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# Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 584-586 (2014) pp 1853-1857 Submitted: 23.04.

2014
(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Accepted: 11.05.2014
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.584-586.1853

## Applying immune algorithems to the calculation

of sound insulation of walls

Ye Jun
Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China
yjgz2010@163.com

## Keywords: immune algorithm, walls, sound insulation

Abstract. Building wall plays a key role in the noise isolation. As a there are lot of open holes in the
wall for various construction equipments, pipes and lines, it is an important issue how to determine
the maximum area of wall cracks with the given expect sound insulation. The calculation model is
established with immune algorithm, the expected value of the sound isolation is defined as objective
function, the areal density, thickness and Young modulus of monolayer wall are defined as bounded
variable. The global maximum value of objective function is obtained by the MATLAB program and
so to determine the materials, thickness and construction details which reach to the sound insulation.

Introduction
The sound insulation of monolayer homogeneous solid wall is mainly related to the incident
frequency and the area density of the wall. In addition, the rigidity, thickness, the Yang modulus of the
material, and the boundary condition of the wall have influence on the sound insulation. The sound
insulation of the wall can mostly decrease the aerodynamic for 10~60dB. But, once there is noise
leakage caused by the quality of the door and window, and that of the wall construction work, the
whole sound insulation of the wall will decrease dramatically. So the inverse calculation and research
is necessary for the influence of noise leakage on the sound insulation. This article take the above
three parameters as bounded variable, with the given expected sound insulation, predicts inverse
about the parameters like the areal density, thickness, and Young modulus (or the sound wave
longitude wave velocity), etc, so to determine the construction parameters as the wall materials, and
thickness, etc.

## The determination of the calculation model.

The recognition diversity of the immune system brings us a lot of enlightenments. The
mathematical abstraction of this character can represented as a multimodal function optimization
problem. Meanwhile, a lot of engineering problems can be abstracted as an optimization to some
projective function, and of which most projective functions of the optimization problem are
multimodal functions.
Sound leak means the sound transmit into the indoor through the gaps or holes on the structures.
Because the whole sound insulation effect of the room or the wall (total weighting sound insulation)
mainly depends on the sound transmission of the elements which has relative bad sound insulation, so
the influence of sound leak is very essential to the wall sound insulation. The sound leak in the
building is mainly caused by the following reasons: the cracks in the concrete block wall and the
gypsum board wall, the cracks surrounding the wall mounted sockets, the pipes through the wall being
not well sealed, and the gaps around the wall, doors and the windows. This sample will predict
reversely the wall sound insulation and the bore ratio with given wall area S and the total weighting
insulation R .
If the total area of the wall with cracks is S , the wall sound insulation is Rw ,the pore ratio is
,then the wall transmission coefficient is:
1854 Architecture, Building Materials and Engineering Management IV

Rw

w = 10 10
. 1
And the total transmission coefficient of the wall with pores is:
(1)S +S
= = (1) +
S 2

And the total sound insulation of the wall with pores is:
1 1
R =10log10 = 10log10
(1) + 3

Form equation 3, when increases, the total insulation of the wall with pores will decrease
dramatically.
The area of wall with pores is S , the total expected weighting sound insulation of the wall is R ,
*

calculate the sound insulation of the wall with pores. Solve: what are the value of the pore ratio (or
the area of the pores)and that of the weighting sound insulation of the wall without pores Rw , the
above weighting sound insulation R can be reached? The calculation flowing chart see Fig1
*

Input Rw and S

S1=(1-)S, S2=S

R
w
= 10
10

A= S1+ S21

A 1
T= , R = 10 log10
S T
Fig. 1 The calculation flow chart of the sound insulation of the wall with cracks

## Determination of the calculation parameter

At first we shall encodes the solution of the problem (ie. Antibody). The two dependent variables
in the objective function are and Rw , the encode of the antibody is composed by these two
dependent variables, one set , Rw is one antibody.
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 584-586 1855

## 3.1 Encoding scheme

Use binary strings in length of 21 to indicate the two decision variables RW , , in which the
first 6 digits indicate RW ,and the maximum value of RW is 2 1 = 63 , and the range is
6 [ 0, 63] ; the
15
later 15 digits indicate ,and the maximum value of is 2 1 = 32767 , the range is
[ 0,32767] ;
connect them together to make a binary strings of 21 digits in length, thus establish the antibody
encoding method for this optimization problem function.

## antibody X : 011011 110001101000110

RW
3.2 Decoding scheme
When decoding, first divide the 21 digits binary encoding string to a 6 digits and a 15 digits
binary encoding strings, then convert them respectively to correspond decimal integer code, record as
R and . Then the decoding formula is:

R
RW = 35 + 25 = 100% 4
63 32767

From the encoding scheme, it can be known obviously that the range for RW is
[ 25, 60] ; and the
range for is
[0,1] .
3.3The decision variable and constraint condition
*
In the prediction of sound insulation, the expected wall sound insulation R is given, the size of
each sub-system, and the pore ratio of the wall with pores and the wall sound insulation
Rw
(anti-body), are required to let the predicted sound insulation R tends to the expected sound
* *
insulation R , so choose the average distance of the data point of R and R to be objective function.
Hypothesis: the area of the wall with pores is 12m2, the average weighting sound insulation of the
*
wall is required as R 40dB , then the objective function is equation (4),
m
1
opt = min Ri (Rw , ) Ri* = 10lg RW
40

i =1
(1 ) 10 10
+ 5

s.t. 25 RW 60 0 1

3.4Antibody density
Antibody density: in a group, the specific gravity that the antibody to the other similar
antibodies, ie:

## In which is similarity constant, usually take 0.9 1

1856 Architecture, Building Materials and Engineering Management IV

Aggregation fitness is the balance evaluation result on the fitness and the density:

## fitness ' = fitness exp( k Ci ) 7

The essence of the aggregation fitness is a revision for the antibody fitness. For the maximum
optimization, k in equation (7) is a negative number, in this article, we take. k = 0.8 . The program
compute on antibody density and aggregation fitness and able the group renovation function based on
antibody density.

## Optimization process and its result

Optimize for function (5) though programming, its population distribution (initial population
R x x
and 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 progeny population). If the wall sound insulation w is 1 , pore ratio is 2 .
The calculation parameters are set as following:
Antibody length: 20, termination generation:200, crossover probability: 0.6, mutation
probability:0.05, fitness threshold A0: 0.05, antibody density: 0.95
Optimization with this immune calculation, the antibody tends to convergence. The calculated
wall expected weighting sound insulation X 1 =57.2(dB), the area of the gaps X 2 =1.25103 (mP2).

Summary
The building plays a key role in noise isolation; its sound insulation design shall be placed
enough emphasis. When the expected sound insulation is given, through the immune optimization
calculation method compiled in this article, the maximum area of the gaps in the wall can be
determined, thus offer the practical guidance on the size of the opening for the pipes in the wall, and
the place to mount the socket during construction work.

Acknowledgements
This work was financially supported by Year 2013 Science and Technology Project Plan of
Ministry of Housing and Urban-rural Development of the People's Republic of China(2013-R1-8)
Year 2012 Hubei Province Construction Science and Technology Project Plan (30), and
Wuhan University of Science and Technology Young Sicientific Backbone Training Plan
(2010xz023)

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