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PCS 7 Unit Template Fermenter


using the example of the
Chemical Industry
SIMATIC PCS 7

Application Description July 2013

Applications & Tools


Answers for industry.
Siemens Industry Online Support
This entry is taken from the Siemens Industry Online Support. The following link
takes you directly to the download page of this document:
http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/68098270

Caution:
The functions and solutions described in this article confine themselves to the
realization of the automation task predominantly. Please also take into account that
corresponding protective measures have to be taken in the context of Industrial
Security when connecting your equipment to other parts of the plant, the enterprise
network or the Internet. For more information, please refer to Entry ID 50203404.
http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/50203404
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Fermenter
2 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
Task Description and
s Solution 1
Fundamentals Process
Engineering 2
Structure and Function
Principle 3
Integrating the Unit
Template 4
SIMATIC PCS 7
Starting the Unit
Template 5
Fermenter
Application Example Operating the Application 6

Related Literature 7
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History 8
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Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 3
Warranty and Liability

Warranty and Liability

Note The Application Examples are not binding and do not claim to be complete
regarding the circuits shown, equipping and any eventuality. The application
examples do not represent customer-specific solutions. You are responsible for
ensuring that the described products are used correctly. These application
examples do not relieve you of your responsibility to use safe practices in
application, installation, operation and maintenance. When using these
application examples, you recognize that we cannot be made liable for any
damage/claims beyond the liability clause described. We reserve the right to
make changes to these application examples at any time without prior notice. If
there are any deviations between the recommendations provided in this
application example and other Siemens publications e.g. catalogs the
contents of the other documents have priority.

We do not accept any liability for the information contained in this document.
Any claims against us based on whatever legal reason resulting from the use of
the examples, information, programs, engineering and performance data etc.,
described in this application example will be excluded. Such an exclusion will not
apply in the case of mandatory liability, e.g. under the German Product Liability Act
(Produkthaftungsgesetz), in case of intent, gross negligence, or injury of life, body
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or health, guarantee for the quality of a product, fraudulent concealment of a


deficiency or breach of a condition which goes to the root of the contract
(wesentliche Vertragspflichten). The damages for a breach of a substantial
contractual obligation are, however, limited to the foreseeable damage, typical for
the type of contract, except in the event of intent or gross negligence or injury to
life, body or health. The above provisions do not imply a change of the burden of
proof to your detriment.

Any form of duplication or distribution of these application examples or excerpts


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hereof is prohibited without the expressed consent of Siemens Industry Sector.

Fermenter
4 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
Preface

Preface
Objective of this application
The objective of this application is to supply you with a prefabricated and unified
example project for a process engineering plant. It offers a quick introduction and
know-how acquisition, based on the appropriate equipment modules. This example
project can be adjusted flexibly to your own requirements and be integrated into
your own multi-projects.

Main contents
The following core points are discussed in this application:
Structure of a fermenter
Description of the individual functions and configurations
Handling the application example

Validity
As of SIMATIC PCS 7 V8.0 SP1
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Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 5
Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Warranty and Liability .............................................................................................. 4
Preface ...................................................................................................................... 5
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... 6
1 Task Description and Solution ...................................................................... 8
1.1 Task .................................................................................................. 8
1.2 Solution ............................................................................................. 8
1.2.1 Fermenter unit ................................................................................... 8
1.2.2 Overview of the overall solution ......................................................... 9
1.2.3 Core functionality ............................................................................. 11
1.2.1 Description of the individual functions .............................................. 12
1.2.2 Control concept ............................................................................... 14
1.2.3 P&I flow diagram ............................................................................. 15
1.3 Hardware and software components ................................................ 16
2 Fundamentals Process Engineering......................................................... 17
2.1 Fermenter........................................................................................ 17
2.2 Temperature control ........................................................................ 17
3 Structure and Function Principle................................................................. 18
3.1 Project structure .............................................................................. 18
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3.1.1 Naming conventions for CFC charts................................................. 18


