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Dear Nan,

Thank you again for the further information describing the details about
some facts in my last letter: During the Ñ 
Antoinette said:    when she was told that the French
peasants had no bread to eat. According to the unconfirmed reports,  
 advised all Myanmars to eat bread if they have no rice to eat. Then D    
D commented that as he had raised the civil servants¶ salary from 5-10 times, civil servants
should eat cakes daily and give the ordinary people a chance to eat bread. He further advised
the civil servants to drink wine or soft drinks so that tea prices would go down for the ordinary
citizens. And he continued that those mixed blooded Myanmar citizens originated from the
Indian subcontinent to change back to eating Nans (not you, my dear, Nan Pyar only) and Roti or
Htat Tayar and all the Chinese desendents should eat Khauk Swe¶ (not bribery but noodles), Paut
Si or Ei Kyar Kwe only. (Those leaders failed to notice that all the food they suggested are more
expensive than rice and  


Dear darling, Asians and especially Burmese citizens are polite and usually do not rebut or talk
back to others especially elders and leaders even if they are wrong because we regarded this as
an insult to others because of µAh nar tat tae¶ and rarely show a confrontational behaviour to
others. But my letters are certainly confrontational in various ways to SPDC Junta. My friends
and relatives adviced me rather to use an indirect polite approach than calling a spade a spade. I
accept and understand that their advise were made in good faiths and being direct or
confrontational is considered insolent, impolite, rude or µyine thee¶ in Burmese culture and many
of us thought that remaining silent is considered good manners or µyin kyae thee¶. 
 " #       $"  
Nan, no wonder, many of my foreign friends asked me why the people of Burma/Myanmar
tolerates this kind of tyrant idiotic Military Government without much protests or revolt like
other ASEAN neighbours #%
 % "      
        D &     '"'   

 Or may be the
Junta was cleverer to purposely made all the people poor, commodity prices high, cost of living
high, earning power less and inflation rises relenteslessly so that most of the ordinary people
have no leisure time for luxury politics but have to worry always and keep on struggling all the
time, just to be able to put a square meal on their family dinner table. Nowadays most of the
Burmese esp. those inside the country and those who have to still use the Myanmar Passports
just throw up their arms in despair and say, ³What the hell it is. Do what you want with the
country¶s administration. I don¶t care a damn about politics, or µBae thu thay thay Nga Tae mar
yin pyi yaw¶, very selfish self centred concept.´    ( 

  They just can¶t be bothered anymore. It is safer to
ignore all issues related to politics rather than showing concern and then get whacked and thrown
into long term jail by SPDC Junta-lap-dogs who condemn you as traitor, slaves of the colony

Dear Nan, so basically in a nutshell most of the Shwe Bamas would rather remain silent and
suffer. And most of them now told the activists to take that stand as well. Most of the Burmese
Citizens don¶t care anymore. Let the SPDC Cohorts do what they want. They are not bothered.
Non military people are after all not qualified to do politics. We Burmese Citizens now regarded
silence is gold but failed to understand that all that glitter is not gold, and that those golden
things would rot if just keep quiet. So darling  
  "  *       


"  " If we dare notopen the mouth becausewe are
coward and too weak, we should at least hate the act in our heart and mind. But this the weakest
faith or moral and no much use.

Dear Nan, I am basically stubbon but always tried to be polite and sincere. 

          D &,
meant that no longer must we remain silent just to be polite but should instead speak out and
question those SPDC leaders.
Dear Nan, just see this. Because of my politness and µAh nar tat dae¶, I have to give way for Ko
Tin Maung and Ma Thorda couple as they opened up their notes and started with their very long
lecture, the history of Malays in Burma.

- D   D
! are almost same as but a little bit different from the
Malays in Southern Thailand, East and West Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines and
Indonesia. Pa Shu in Burmese is likely to be the corrupted word (or a different slang) in Burmese
language from- Bajau. That %
  is the largest Muslim indigenous group in Sabah (East
Malaysia). They are known as Sea Gypsies or Sea Nomads. But some of those Sea Gypsies
staying on boats in Burma are not Muslims. Only many of those Sea Gypsies or Sea Nomads
staying on shore in Burma are Muslims.

Dear Nan, there are three groups of Bajau and these Burmese citizens of Malays are the Moken
and the related Moklen group. They are found in the Mergui Archipelago of Burma and the
islands of south western part of Thailand. One of the other two subtypes are the Orang Laut (Sea
People) are seen in Riau-Lingga Archipelago, Batam, Eastern Sumatera of Indonesia and
Southern Johore of Malaysia. The last group is the Bajau Laut, largest of all groups, live in Sulu
Archipelago of the Philippines, eastern Bornio, Sulawesi and islands of eastern Indonesia.

All the Malays, all Indonesians and all of the Polynesians in Pacific Ocean down to Australia
have some common culture and even some common words in the language. Even some of the
traditional costumes, music and dances are some what similar to some of the Burmese ethnic
minorities e.g. Kachin, Shan, Mon, Karen, Kayah etc.

Most of the Islands inhabited by Burmese Malays were also conquered once by Burmese Kings
Alaung Paya and Tabin Shwe Hti from Siam now known as Thailand. But some Burmese
Malays were only few centuries old migrants and refugees when the Thailand (Siam) kings took
over the upper Northern Malay Sultanates, now formed the Southern Thailand. Some Malay
refugees during the second world war and some of the escapees from the notorious Burma death
railway project to the upper part of Burma proper settled down there and were thoroughly
assimilated with Burmese Malay Muslims.

In seventeenth century, Muslims controlled the business and became so powerful because of
their wealth. They were even appointed as Governor of Mergui, the Viceroy of the Province of
Tenasserim, Port Authorities, Port Governors and Shah-Bandars (senior port officials). Not only
in the part controlled by Burma but the area of Thailand, the whole pathway from the sea to the
Thai capital was said to be controlled by the Muslims, Malays, Indian Muslims and Arab
descendants. Many of them had relatives in Kedah state of Malaysia and some in other northern
states of Malaysia. Up to now there are some blood and family relations across the border.

Dear Nan, we know that northern part of Malaysia, Kedah State and Penang Island were under
Burmese Kings for some time. We know that some of the Malay States¶ Sultans had to send
yearly presents to Burmese Kings and Bago-men were one of the founders of Malaysia¶s first
Kingdom, Malacca but I was shocked when one tribe of Malay Muslims regarded original native
Bumiputra (son of the soil) called Mandailing group were originated from Himalaya and actually
they were believed to had lived in Mandalay. And there are still arranged marriages across the
border between Burmese Malays and Kedah Malays. No wonder if Burmese Malays (not other
Burmese Muslims whose nose is more prominent because of mixed Indian blood) if entered
Malaysia without passports (i.e. strictly illegal only) could get the Malaysian Citizenships after
staying in special camps for a while.

