle size
texture of chocolate products. found in cocoa powder, soy milk powder,
According to Prasetya (2009), a good skim milk, and sugar used so that uniform
chocolate should have a smooth texture particle size will affect the soft and
(smooth and buttery) that could melt uniform shaped chocolate texture.
gently and slowly in the mouth with
complex and fun flavor. Chocolate should Aftertaste
be melted in the mouth, when it is Based on the results of statistical
consumed without leaving tough calculations, each of these factors do not
impression. Waxy texture (waxy mouth affect the texture of chocolate candies,
feel) indicates that chocolate contains and there is no interaction of each factor
some fat. Chocolate is a particle on the aftertaste of chocolate candy.
dispersion of chocolate powder and sugar

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Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

Basically the most dominant compression. The mass itself is a form of


flavor in chocolate candy is the bitter taste pasta product obtained from cocoa nib
due to the raw material used; which is (pieces of cacao beans) through the mill
cocoa powder where stevia is also added without removing the fat content.
where the two materials obtained alkoloid According to Winarno (2004), fats and
compound such as tannins with bitter and oils contained are almost the whole food
astringent taste, thus aftertaste obtained ingredients with different contents, but the
are almost the whole typical bitter taste of fats and oils are often added intentionally
chocolate candy. into the food for various purposes.
In food processing, oil and fat functions
Chemical Analysis as heat conductor media, such as cooking
Analysis of Fat Content on the Selected oil, shortening (white butter), fat (lard),
Products of Chocolate Candy butter and margarine. Other than that, the
The main study analyzed the fat addition of fat is also intended to increase
content of chocolate candy products in the the calories and improve the texture and
selected samples based on the results of taste of food. As in cotton candy, the
organoleptic test. Results can be seen in addition of shortening in baking and
the following table. others.
Parameter Analys Cocoa fat contains oleic, palmitic
Fat Content is
11,05 and stearic acid. Cocoa fat used in
Result
% chocolate candy should have
The results of fat content analysis characteristics which includes; melts at a
in chocolate candy products selected temperature of 32oC-35oC, has hard
shows that the fat contained in chocolate texture and slightly crumbly, not blurry in
candy has a fat content of 11.05%. The color and remains bright when it is mixed
results of fat content analysis on the main with other materials and solidify at room
research with the analysis of the temperature. Retention time for storage
preliminary study did not undergo any must also be adapted to the chocolate
significant difference as seen from the condition, because otherwise it could
usage of same cocoa powder which is cause the chocolate to be attached to the
Tulip Bergundi cocoa powder. There is an mold, resulting blurry color and cause
increase which are not too high because blooming on the surface of the chocolate.
there is addition of other ingredients in Where the function of cocoa fats in the
the process such as skim milk, and manufacture of chocolate is to solidify
lecithin as well as raw material, namely (Ketaren, 1986).
Tulip Bergundi cocoa powder that have a The heating process carried out in
fat content of 10.01%. Fat contained in making Chocolate Candy will cause
Chocolate Candy classified as good fats rupture of fat components into the
or healthy fats which are commonly production of volatiles such as aldehydes,
referred to as HDL (High Density ketones, alcohols, acids, and
Lipoprotein) which is a series of hydrocarbons with gives great influence
unsaturated fat (single and double) so it is on the formation of flavor.
safe for consumption due to the nature of Cocoa fats is an essential
fat, which does not raise blood ingredient in chocolate, as well as sugar.
cholesterol. Both provide very significant influence on
According to the Indonesian National the taste and texture. Dark chocolate
Standard (2009), cocoa butter is the fat contains a lot of cocoa fat and sugar,
obtained from cocoa mass obtained by white chocolate owns only a bit while the

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Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

total in milk chocolate are amounted in body and also serves as a builder and
between the two types of chocolate regulators substance.
(Hoven 2008). Chocolate are made with heat,
protein in food ingredients will change
Analysis of Protein Content on the and form compounds with other
Selected Products of Chocolate Candy ingredients, such as amino acid as the
The main research analyzed the results on the change of proteins with
fat content of chocolate candy products in sugar reduction to form other compounds
the selected samples based on the results which might damage the protein when it
of organoleptic test. Results can be seen is viewed from the point of nutrition
in the following table. (Sudarmadji, 1996) .
Table. Protein Analysis Result of
Chocolate Candy Analysis of Total Sugar Carbohydrates
Levels on the Selected Products of
Parameter Analysis Chocolate Candy
Protein contents Result
13,44% The main research performed an
analysis of carbohydrates level of
chocolate candy products in the selected
Lecithin and proteins are the best
samples based on the results of
emulsifier where the protein can be
organoleptic test. Results can be seen in
denatured and absorb nutrients thus
the following table.
forming stable charateristics. Protein
Table. Carbohydrate Analysis Results of
serves to bind the hydrophobic on oil and
Chocolate Candy
hydrophilic on water. The best protein
Parameter Analys
used as an emulsifier is egg yolk and milk
because of the level of stability to form a Carbohydrate content is
25,28
good unity, and the eggwhite is the best Result
%
foam maker protein. Eggs contains A3b2 samples are samples with
lipoproteins and phospholipids such as 100% skim milk formulations without the
lecithin, known as micelles. The micelle use of soy milk that has the highest levels
structure of the lecithin is part of what of carbohydrates, this is because the
makes the emulsifier works well content of skim milk which is lactose; is a
(Hasenhuettl and Hartel, 2008). disaccharide that consist of glucose and
In addition to carbohydrates and galactose oligosaccharide.
fats, the fulfillment of good nutrition for According to Astawan (2011), the
growth can be obtained by consuming carbohydrate content in milk powder is
foods that contains protein. Good protein 32.6 grams per 100 grams or 32.6%. The
quality derived from food ingredients that presence of a heating process performed
have good conditions, such as nuts, milk on skim milk in processing Chocolate
and others. Although it is common that Candy will cause shrinkage of nutrients,
very little protein contained in foods with especially with the nature of
big amount of fats, such as chocolate carbohydrates which occasionally are
products. unaccompanied but accompanied by other
Protein is a macronutrient food nutrients such as protein, fat. With the
ingredients. Protein molecule contains high heat, carbohydrates, especially sugar
special elements that are not contained in will undergo caramelization (non
carbohydrates and fat which is nitrogen. enzymatic browning).
Protein is essential for the body, because
these substances functions as a fuel in the