3.1.2 Plant view ........................................................................................ 19
3.2 Equipment modules and process tags.............................................. 20
3.3 Cleaning (CIP) ................................................................................. 21
3.3.1 Structure.......................................................................................... 21
3.3.2 Configuration ................................................................................... 22
3.4 pH value control (pH) ....................................................................... 24
3.4.1 Structure.......................................................................................... 24
3.4.2 Configuration ................................................................................... 25
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3.5 Filling level (Level) ........................................................................... 27


3.5.1 Structure.......................................................................................... 27
3.5.2 Configuration ................................................................................... 28
3.5.3 Extension possibilities...................................................................... 30
3.6 Pressure control (Pressure) ............................................................. 31
3.6.1 Structure.......................................................................................... 31
3.6.2 Configuration ................................................................................... 32
3.6.3 Extension possibilities...................................................................... 32
3.7 Jacket temperature control (JacketTemp) ........................................ 33
3.7.1 Structure.......................................................................................... 33
3.7.2 Configuration ................................................................................... 34
3.8 Product temperature control (ProductTemp) .................................... 35
3.8.1 Configuration ................................................................................... 36
3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC) ..................................................... 39
3.10 Process simulation (ProcSimulation) ................................................ 44
3.11 Process characteristics (KPI) ........................................................... 45
4 Integrating the Unit Template ...................................................................... 46
4.1 Preparation...................................................................................... 46
4.2 Implementation ................................................................................ 46
5 Starting the Unit Template ........................................................................... 48
5.1 Preparation...................................................................................... 48
5.2 Commissioning ................................................................................ 49

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Table of Contents

6 Operating the Application ............................................................................ 50


6.1 Overview ......................................................................................... 50
6.2 Scenario A....................................................................................... 50
6.3 Scenario B....................................................................................... 51
7 Related Literature ......................................................................................... 53
7.1 Bibliography..................................................................................... 53
7.2 Internet links .................................................................................... 53
8 History .......................................................................................................... 54
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Fermenter
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1 Task Description and Solution
1.1 Task

1 Task Description and Solution


1.1 Task
The standardization of automation technologies in process engineering plants, as
in the field of chemical industry, for example, constitutes a major challenge.
Various processes and process steps, different accessories, and flexibility in
production make this task even more complicated.
One approach to solve this problem is a structured plant layout on the basis of a
physical model according to DIN EN 61512. In this standard, the lower four levels
of the model, i.e. plant, unit, technical facility and individual control unit, are
specified in detail. A plant is always made up of units. These units may again
include further standardized technical facilities, also referred to as equipment
modules.

1.2 Solution
1.2.1 Fermenter unit

This application example refers to the unit of a universal fermenter (bioreactor) for
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white biotechnology plants which can be integrated in various types of industrial


plants. Such fermenters with jacket temperature control and a cleaning option (CIP
= Cleaninig In Place) are frequently used in chemical industry. In contrast,
fermenters for red biotechnology (production of pharmaceuticals) typically have
much smaller volumes and other, specific automation functions.
The Fermenter unit template offers a model which includes all typical
components, ranging from regulation and control over the necessary logistics and
interlocking functions up to visualization. Its modular structure is based on
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standardized equipment modules.

The use of this unit template offers the following advantages:


requires less know-how about application design and development
reduces the time and effort required for configuration
offers flexible integration and adaptation through the use of equipment
modules
provides uniform structures

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

1.2.2 Overview of the overall solution

Display
The figure below shows a possible specification of a chemical plant for the
production of bio-ethanol based on a fermenter.

Figure 1-1: Process layout of a typical chemical plant with a fermenter as a part of the bio-ethanol process

Delivery Storage Mill- Liquefaction Saccharifaction Fermentation Distillation Storage


ing

Dehydration

Water Enzymes Yeast CO2


Fracti- Methylation
Distillation onation

Bioethanol

Superheated
Bioethanol
steam
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Drying
Separation

Cooling tower / cooling plant

Thin slop

Syrup

Bioethanol

Drying
Loading

DDGS DGS
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Level Flow Pressure Temperature Valve positioning Weighing