Dear Nan, as our cousins, Ko Tin Maung and Ma Thorda keep on insisting to discuss with me about my second letter
to you      issue. ³In politics there are neither permanent friends nor permanent enemies.
So keep your friends close, and your enemies even closer. This would mean µtoday friends, tomorrow enemies; today
enemies, tomorrow friends. And that best describes politics. Politics is the art of the impossible (anything is possible
in politics).´ But I am puzzled why some of the so called democrats wish to openly hate the mixed blooded Burmese
citizens or new migrants such as Rohingyas. Are they real freedom fighters or SPDC spies or rebel rousers to weaken
the opposition? Even Ne Win and SPDC Generals had accepted back those µillegal immigrants¶ as the citizens of
Myanmar because of International pressure, what can we do even if we hate them because of our Xenophobia. We
could not kill all of them, chased them out again or put all into the concentration camp. We could be charged with
Genocide whether we are right or wrong, whether they are recent illegal immigrants or not.

Darling, we should regard our enemy SPDC Junta¶s enemies as our friends. Forgive me for the following words, we
could even use those Kalas, Chinese, Christians and Muslims as µMyauk Pya San Taung¶, and request support from
Christian countries, Muslim countries, India and China. (Dear friends I just called you monkeys to stress those racist
extremists, I sincerely apologize all of you.) See Nan, now Shwe Bama people are voicing that even Ne Win was better
than present Régime and if they could see the future, they would not revolt in 8888 uprising. And many people
around are telling that tyrant Saddam Hussein¶s government was better than the present Iraq government. If all those
Kalas, Rohingyas, Chinese and Christians do not trust us, why should they take the risk to revolt the present
government? They could take the easy way out, just support the present government!

Darling, for some of the Burmese citizens with extreme racial views, relatively new migrant citizens of other religion
e.g. Muslims, Christians and Burmese Chinese and Burmese Muslims are their enemy. But we have to accept the truth
that whether we like or not, we could not ethnic cleansed them out of our country now as it is too late. And instead of
making more enemies, if we make them our friends or alliances against the SPDC Régime the results would be more
favourable. As I had stated above, we could even persuade the Christian Countries and Muslim Countries around the
world to support us. There is a Burmese saying, ³Even if could not love, try to give a kiss. If even do not want to kiss,
just take a deep breath!´ Not only all the humans but even the animals have Xenophobia. That is natural instinct to
protect ourselves. If we hate, scared and stay away from strangers we would be far apart forever. But if we try to
interact or made friend we could understand, built confidence and trust each other.

Dear darling Nan, just look at my relations with Ko Tin Maung. At first I hate him because he just transferred from
other town, a Kala (Ko Tin Maung forgive me, I believe that you could understand why I use this word.) and he beat
me in the examination and got the first position. Before his arrival I always got first. But later we know each other and
became best friends and because of the healthy competition, we both progressed academically and in sports. He was
our football team captain and centre player and supported me numerous times to shoot goals. Because of our healthy
competition both of us were famous in our district, even in the university and now also abroad. I am now even willing
to sacrifice my life for him and I am sure he also has the same feelings on me.

Nan, I wish to appeal to all the Shwe Bamas that even if some of us regarded all of those Kalas, Tayokes, Rohingyas,
Christians and Muslims to be our enemy, if we could successfully transform those enemies to be our close-friend, or
even just a friend close to us; we could win over their heart! They would be most dangerous if they are away from us,
stayed as enemies and always trying a plot to harm us. If we could successfully persuade them to become our friends,
nothing is impossible for our country. G        ! ! !
"    !# $
%&       #  
     !     !    '    ( !   ) 
   (    !

Dear Nan, I am not telling or supporting that idea of calling Christians and Burmese Chinese and Burmese Muslims
as enemies. You know I am strongly against that stereotyping or profiling but I am just trying to persuade our
brothers who thought otherwise.

Dear Nam, I know your wish to raise a question; ³Whether all the Shwe Bamas, Ethnic Minorities and all the
oppositions should sleep with the 'enemy', Burmese Chinese and Burmese Muslims in order to achieve our target of
forming a Democratic Federal Union based on the Panglong Treaty and the first old constitution´.

Yes dear, there is no other choice, whether we love or hate them as we are already like a married couple with few
children. We have to stick together for the sake of our children¶s future. Even if we cannot love them, we are not in a
position to hate and fight them. If we could made peace, stay as friend there is a light at the end of the tunnel. In our
long march to democracy we have to accept them as our partners. *          # 
!!    (      +,%-./ ¯!#  0 0#  
! #  #!  !1     %  2 ! 3 "
!!  !             

Dear darling, for the benefit a small minority among us who were brain-washed by successive Military Governments
to hate those Chinese and Indians, I would like to explain to them that it is even very important for them to know
about their µenemies¶.

Darling, in every field that we need to fight or play or compete with our opponents such as a game of chest or sports
such as foot ball, basket ball etc or even in the cold war or real hot war or even in the economic competitions we
should learn in advance about their Psychology, way of thinking or doing things, habits, their plans, strategies, weak
and strong points, their resources, financial background, supporters, battle field condition, weather, spectators,
ammunition, food ration supply life line, previous history of their plays, fight or competition, their traits, how they
react when they lose or win, their stamina, training, coaches, advisers, think tanks, referees, international and local
countries and organizations including UN¶s possible reactions etc etc etc. So darling, I think with this letter I could
convince my friends to read about our µenemies¶. In chess game most of the players could visualized one or two
movements of their opponent¶s plans only. But most of the grand masters of chess could even think about the possible
few dozen of movements of their opponents for each and every steps or movement.

Dear Nan and I wish to inform my dear friends that we need others in our country to have a check and balance to
improve our selves. We need others so that we could make a healthy competition. If not, we would become
complacent, self-satisfied, and self-righteous and became stagnant without much progress. We need a good sparing-
partner in every field of training.

Nan, if we could positively accept the opposing views of others rationally, we could possibly guide ourselves to our
destination. Dear Nan, you already know that even the accurate Cruise Missiles need to be continuously adjusting
their direction according to their stored memory and the input from their video and radar images on their actual
mission. We also need to always reexamine ourselves. We could use our enemies or opponents or opposition groups
to get our real image. If we surround ourselves with all the friends and our supporters or our subordinates only who
are scared to criticize us or reluctant to tell the truth, we would definitely face a downfall soon. 4 0  
+,%-4   (  !0   !       !G 
   !    1 ! !  !  ( #!  
( #   5  (  G G    !