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Analysis of Water Content on the Based on the results of statistical


Selected Products of Chocolate Candy calculations, comparisons between soy
The main study analyzed the milk with skim milk and stevia with
water content of the chocolate candy sucrose gives significant effect towards
products in the selected samples based on the toughness of chocolate candy, and
the results of organoleptic test. Results there is interaction between each factor
can be seen in the following table. towards the toughness of the chocolate
Table. Water Analysis Results of candy which can be seen in the following
Chocolate Candy table.
Parameter Analysis Table. The Effect of Interaction on the
Water contents Result
1,17% Comparison of Soy Milk with Skim Milk
and Stevia with Sucrose towards the
toughness of Chocolate Candy
Protein (skim milk) serves as a
filler that will bind the cocoa in chocolate Factor A Factor B
candy products. Protein molecule tends to b1 b2 b3
bind the oil (non-polar) and binds the a1 1.91 1.69 2.91
water (polar) (Hasenhuettl and Hartel, a2 2.62 1.54 7.28
2008; Winarno, 2004). a3 1.95 2.03 1.23
Skim milk powder is a Note: lowercase indicates the significant
multifunctional product as it can provide differences on Duncan test at the level of
emulsification, water binding, viscosity, 5%, uppercase indicates the significant
color and flavor (Minifie, 1999). differences on Duncan test at the level of
The loss of water content in 5%
Chocolate Candy analyzed can be Physical and organoleptic
influenced by several factors, including response towards the texture has a
the process of mixing 1 with a distinctive difference where in the
temperature of 600 C within 15 minutes organoleptic response, it is known that the
which can affect the loss of water texture does not have any significant
contained in the ingredients such as cocoa difference on every comparison of soy
powder, skim milk, stevia and sucrose, milk with skim milk and the stevia with
then conching with temperature of 600 C sucrose used are different with the ones
within approximately 8 hours to reduce generated in the physical response where
the water content contained in the every comparison of soy milk with skim
chocolate because the high temperatures milk and stevia with sucrose have
and long timing, in addition to the significant differences in 5% significance
proteins in skim milk, lecithin, and soy level which means that every comparison
milk powder serves as a binder of fat and effects the toughness of Chocolate Candy.
non-fat fraction namely water, and as the Toughness is defined as the
link of polar and non-polar compounds. power or force needed to achieve the
changes of shape. Analysis of toughness
Physics Analysis are performed because toughness is one of
Toughness Test the most important quality criteria for the
Physical analysis for chocolate types of chocolate.
candy uses the penetrometer (hardness Muchtadi and Sugiyono (1992),
tester), which is a tool that can measure stated that the degree of hardness texture
the hardness of Chocolate Candy texture of a food ingredients derived from 49
itself, where the lowest score has the milk is determined by the amount of
highest toughness. lactose crystals, the greater crystalline

15
Muhammad Rifqi ( 12.30.20.325)
Comparison Of Soy Milk Powder With Skim Milk And Stevia With Sucrose Towards The Characteristic Of Chocolate

lactose in milk therefore small amount of content, and carbohydrate content of


toughness or roughness of the foods can 52.09%.
be easily perceived. In addition the level 2.Based on primary research, comparisons
of softness on the chocolate produced is treatment between soy milk and skim
also influenced by the less maximum milk (A) effects towards the organoleptic
conching process because it is done response which are flavor and taste of
manually, unlike the large industries Chocolate Candy, comparison between
which uses machines in order to produce stevia and sucrose (B) gives significant
chocolate with a smooth texture. effect on the same organoleptic response
According to Purnamasari (2011), by factor (A) which is taste, and flavor of
besides giving a sweet taste in chocolate, Chocolate Candy. The interaction on the
sugar effects the density of the chocolate. comparisons between soy milk with skim
Sugar also affects the hardness texture of milk (A), and comparison of stevia with
the chocolate, where the usage of more sucrose (B) significantly affects nearly all
sugar will make the chocolate even organoleptic responses except the texture
harder. and aftertaste of Chocolate Candy.
Toughness in chocolate is very 3.The best Chocolate Candy products
important with regard to consumer from the overall response was obtained in
preferences which tends to eat a good organoleptic which is the sample of a3b2
texture on the product and as an indicator (ratio of soy milk and skim milk 0: 1).
of the product which can be accepted by (Comparison of stevia and sucrose 1: 1).
the society in general. Good chocolate is As seen from an organoleptic test is the
chocolate that has the characteristics of sample panelists preferred the most with
not too hard and not too soft and has a the fat content of 11.05%, 13.44% of
good chemical relationship and a positive protein content, carbohydrates of 25.28%,
effect on health. water content of 1.17% and has a
The units used for hardness test is hardness value at 1.23 mm/sec/100gram.
mm/sec/100 grams. This means that the
figures used shows the ability of needling Suggestion
from measuring device to puncture the 1. It is necessary to conduct a research on
material to a specified depth every the effect of conching towards the particle
second. Thus the rising number of size of chocolate
measurement results showed lower levels 2. It is necessary to conduct further
of toughness. research on the storage power and the
right packaging for chocolate products
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