Description
The fermenter unit template includes several preconfigured, standardized and
readily interconnected equipment modules. Based on this sample solution,
numerous instances with different parameter settings can be generated and
adapted for integration into a variety of automation solutions. The hardware-
independent configuration of the PCS 7 project enables flexible integration into
existing projects.
The Fermenter unit template has been realized in the form of a PCS 7
multiproject as follows:
The Component View contains one project for the automation system (AS) and
one project for the operator station (OS).
The Plant View contains a hierarchy folder for each equipment module of the
fermenter.
All control functions are realized in the AS project in the form of CFCs (continuous
function charts). Furthermore, the AS project includes a hierarchy folder with
simulation charts for simulating processes, for example, a change in filling levels
within an equipment module.

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

All equipment modules are available in the master data library of the project in the
form of process tag types and include function blocks of the PCS 7 Advanced
Process Library (APL).

The OS project comprises the visualization of the fermenter with all equipment
modules and shows:
a schematic layout of the fermenter
the relevant indicators (KPI: Key Performance Indicators)
controlling a cleaning process (CIP)
controlling a discontinuous production process

Delimitation
The automation solution on hand has been developed for a fermenter in
discontinuous operation in the white biotechnology environment. "White
biotechnology" refers to industrial manufacturing of products with biotechnological
methods. Microorganisms or cells are used here to produce the desired product
naturally. Typical target branches are fine chemical industry and food technology.
The sample solution is based on fermentation processes for bio-ethanol. Other
alcohols (incl. beer) as well as biogas are manufactured in fermenters; however,
the plant instrumentation can deviate strongly from the fermenters for bio-ethanol.
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The aim of "red biotechnology", on the other hand, is to access the genome of
microorganisms to produce certain pharmaceuticals or extract DNA sequences and
proteins for diagnosis. These are products which the cell would not naturally
produce and which are therefore allocated to the pharmaceutical sector.
Fermenters in red biotechnology pose special requirements on the automation
which are not covered by the sample solutions on hand. A respective so-called
Bioreactor Control Toolbox is currently developed (see /2/ in related literature in
chapter 7).
The engineering process within the fermenter is not simulated. With an enhanced
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simulation, the unit template could also be used in an operator training system.

Required knowledge
Basic knowledge of the following subject areas is required:
Configuration with PCS 7 and APL
Knowledge in the field of control engineering
Basic process engineering knowledge

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

1.2.3 Core functionality

The following chapter describes the individual components of a fermenter. Access


takes place via the process image of the visualization user interface.

Figure 1-2: R&I scheme of the fermenter in the PCS 7 OS display


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Process image
The process image of a fermenter comprises the following elements:
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Schematic illustration of the unit with feed components (arranged on the left of
the reactor) and discharge components (arranged on the right of the fermenter)
Faceplates to control the individual components (aggregates)
SFC for the production and cleaning process
Overview of all relevant indicators (Key Performance Indicators) and operating
duration displays
The process image provides an overview of the entire unit and allows the operator
to intervene as required.

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

1.2.1 Description of the individual functions

Figure 1-3

2 5
3
4

7
8

1
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The process image of the fermenter comprises the following main components:
1. Cleaning in place (CIP) without dismantling
2. Inflow of an ingredient
3. pH value control
4. Stirrer
5. Pressure control
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6. Temperature control (product and jacket temperature)


7. Reactor
8. Product discharge

(1) Cleaning in place (CIP)


The cleaning in place process uses a detergent to perform the cleaning of surfaces
in contact with the product (e.g. brine and/or base). Cleaning steps and duration
are defined in the SFC and started by the operator on demand (no part of the
solution).

(2) Inflow of an ingredient


An ingredient (biomass) is added to the tank via the feed until a defined filling level
is reached. The flow rate can be adjusted by the operator to the required
production volume or vary depending on a preceding process step (mixing of
various ingredients). The valve is controlled on demand via SFC.

(3) pH value control


Based on the fed ingredient, a pH value specified for the product is regulated by
means of a neutralizer, either brine/base or acid. For the pH value control,
deviations between setpoint and actual value are controlled by increasing or
reducing the inflow of the neutralizer.