Dear darling Nan, if we could even think or accept our opponents view as our images in the mirrors, which always
show the reverse, our right side appears as left and left side appears as the right side it would be OK because at least
we have to accept the truth that the mirrors help us to improve our images. Darling, you know that all the human
beings men or women would love to look at their image in the mirrors, except the visually handicapped persons. Even
you have sometimes sat in front of the mirror for a long time and late for some important functions. Darling why are
you angry as I am telling the truth as a joke. I know it is ladies nature only and even if I had married another lady, it
would be the same story. Never mind dear, those slight inpunctualities never lead to a disaster as we are
staying in Asia with µAsian Values¶ and all the functions use to start at the µAsian Time¶ because VIP are always late
and we could also use the µAsian National Excuse¶: by blaming the notorious traffic jams.

<!--[if !vml]--> <!--[endif]-->Yes dear, even if our enemies or our opponents¶ comments or
observations or criticisms about us are like the mirror, always showing the wrong sides, it would be beneficial for us if
we scrutinize and analyze properly. Yes Nan, after all we usually even never face any problem when we look at the
mirrors every day. Dear Nan, you told me that the image on our retina or light sensitive area of our eye is not only
reverse but always upside down but our brain automatically programmed and adjusted for us.

Dear Nan, the only problem is that we should not follow the example of our +,%-4 )     
 !!  6   #      0 #  who
used to look at the magic mirror and ask, ³Mirror, mirror on the wall«.´ and broke the mirror when they could not get
the answer they want.

Darling, our Lord Buddha had taught us that if we show our hand to others, others will see our palm but we could
only see our dorsum of the hands only. Buddha had taught us to accept other views and even not to just think that
what we see is the only truth. Actually if we could extend this wise teaching with our present scientific advances and
try to visualize our hand as three dimensional it may be better. But some of the doctors may even µsee¶ inside the
structures inside or we could use sophisticated instruments as X-ray, CT Scan or MRI to see the interior structures.
We are looking at the structures only, if we look at the physical functions, blood supply, condition of the nerves and
compare and contrast with other animals species, other human races etc there are more information to investigate.
And if we add other field of knowledge as Palmistry, and the deeds of that hand and the skills etc. there are a lot to
even know about even a hand. If we just hold on to our simple view of the back of our hand which we see we would be
definitely out of date. Dear Nan, why are you looking down on me and thought I am showing off. I just wish to apply
this possible information gathering aspects on a simple subject. *  !#    )( #  
# ! (  ( !#  !          
 # !    (  

D  ".       "    "   "       

  Although I could not accept all of their claims I simply present them to you so that you
could judge yourself.We should not simply brush aside their point of view if we wish to recruit
them as our supporter or partner in fighting our commpon enemy SPDC Junta.

Dear darling, actually all of our relatives of different races and religions are unknowingly
following a rule that we automatically obey ourselves. We instinctively not only tolerate other¶s
religion but respect them. Nan, at first I do not understand you when you bought seperate set of
utensils to cook for your Burmese Muslim and Chinese Muslim friends and you taught me how
to try to understand and respect other¶s believe or religion. I had learned alot and changed alot
but actually progressed in my understanding of my friends and distant cousins. While during
discussions sometimes we accidently encroched upon religious matters, we never argue about the
minor details or forms but we could view from common basic virtues of all the religions. Nan, I
have wasted alot of time to explain why I decided to include the history of Burmese Muslims in
my letter to you.

Dear Nan, they claimed that could trace their ancestors well in to the first millennium and now
we are even in the third millennium. And their youngest Muslim brothers migrated more than
half a century ago into Shwe Bama during the early colonial period because we gained
Independence on 4th. January 1948 and the bulk of migration stopped much earlier than that. So
Ko Tin Maung claimed that it is unfair and gross injustice have been committed if they, Muslims
in Shwe Bama are labeled as foreigners or new guest citizens. He told me that Colonial Masters
are the masters of all of us. They created the migration for their economic reasons. Once we got
the independence, we could not or never declared to British that we want back the land only and
do not want some of the people staying on that land. If we had told the British, they may have
arrange something. Forceful repatriation or giving or if British decided to reserve a part of the
country to them it may be worse for us. You just look at the separation of India and Pakistan.
Nearly millions died ended up into 3+ countries. Kashmir is still a problem almost impossible to
resolve. Or at least the British would delay our independence to solve all these problems first.
But our far-sighted leader General Aung San had the agreement with the representatives of all
our races at Panglon to take the independence together.

Darling, your cousin Chinese Muslim Ma Thorda added that we must not forget the fact that the
³Indian subcontinent Burmese Muslims´ who maintained the umbilical cord intact with the
Indian subcontinent had returned for good after General Ne Win had ³driven them out´ in 1964
with nationalization of all their business, property and demonetizations. She claimed that those
Burmese Muslims who love Burma and decided to stay for good in Burma and those who wished
to die in Burma only loyally continued to remain in Burma.
Dear darling, Ma Thorda claimed that her husband¶s roots started in the early years or 600 AD.
Yes, even as early as that time, Muslim seamen arrived the coastal area of Burma (Myanmar).
     " #  

  /      +
&    .  

Dear Nan, Persian Muslims traveled over land, in search of China, and arrived northern Burma at
Yunan (China) border. Their colonies were recorded in Chronicles of China in 860 AD.
Myanmar Muslims were sometimes called Pathi, and Myanmar Chinese Muslims are called
Panthay. It is widely believed that those names derived from Persi (Persian) as I had recorded in
my previous letter..

Dear Nan, Ko Tin Maung explained that when we called them Indian Muslims or Myanmar
Indian Muslims, we mean that they were descendents of the following countries ± India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. But actually some of them even came from Afghanistan.
Recently some research persons found out that about three thousand Afghanistans were settled
around Mandalay, during the Burmese kings. They served in various places in Burmese kings¶
army and were brought back to the capital from Arakan.

Dear darling, Ma Thorda enthusiastically added that some of the Afghanistans helped the
Kamans to rebel against Arakan Myauk U and cause the end of that era. And we must not forget
the fact that those earliest Burmese Muslims or Zerbardi or Kala Pyo or Myedu Muslims or
Myedu Kalas or Thone Thaung Khunhit Yar (=3700) were also actually from the Indian
subcontinent of Assam and Manipur.

