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DATABASELANGUAGESandLEVELS

DatabaseLanguageLevels
EachLevelhasaDefinitionLanguage
Internal
StorageDefinitionLanguage
Conceptual
DataDefinitionLanguage
External(User)
ViewDefinitionLanguage
Definedatasstructure

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DataDefinitionLanguage
LogicalStructure
RecordTypes
ofConceptual Attributes
LevelData

Rulesgoverning Rulesforeachtable
Rulesaboutconnectionsbetween
DB tables

Conceptual:DDL
Rule about table
create table employee (
fname varchar(15) not null,
lname varchar(15) not null,
ssn char(9) primary key,
dno number(3)foreign key references
department);

Rule about connection


to another table

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StorageDefinitionLanguage
PhysicalStructure
Bytesperfield
Orderoffields
Sorting
Access(hash,Btree)
FileStructure
MixedRecords,etc.

SDLExample
create table employee ( ,
initrans 3, /* simul updates */
pctfree 30, /* use new block */
initial 7,
next 7); /* space allocated */
Beyondscopeofthiscourse

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ViewDefinitionLanguage
DefineSubsetsofrecordsavailabletoclassesofuser.
Create"virtualtables"frombasetables.
Viewappearstouserlikeconceptuallevel.

VDLExamples
create view emp5 as
select * from employee
where dno = 5;
Seeonlydept 5employees
create view empdept as
select fname,lname,dno,dname
from employee,department
where dno=dnumber;
Makebothdept numberandnameavailable.

Based in two tables

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ViewExamples,cont.
Create view stats as
select dname,count(*),avg(salary),
from employee, department
where dno = dnumber
group by dname;
ThiscountandaveragedonotexistinanyDBtable.
Calculated from existing
data in database

DataManipulationLanguage
Usedatconceptuallevel
andatExternalLevel.
query(requestinfo)
delete
update
insert

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DMLexamples
view
select * from stats
where dname = Research;
insert into works_on
values(123456789,7,15);
table
update works_on
set hours = 10
where essn = 123456789
and pno = 7;

StandardSQLDefines
ConceptualLevelDDL(DataDefinitionLang)
ConceptualLevelDML(DataManipulation)
ExternalLevelDDL
ViewsaredefinedasQuerieswithnames
ExternalLevelDML(sameasConceptual)
NOStorageDefinitionLanguage

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OracleDBDefinition
AddsSDLconstructstoStandardSQLDDL.
AlsostructuresdatabasewithConfigurationFiles
ThisisprovinceofDBAdministration.
BeyondtheScopeofthisCourse