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

(4) Stirrer
The motor-driven stirrer is used for mixing the added ingredient with the neutralizer
in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution of the material concentration and
temperature within the reactor. The stirrer is controlled on demand via SFC.

(5) Pressure control


The fermentation process produces a gas mixture (amongst others CO2) which
causes a pressure increase within the tank. The pressure can be reduced by
opening an outlet valve (continuously adjustable valve), so that the gas mixture can
escape from the tank.

(6) Temperature control


Temperature control consists of two sections.
1. Temperature control via the tank jacket provides an optimal environment for
the fermentation process. The specified temperature inside jacket of the
reactor is obtained by feeding either heating steam/water or cooling water into
the tank jacket via supply pipes. The tank jacket influences the temperature
within the reactor with a slight time lag.
2. The fermentation process and the neutralization reaction heat the product in
the tank. In order to oppose this temperature increase, the product is
continuously pumped through a heat exchanger.
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(7) Reactor
The fermentation takes place inside the reactor. The reactor is designed and
selected with consideration of process-specific relationships which may be quite
complex in some parts.
These include, among others, the following:
ingredients (for alternating products) and neutralizers which require a specific
design or tank property
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feed and discharge quantities and the production volume to determine the
reactor size
fermentation and neutralization in the appropriate ambient conditions required
(pH value, temperature and pressure)

(8) Product discharge


The product discharge can be controlled in different ways. Either, a ball valve with
a given flow rate value is used, or an open/close valve is used which permits the
maximum flow rate (depending on the cross-section of the pipe). The valve is
controlled on demand via SFC.

Further functions
After starting the control, a production process is performed with a cleaning
process at the end. After cleaning, all controllers and actuators are enabled for the
operator.
The operator can start the production on demand or control the individual
components of the fermenter.

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

KPI (key performance indicators)


The following indicators are measured or calculated, respectively:
Production volume

Note The PCS 7 project can be expanded by your own KPI, such as stand time,
space-time yield, and catalyst productivity.

Operating hours counter


The process image includes the following operating hours displays:
stirrer motor
pump of the jacket circuit
pump for the fermenter content (temperature control, product discharge,
cleaning process)

1.2.2 Control concept

For the fermenter control, the PID controllers PIDConL of the APL are used for
pH value, pressure, as well as temperature control.
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All further actions (open/close valves and activate/deactivate pumps and motor)
are controlled via SFC.

Note Physical correlations, e.g. between pressure and temperature, are not
considered for simulation.
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1 Task Description and Solution
1.2 Solution

1.2.3 P&I flow diagram

The figure below shows the individual elements of a fermenter in the form of a
piping and instrumentation flow diagram.
Figure 1-4

YC
ClP_In

CIP
YC
Feed
NS
Motor
Feed
QIC YC
PIC
pH NeutrSubst
Pressure

Neutralizer

YC
Out
TIC
Reactor
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Venting
YC
Cool

LI
Coolant Level

YC
Outflow
Product

YC
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Cooling

Product
TIC
Jacket
YC
M
CIP_Out
YC
Jacket_C CIP
Hot steam
YC
Jacket_H

Cooling water NS M
PumpReactor

NS
PumpJacket

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1 Task Description and Solution
1.3 Hardware and software components

1.3 Hardware and software components


This application was generated with the following components:

Hardware components
Table 1-1
Component Note
SIMATIC PCS 7 ES/OS IPC547D W7 For the PCS 7 V8.0 SP1 example project

Note When using different hardware, please observe the minimum requirements for
installing the software components. The minimum requirements are available in
the PCS 7 readme file.