Nan, Ko Tin Maung sometimes is too much. I am not convinced but as he insists his new theory
and I do not want to go against him, I hereby just reluctantly want to mention another word or
name, likely to be linked with Persian. Zaw Gyi or Ta Pathy is the mythical person, good in
chemistry, alchemy and medicine. He was believed to be able to fly and could even travel
underground. His dress was bright red, complete with cap and trousers, completely alien to
Burmese dress but similar to ancient Persian dress.

Dear darling Nan, Ma Thorda claimed that Bago, Dala, Syriam, Tenasserim, Martaban, Mergui
and Pathein (Bassein) were full of Burmese Muslim settlers and they outnumbered the local
Burmese by many times even before the British colonize lower Burma. In one record the Pathein
City was said to be populated with Pathis. She even claimed that may be Pathein comes from
Pathi. And coincidentally, Pathein city is still famous for the Pathein Halawa, traditional
Burmese Muslim food inherited from northern Indian and Arab Muslims.
Nan, in the chronicles of Malaysia, during the first Malacca Empire of Parameswara in the early
fifteenth century, it was recorded that the Burmese Muslims sailors and traders were regularly
arriving there. Those Bago (Pegu) seamen, likely to be Muslims, were also recorded by the Arab
Historians of tenth century. During fifteen to seventeen centuries, there were a lot of records of
Burmese Muslim traders, sailors and settlers on the whole coast of Burma. That was from
Arakan coast (Rakhine), Ayeyarwady delta and Tanintharyi coast (Including all the islands along
the whole coast).

Dear Nan, the first evidence of Muslim landing in Burma¶s chronicle was recorded in the era of
the first Burmese Empire of Pagan (Bagan) 1044 AD. Two Arab Muslim sailors of BYAT
family, Byat Wi and Byat Ta, arrived Burmese shores, near Thaton. (There are people in Iraq and
Arabia with the same sir name even at present). After their ship wrecked, they managed to use a
plank to swim to the shores. They took refuge and stayed at the monastery of the monk in
Thaton. They were said to be tall, fair, swift, brave and very strong. They were said to have
strength of the full-grown elephant. Thaton king was afraid of them and managed to kill the elder
brother while he was sleeping in his wife¶s house. The younger brother managed to escape to
Bagan and took refuge to king Anawratha. He was kept near the king. He had to fetch flowers,
ten times a day, from the Mont Popa (Pupa= mountain full with flowers in Indian language), few
dozens of miles away from Bagan. He married a girl from Popa and got two sons, Shwe Byin

Dear darling, later they also served the king as worriers, even as the special agents to infiltrate
the enemy¶s inner circle. They were famous after they successfully infiltrated the Chinese King
Utibua¶s bodyguards and drawn three lines with white lime on the Utibua¶s body and also wrote
the threatening message on the wall. Because of that vent, the mighty powerful Chinese army
and the king himself were scared, frightened, alarmed and signed a peace agreement with the

Darling, some of those surrounding the Anawratha were also worried regarding the potential
threat of those Muslim brothers. When the two brothers refused to contribute in the building of a
pagoda at Taung Pyone, just north of Mandalay, because of their religious belief, those
conspirators got a chance to plot against them. The brothers¶ enemies in the inner circle
purposely left vacant the empty spaces for the two bricks so that the king could easily notice. (If
not for a conspirators¶ act how anyone could notice the two absent bricks in a big building like
that pagoda?). After a brief inquiry the king ordered to punish the brothers for disobedience but
they were killed. There was believed to be a palace conspiracy even involving Kyansittha, rival
worrier, a general, who became the third king of Bagan. All of us know that the King Anawratha
just ordered to teach a lesson to the young brothers. Instead of using stick or cane to strike on the
back of the body, Kyansittha ordered to use a hard and solid bamboo trunk and hit on the throat.
That was a deliberate miscarriage of the justice or following the order with the criminal intent to
monopolize the inner circle position to clear the way up.

Dear Nan, some of the executed brothers¶ friends were not happy with the execution. Especially
the sailors at that time were mostly known to be Muslims. The royal raft could not move after
that, may be the silent protest against the killing. But the witty, white and black Indian
Brahmans, royal consultants, interpreted that the two brothers were loyal faithful servants but
unjustly punished, became Nats (the powerful spirits) and they pulled the rudder of the royal boat
to show their displeasure. Then only, Anawratha ordered the building of the spirit-palace at
Taung Pyone and ordered the people to worship the two brothers.

Dear darling, Ko Tin Maung claimed that this was the intelligent Royal trick used to be played
by the Burmese kings to execute the powerful rivals and posthumously elevated them to the level
of Nats or powerful Spirits or local gods, just to please their followers or the people who love the
executed heroes.

As we all know Nan, up to the present, the followers or believers worship that shrine of those
two brothers. Although all those worshippers are all Buddhists, they all abstain from eating pork
till now. It is even taboo to allow anyone to carry pork on the buses or cars, while going to that
yearly spirit festival still celebrating annually and attended by followers all over Burma. We can
still see the vacant slot for the two pieces of brick allegedly triggered that tragic prosecution.

So it is sad to record that they became the first Muslims persecuted in Burma because of their
religious belief. And their uncle was also killed just because he was powerful and the king was
afraid of him.

You will be surprized Nan, King Anawratha 1044-1077 AD also had Burmese Muslim soldiers
and body guards. Muslims played a significant part in Burmese history as when King Anawrahta
attacked Martaban, capital of Mon (Talaing) King, Mingyi Swa Saw Kae¶, two Muslim officers¶
army unit fiercely defended against his attack against Mons.

All of us could read in the Glass Palace Chronicles that King Anawrahta appointed a Muslim
Arab as a Royal teacher for his son, Prince Sawlu. That teacher¶s son later became the Governor
of Bago (Pegu) known as Ussa City. His name was Raman Khan. (Known as Nga Yaman Kan as
in Burmese. Nga was usually put in front of all commoners i.e. not from the Royal family). King
Sawlu himself had given the town to his childhood friend, also an adopted brother because
Raman Khan¶s mother was the wet nurse of Prince Sawlu.

Nan, once Raman Khan won the game of dice, jumped with joy and clapped the elbows. The
loser king Sawlu was angry and challenged Rahman Khan to rebel against him leading the Bago
province, if he was a real man. Raman Khan accepted the challenge, went back to Bago and
marched back to Bagan with his army of soldiers on horses and elephants. Rahman and army
camped at Pyi Daw Thar Island.

You see Nan, in any power struggle, competition, war (cold or hot war) it is important to know
as much information as possible. Raman Khan was clever and witty with tactics, even knew the
geography and landscape near the enemy¶s home ground and successfully used them for his
advantage. He successfully trapped the famous Kyansittha, King Sawlu and his mighty large
Bagan Burmese army in swamps. The whole Bagan army fled. Sawlu was later found and

Kyansittha tried to rescue but Sawlu refused to be rescued. His last fatal miscalculation led him
to be killed by Raman Khan. Rahman Khan himself was ambushed by the sniper bow-shot of
Nga Sin the hunter and died.

Dear Nan, later Kyansittha became the third king of Bagan Dynasty. While expending the empire
he brought back many Indian-Muslim captives. They were settled in central Burma. Because
Burma was located at the center of the shipping and trading route starting from Arabia and India,
heading towards Thailand, Malay, Indonesia, Korea, Japan and China, the whole of the coast of
Burma developed rapidly. Dela, Yangon and Syriam became shipyards, depots of goods and
markets for exchange of goods.

Darling, the Muslims dominated all the seaports in Burma and Thailand, at that time. In
seventeenth century, those Muslims controlled the business and became so powerful because of
their wealth. They were even appointed as Governor of Mergui, the Viceroy of the Province of
Tenasserim, Port Authorities, Port Governors and Shah-Bandars (senior port officials). Muslim
sailors built many mosques, but those should be more appropriately called Temples as they were
equally holy to Buddhists, Hindus, Muslims and Chinese. They were called Buddermokan, in
memory to Badr al-Din Awliya, a saint. They are found in Akyab, Sandoway and on a small
island off Mergyi.
Dear Nan, Ma Thorda claimed that the forefathers of Burmese Muslims had landed in Burma at
Rakhine, Ayeyarwady delta and Tanintharyi coast as early as ninth century, roughly about 200
years before King Anawrahta of Pagan established the first Shwe Bama empire in 1055 AD.

Dear Nan, you will be surprised that when the famous Raza Dirit attacked and conquered Dagon
(Yangon), Muslim soldiers defended from the Burmese side. Muslim artillerymen and riflemen
served regularly in Burmese army and sometimes even as royal bodyguards because the Burmese
kings never trust their own race. This is understandable because there was the custom that time
that he who kills the king becomes a king. And in Burmese history sometimes the son killed his
own father and brothers killed each other to become a king. Even the first Burmese King,
Anawratha had killed his half-brother, King Sokkate. Sokkate had also forced and dethroned his
own father King Kunhsaw.

Nan, when Tabin Shwe Hti attacked Martaban in 1541 AD, many Muslims resisted strongly.
When Ba Yint Naung successfully conquered Ayutha (Thailand) in 1568-1569 AD he use the
help of Muslim artillerymen. King Alaung Pha Ya 1752-1760 AD conquered Syrim. Muslim
prisoners of war were forced to serve in his army.

Dear Nan, Pagan Min 1846-1853 AD appointed U Paing, a Burmese Muslim, as the Governor of
the Capital city, Amarapura. He donated a two- mile long bride, made of teakwood across the
Taung Tha Man Lake. It is still useful and now became a scenic area attracting picnickers and

Dear Nan, In 1850 AD the Governor of Bagan was also said to be a Muslim. As we mentioned
above, Burmese kings employed a lot of Muslims in his inner circle: Royal bodyguards, eunuchs,
couriers, interpreters and advisers.

Nan, now only I know that thousands of Burmese Muslims fought alongside fellow Burmese
Buddhist soldiers to defend the beloved homeland of Burma (Myanmar) in the three Anglo-
Burmese wars. But it is too much when Ko Tin Maung claimed that Maha Ban Doola was
Mahammad Ibn Abdulla and a Muslim. His original name Nga Yit was Ariff. No one could
prove this but we cannot reject that because there were thousands of Muslims in Burmese Kings¶
armies. He was one of the most famous and brave warriors and commanders in Burmese history.

Dear Nan, I have seen the historical records that Muslim prisoners of war were settled in upper
Burma by successive Burmese kings. Mye Du near Shwebo was one of the sites. Muslim
prisoners from Bago during 1539-1599 AD were the first settlers.
Darling, Tabin Shwe Hti brought back the Muslim prisoners, after attacking Arakan in 1546 and
1549 AD. King Anaukpetlun conquered Syriam in 1613 AD and brought back Muslim soldiers
and sailors as prisoners of war. They were settled in Myedu, Sagaing, Yamethin and Kyaukse.
King Sane brought back several thousand Muslim prisoners of war from Sandoway and settled in
Myedu in 1707 AD. Next year few thousands more were settled in those places and Taungoo.

King Alaungpaya attacked Assam and Manipur of India and brought back more Muslims to
settle in Burma. These Muslims later assimilated to form core of Burmese Muslims. Earlier they
were called Myedu Kala or Kala Pyo.(Kala = foreigner; Pyo =young.).

Nan, I saw the records that Muslims in Amarapura were about 20,000 families, at the time of
Inwa (Ava) kingdom (1855 AD). Most of them were Sunni Muslims. The first mosque in
Yangon was built in 1826 AD, at the end of first Anglo-Burman war. It was destroyed in 1852
AD when the British attacked Yangon again.

Darling, the most note-worthy of the Burmese rulers was King Mindon, (1853-1878 AD) second
last king of Myanmar. He built a mosque at North Obo in central Mandalay, the capital city then.
He had even donated a hostel in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for the convenience of Burmese Muslims
pilgrims during Hajj. King Mindon also donated the land to build a mosque in Mandalay. The
Chinese Muslim Colonel Mah Tu Tu managed the building of that Mosque and expenses were
paid by the Yunan Muslim king, Sultan Suleiman.

The last Muslim Mogul Emperor of India, Abu Za¶far Saraj al-Din Bahadur Shah and his family
members and some followers were exiled to Yangon, Myanmar. He died in Yangon and was
buried on 7.11.1862.

After the British took over the whole Burma all sub groups of Burmese-Muslims formed
numerous organizations, active in social welfare and religious affairs.

Dear Nan, those Burmese Muslims migrated earlier and they are more assimilated into Burmese
than the Muslims migrated later during colonial period from Indian Subcontinent. During the
British administration Indian (actually whole of Indian Subcontinent) Immigrants (nearly one
half of them were Muslims) were brought in to run the almost all of the Government Service and
to run the British companies. They also formed the military and civilian staff of the British
Army. Some of them were clerks, almost in all the fields of manpower (skilled and unskilled).
Others were doctors, engineers, hospital and medical workers, teachers, Burma Railway staff,
river shipping staff, Post office staff, and rice mill staff. Some were staff and workers for ²
mines, oil fields, banks, shops, treasury, Public Administration office and Police Forces. As
private civilians, they also came in as traders, various type of shop owners, servants, launders
(dhobi), hotel and restaurant owners, dispatch boys, watchmen, security services, hawkers etc.

Dear Nan, they arrived, temporary or permanently settled and married with local Burmese and
Myanmar ethnic minority girls and formed the core of the Myanmar Muslims. Ko Tin Maung
admitted that his great grandfather migrated like this and married to my great grand aunt. Those
mixed marriages, intermarriages and assimilation process of throwing away of almost all their
foreign languages, foreign dresses and foreign culture slowly shaped them in to Ethnic Myanmar
Muslim group of today as I had wrote in detail in my previous letter.

Dear darling, Saya Gyi U Razak, U Raschid and U Shaw Phi or Mohd. Shafi were the most prominent Myanmar
Indian Muslims. As I had written earlier most of the Indian Muslims who went back to Indian subcontinent after
General Ne Win took over and nationalized all their business. So Ko Tin Maung claimed that his family decided to
stay in Burma and have shown love to the new home, Burma. Now most of them are third or fourth generation
migrants and most of them are married to locals and almost totally assimilated into mainstream Burmese Muslims.

Nan, according to the British official census, there were half million Muslims in Burma at 1921. Burmese population
then was only eleven million. Pre-war Rangoon was dominated by Indians. Transport, trade to almost all of the
service sectors, government and private alike was in the hands of Indians so that it was a must to master the Hindi or
Urdu for even the Burmese Buddhists to survive in Rangoon, the capital of Burma. And in capital Rangoon 70% of
the population was Indians, 10% was Chinese and Burmese Buddhists were only 20% of the population. Capital
Rangoon is more like a foreign city and Burmese Buddhists were like foreigner in their own country. About 50% of
Indians were Indian Muslims.

Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy
(actually Mon town Han Sawadi ± similar to Thailand citizen Mons) and Syriam (Tanyin or
Than Lyin) in Burma.

Even before them, Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived there earlier, settled and built
pagodas since 500 BC.

Dear Nan, the population of the Burmese Muslims increased during the British rule of Burma
because of new waves of Indian Muslim Immigration. This sharply reduced since 1941 because
of Indo-Burman Immigration agreement, and totally stopped after Burma (Myanmar) gained
independence in Jan.1948. So Burmese Muslims are at least staying in Myanmar from 50 years
and some of them are staying for more than 1000 years already.
Dear darling, most of the Muslims in Burma are Sunni Muslims from the Hannafi sect. From the
Bosnia, Kosovo, Albania, Turkey, Central Asia (break away countries from Russia),
Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh Muslims are from this same sect. Muslims
from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei are from the Shafi sect of Sunni.
Shafi sect is known to be spread by the sea route. In contrast to this, Hannafi sect is known to be
spread by the land route.

Dear Nan, there are records that Islam first came into India in the province of Kerala during the
lifetime of Prophet. Prophet had sent messengers to the Kings of China and Kerala (in South
India). King Cheraman of Chera dynasty of Kerala Converts to Islam in the 7th Century.

Dear Nan, famous Muslim warrior king, Tamerlane became the ruler of an
empire that stretched from Delhi to Anatolia. His name was a corruption of the name in Persian,
Timur-i-Leng, meaning "Timur the Lame." The word Timur is Turkic for "iron". Timur was born
in Kesh, fifty miles south of Samarkand in 1336. He captured Delhi in 1398 and became the
Emperor of Hindustan. (Samarkand, Timur's royal city, celebrated its 2500th anniversary in
1970. It is an ancient site, located on the Zarafshan River, in modern-day Uzbekistan.)

Babur, the first of the Moghuls was born on February 14, 1483 in Ferghana east of Samarkand.
The name "Moghul" is a Persian variant of "Mongol". Emperor Babur (1483-1530), the founder
of the great Mughul dynasty, was descended from both Genghis Khan and Timur. In 1504, Babur
captured the Kabul, Afghan and India in 1524. Two years later, he defeated the Sultan of Delhi.

He established the Mughal dynasty which ruled from Delhi (and later from Agra) Between 1527
C.E. and 1690 C.E., the Mughals gradually expanded their hold over almost the whole of India.
The Mughul ruled India from 1527 up to 1857 and was formally abolished by the British.

The last Muslim Moghul Emperor of India, Abu Za¶far Saraj al-Din Bahadur Shah and his family
members and some followers were exiled to Yangon, Burma. The king-poet was arrested from Delhi after
the failure of the first war of independence against the British in 1857. He died there and was buried in
Yangon (Rangoon) on 7.11.1862. Now his burial site became a minor diplomatic clash between India and
Pakistan. Both of them want to control the site now famous as a shrine and even Burmese Buddhists used
to go and pray there because Za¶far Shar, as they known, was regarded as a saint.

Dear Nan, Ko Tin Maung continued by showing me the Hman Nan Yar Zawon, that Myanmar
started from Tagaung, built by Abi Raja, a Sakian (Tha Ki Win min), Indian Royal family
member, migrated from Kapilavatthu (India) after defeated by the king of Panchala (India),
Vitatupa. He left the Middle Country (India) and established the Tagaung country, known at that
time as Sangassarattha or Sangassanagara. On the death of Abi Raja, younger son Kan Raja Nge
(younger King Khan) got the throne. Thirty-three kings reigned there. Elder brother Kan Raja
Gyi (elder King Khan) went down the Ayeyarwaddy River, ascended the Thallawadi River,
arrived Kelataungnyo and ruled there as Rajagaha. He ruled the ancient Arakan. His son
Muducitta became king of the Pyus (ancestors of modern Myanmar). He founded the city of
Kyauppadaung. He conquered the Dhannavati (built by king Marayu).

Dear darling, we know that for nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD Chittagong was
under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the
inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours. During the 16th and 17th
centuries the Arakanese (known in Bengal as Maghs) in alliance with the Portuguese constituted
a predatory party. By dominating the riverine tracts they plundered and devastated large parts of
southern and eastern Bengal. (For details; J.N.Sarkar: The Feringhi Pirates of Chatgaon; Journal
of the Asiatic Society of Bengalvol.111,1907,pp.419-25,and F Bemier: Travels in the Mughal
Empire. Delhi l 968, P.175.)

Dear Nan, they carried a large number of men, women and children from the coastal districts of
Bengal, (District Gazetteer ± 24 Pargana. P. 39.) as captives and the Maghs (Arakanese)
employed them as agricultural labour. It is well known that the Kingdom of Arakan was a
sparsely populated area, which required huge amount of human labour for agriculture. With this
intention the Arakanese employed a large number of captives in the villages of land on the bank
of the Kuladan River to the Naf. This Kula population of the country form about 15 percent of
the whole population. A.P.Phayre mentions, "the Kolas or Mossalmans, are of an entirely
different race because they being of Bengalee descent. (A. P. Phayre, Account of Arakan Journal
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. X, 184 1, P. 68 1.)

Nan, the large numbers of the Muslim soldiers, nobles, courtiers and intellectuals accompanied
Mogul Prince Shah Shuja, the son of Mughul Emperor Shajahan, the brother of Aurangzeb. Shah
Shuja, came to seek refuge in the court of Arakan in 1660 after the war of succession. Later on
the prince and some of his soldiers were murdered on Feb., 1661. (G.E.Hervey, The fate of Shah
Shuja 1661. Journal of the Burma Research Society, part 1, 1922. pp. 107-115.)

Ma Thorda continued that, ³Some of Shah Shuja¶s soldiers who escaped the massacre were later
admitted into the king's bodyguard as a special archers unit called Kamans or Kamanci´. (These
words mean bows and Bowmen respectively in Persian). (M. Siddique Khan, op, cit., p. 253.)
From 1666 to 1710 the political rule of Arakan was completely in their hands, during which the
Muslim Kaman units played a decisive role of king makers and king breakers. Their numbers
were increased from time to time by fresh arrivals from upper India. (G. E Hervey, History of
Burma, London 1925, P. 148.) (Mohammad Khalilur Rahman, Tarik-i-Islam Arakan & Burma,
Urdu version, Quoted by Abdul Haque Chowdhury.) Aurangzeb, the brother of Shah Shuja
attacked the Arakan in 1666 AD. Kamans also rebelled from inside, with the aid of Muslim
Afghan soldiers. They are now recognized even by the present Myanmar Military as the ethnic
minority of Myanmar.

She siad that they were exiled to Ramree in 1710 AD by King Sandawizaya. Their descendants
still survive in Ramree and in few villages near Akyab. Their language is Arakanese and their
customs are similar to Arakan customs in everything except religion Islam. Jahiruddin Ahmed
and Nazir Ahmed, former President and Secretary of Arakan Muslim Conference respectively,
said that,"We met a few hundreds of Muslims along the sea-shore near Akyab, known as
'Thambu Kya' Muslims meaning ship wrecked Muslims«.This Thambu kya Muslims do not
claim to be Ruhaingyas nor are they known by others as such. (Zahiruddin Ahmed and Nazir
Ahmed, The Maghs & the Muslims in Arakan, P. 7.)

Dear Nan, Ko Tin Maung claimed that the Burmese Muslims had suffered a lot more than the
fair share throughout the Burmese history. Most of them had suffered in silence and no historian
care to document those in detail. Because of lack of media coverage some Ethnic Cleansing were
not widely known.

Nan, he claimed that the first Muslim killing documented in Burmese history (recorded in Mhan
Nan Yar Za Win or Glass Palace Chronicle) was killing of Byat Wi by Mon, Thaton King. He
was killed just because he was too powerful and said to have as much strength as an adult
elephant. The king was scared of rebellion only. (It was at about 1050 AD).

According to his claims, the second two Muslims killed later were Byat Wi¶s nephews, the two
sons of his brother Byat Ta, known as Shwe Byin brothers. As reported earlier, they were
executed because of their religious beliefs.

Dear Nan, Rahman Khan (Nga Yaman Kan) was fourth Muslim killed for political reason but it
was fair because he was a rebel and he had killed King Sawlu.

But he admitted that we could not blame Kyansittha for the death of Shwe Ein Si¶s lover, Prince
of Pateik Kara, ancient Bengal King. That prince had µfly¶ with the help of a magically powerful
µlive¶ ruby to see the princess kept at the tall palace. He used to bribe the royal guards with ten
baskets of silver. When the king heard of the secret lovers¶ tryst, he forced his daughter to marry
Sawyun, the son of late King Sawlu, Sawyun was a handicapped person walking with a limp.
Kyansittha rather preferred a handicapped person than a Kala (foreigner). Once the prince heard
the bad news from Shin Arahan, while both were flying, he opened his mouth in surprise;
magical ruby fell off from the mouth. Then he fell down from the sky, drowned and died. May
be all this magical story of flying and cause of death were all cover up stories to dignify the
princess¶ secret lover.

Dear Nan, Ko Tin Maung was emotional when he described in detail about the mass killings of
Muslims in Arakan which we have mentioned in brief earlier. It may be not for the religion but
likely to be due to politics and greed only. Shah Shuja¶ was the second son of the Mogul
Emperor Shah Jahan who built 
%¦ #  Shah Shuja¶ lost to his brother
and fled with his family and army in to Arakan. Sandathudama (1652-1687 AD), Arakan King
accepted them and allowed him to settle there. He wanted to buy ships to continue going to
Mecca and willing to pay with silver and gold. But Arakan king asked for his daughter and also
allegedly became greedy to get all the wealth. As the eldest son of Mogul Emperor, he was very
rich. There were confusing various versions of history reports but after an alleged unsuccessful
attempt of rebellion the sultan and all his followers were killed. All men seen with beard, the
symbol of Islam, were beheaded. Women were put into prison and let them die with hunger.

Dear darling, those atrocities first started from greed evolved itself into a clear ethnic cleansing
based on religion. The brother of that killed sultan, King Aurangzeb, although the enemy of the
killed brother because of the rivalry in ascending the throne, was angry because of that killings.
He attacked the Arakan and the local Muslim slaves and Arakan Muslim Kamans assisted by
rebelling from inside. It leaded to the end of the power of that Arakan kingdom.

Dear Nan, Ma Thorda point out the history book about the allegations that even Bayint Naung
(1550-1589 AD) was the first Burmese king who started the religious oppression. In 1559 AD
after conquering Bago (Pegu) he prohibited the Muslims from the religious slaughtering (or
doing halal i.e. killing by cutting the throat under the name of their God) of goats and chicken.
He had allegedly showed religious intolerance with force on some of his Muslim subjects. They
were allegedly forced to listen to Buddhist sermons and some were even converted against their
will. He also disallowed the (Kurbani) slaughtering sacrifice of cattle during Edil Adha.

Dear darling, Ko Tin Maung showed the history book alleging that King Alaung Phaya (1752-
1760) had also prohibited Muslims to do halal (slaughtering according to Islamic faith) on cattle.

Dear Nan, according to the records they showed, King Bodaw Paya (1782-1819) had allegedly done some atrocities on
his Burmese Muslim subjects. The king arrested four famous Burmese Muslims Moulvis (Imams) from Myedu and
killed them in capital Ava, because they refused to obey his order to eat pork. According to the Myedu Muslims and
Burmese Muslims legends or versions there were seven dark days after that execution and the king later apologize to
the Muslims and recognized the slain four religious leaders as saints.

Dear Nan, after the independence Prime Minister U Nu appointed few Muslims into his cabinet. They were not
included as the representatives of the Burmese Muslims but on their own capacity as the political ally of the Prime
Minister and the ruling party. They were even told to dissociate themselves from the Islamic Religious activities.

Dear Nan, both of your cousins agreed that 3.70   "  6!He was
born in Meikhtila on 20 January 1898. He studied at the Wesleyan School in Mandalay, Rangoon College, got B.A.

(English0. Active in athletics sports.

In 1920, U Razak was a leader in first Burmese student boycott to the British colonial education system. In 1921, he
became headmaster of Mandalay National High School. U Razak's natural charisma was effective in persuading the
people of Mandalay. When Japan invaded Burma in World War II, he was imprisoned.

The BMC, Burma Muslim Congress was founded almost at the same time with the AFPFL, Anti-Fascist Peoples¶
Freedom Party of General Aung San and U Nu before World War Two. On 25.12 45 in ,     #
   3.70#   ! , !   "-!! ! ! 1¯2,2
 In 1945, U
Razak was named chariman of the Mandalay branch of AFPFL and was elected aMember of Parliament of Mandalay.
He became the Minister of Education and National Planning in General Aung San's Cabinet. He was assassinated on 19
July 1947 together with General Aung San and other cabinet members.

U Razak initiated calls for unity between Burmese Muslims and Buddhists. He was a devout Muslim, but maintained
ties to Buddhism, educating himself on Pali, the sacred script of Theravada Buddhism, and helped found the Mandalay
Degree College (modern Mandalay University.

And he had supported the main policy of the AFPFL even when they were against the partition along the community
or religious lines. U Razak and his few associate Burmese Muslims objected to the struggle of those demanding
specific constitutional guarantees for the Burmese Muslim minority. But we have to accept that U Razak was a very
popular, important and prominent Burmese Muslim leader who had successfully organized the Burmese Muslims to
be able to get an official record that they had participated since the very beginning of the Burmese National struggle
towards independence.

U Raschid and more prominently U Khin Maung Lat, follows the general policy of sacrificing
the Rights and Interests of the Burmese Muslim Community for µthe country and their party¶. So
no wander most of the Burmese Muslims later refused to regard or recognize these µself
interested¶ seasoned politicians as their true representatives or saviors.
Prime Minister U Nu, just few months after independence of Burma, requested the Burma
Muslim Congress to resign its membership from AFPFL. In response to that U Khin Maung Lat,
the new President of BMC decided to discontinue the Islamic Religious activities of the BMC
and rejoined the AFPFL. Later he became the Minister of Justice but no more represented the
wishes of Burmese Muslim community.

The newly formed Burmese Muslim League requested a special government department for the
Muslim affairs to determine their own future, as same as for other minorities, who had Ministries
in Yangon and governments in their states.

U Nu removed the Burma Muslim Congress from AFPFL on 30.9.1956. BMC was asked to
dissolve since 1955. Later U Nu decreed the Buddhism as the state religion of Burma against the
will of the Ethnic Minorities and various religious organizations including Burmese Muslims.

U Nu as the devoted Buddhist was pressured by the wealthy and influential Hindi merchants ordered the prohibition
of slaughtering the cattle. Although he relaxed that during the Kurbani Edd, Muslims had to apply the permits for
each cattle and strictly follow under police supervision. Although General Ne Win revoked that order and allowed the
slaughter of cattle for daily consumption, the strict restriction for the sacrifice remained up to the present and the
Muslims, even Mosques¶ official who failed to adhere to the permitted number of cattle were arrested and punished.

Dear Nan, Ko Tin Maung complained that successive Military Governments had made more difficult conditions and
regulations for the Hajj pilgrimage. No one can deny that Burmese Muslims are now suffering a lot more under the
Autocratic, Oligarchic, Totalitarian, Xenophobic, Oppressive, Repressive and Tyrannical Military rule of Ne Win and
successive Military Governments, SLORC and SPDC.

Ma Thorda continued that Burmese Muslims were allowed to hold high posts in civil service and in armed forces
before the successive Military Governments came into power. Despite the sacrificial contributions, which Burmese
Muslims had made towards attaining Independence and in reconstructing the war-torn country after World War II,
successive Military Juntas apparently had extremely short memory of these facts. They denied high official posts to
Burmese Muslims in civil service military and in Government offices. They had also conveniently forgotten the fact
that Burmese-Muslim leaders were martyred along with our national hero General Aung San when he was

So it is not surprising that one could not find Muslim Ministers or Deputy Ministers in Burma
under Ne Win. But there were cases of double standards in that those Burmese-Muslim
intellectuals who professed Buddhism as their new faith were exalted to high posts. U Sein Win,
a Shiite Muslim converted to Buddhism and was even given the Prime Minister post under
General Ne Win¶s government. Dr. Maung Di, the son of the prominent Dean of the Islamic
College in central Burma, who was promoted from the post of Professor in Chemistry to Deputy
Minister of Education after he officially declared himself a Buddhist.

During the successive Military Governments, those Burmese Muslims who wanted to join the
Military were asked one common question, ³Could you eat pork?´

The chairman of the BSPP (Burma Socialist Programme Party), Ne Win, had forbidden the
Burmese Muslim community to enlist themselves as a separate racial group so the Muslims in
that country do not exist as a Burmese Muslim race but it is not a big problem but the denying
the right as a minority citizens is totally wrong according to the international norms. .

Dear Nan, I hereby wish to point out an important fact from the book you had given me as a
birthday present, Alan Clemts book, ³The Voice of Hope´. He discuss with Daw Aung San Suu
Kyi: ³As you know, Devadatta attempted to kill Buddha on several occasions. But Buddha said
that without Devadatta's aggression he would never have been able to become fully
accomplished in patience. One could see this as praise for the adversary or opposition.´


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So dear darling some of the Asian governments¶ claim that ³Asian values" advocating very
limited Democracy, declaring it is better than western full Democracy is merely a smokescreen
to justify their restrictions on their own people so that they could rule over them for a prolonged
period. They falsely declare that the Western democracy is inappropriate for Asia. But they are
ignorant of the real fact that the Asian philosophers, from Confucius, Pakistani philosopher-poet
Mohammad Iqbal, Indian-Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore and Tibet leader Dalai Lama
believed in human liberties and democracy. Never mind dear, my letter is quite long and we
could discuss about the subject I skipped earlier, ³Good Governance

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