Standard software components


Table 1-2
Component Note
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SIMATIC PCS 7 V8.0 SP1 Part of SIMATIC PCS 7 ES/OS IPC547D W7


S7-PLCSIM License not part of SIMATIC PCS 7
APL Library V8.0 SP1 Part of in SIMATIC PCS 7 V8.0 SP1

Sample files and projects


The following list includes all files and projects that are used in this example.
Table 1-3
Component Note
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68098270_Fermenter_PCS7V801.zip PCS 7 V8.0 sample project


68098270_Fermenter_en.pdf This document

Fermenter
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2 Fundamentals Process Engineering
2.1 Fermenter

2 Fundamentals Process Engineering


2.1 Fermenter
The term fermentation is derived from Latin and refers to the conversion of
biological matter aided by bacteria, fungi or cell cultures (animal or plant cells), or
enzymes.
In the fermentation process, a specific mixing ratio of different raw materials
(reactants), or a product from a preceding process, are fed into a fermenter. The
actual fermentation process occurs in the fermenter. A defined pH value is set by
means of an added neutralizer (acid or base). A heat exchanger and a temperature
controlled fermenter jacket are used for regulating the temperature.

2.2 Temperature control


In the fermenter, an optimal environment for producing the fermentation product is
required. For this reason, the temperature in the fermenter jacket is adjusted to the
temperature required for the manufacturing process. In the course of temperature
control, the jacket of the fermenter (double jacket) is either heated up or cooled
down for a constant jacket temperature. The transition of heat and the associated
time lags depend on the thickness and thermal conductivity of the jacket as well as
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the inner fermenter wall. In the course of plant operation, the heat transition
properties may change due to the formation of deposit layers (fouling).
Adding a neutralizer causes an exothermal chemical reaction in the fermenter
which causes a temperature increase in the mixture. The fermentation process
itself also causes release of reaction heat. To balance these changes and for
setting a given temperature, the mixture is pumped through a cooling heat
exchanger.
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Fermenter
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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.1 Project structure

3 Structure and Function Principle


3.1 Project structure
3.1.1 Naming conventions for CFC charts

The designation of process tags follows a uniform naming convention, whereby the
function is named in compliance with the European standard EN 62424. The figure
below shows how a process tag name is composed:

Figure 3-1
TIC_Jacket
Function Designation
T = Temperature (first letter)
I = Display (following letter)
C = Control (following letter)

The following table contains all letters used in this application and their meaning:
Table 3-1
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First letter Meaning


F Flow
L Level
N Motor
P Pressure
Q Quantity
T Temperature
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Y Control valve

Table 3-2
Next letter Meaning
C Control
I Indication
F Fraction
S Binary control function or switching function (not
safety-relevant) (Switching)

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.1 Project structure

3.1.2 Plant view

In the plant view, the Fermenter unit template is realized in two hierarchy levels.
The first hierarchy level in the AS project UnitTemplate_AS is empty and the next
subordinate level includes one hierarchy folder for each equipment module of the
fermenter with the required CFC charts and the related process simulation.
The first hierarchical level in the OS project UnitTemplate_OS is empty. The next
subordinate hierarchy level includes the process image Fermenter.pdl of the
fermenter. The following figure illustrates the structure of the PCS 7 multiproject.
Figure 3-2

UnitTemplate OS Project

Fermenter

PDL
Fermenter

UnitTemplate AS Project

Fermenter

SFC CFC
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StartFermenter KPI

CIP ProcSimulation

CFC CFC CFC CFC


YC_CIP_In YC_CIP_Out Sim_CIP Sim_Product

pH

CFC CFC CFC CFC


QIC_pH YC_NeutSubst QI_pH_Tank Sim_pH
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Level

CFC CFC CFC CFC


LI_Level YC_Product NS_Motor Sim_Level
CFC
YC_Feed

ProductTemp

CFC CFC CFC CFC


TIC_Reactor YC_Cool NS_PumpReactor NS_PumpReactor
CFC
YC_Cooling

Pressure

CFC CFC CFC


PIC_Pressure YC_Out Sim_PressLevel

JacketTemp

CFC CFC CFC CFC


TIC_Jacket YC_Jacket_C NS_PumpJacket Sim_JacketTemp
CFC
YC_Jacket_H

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.2 Equipment modules and process tags

3.2 Equipment modules and process tags


The Fermenter unit template is composed of preconfigured equipment modules
and additional process tags, for example, for process simulation. In the PCS 7
project, all process tags, as well as the process tags of the equipment modules are
based on process tag types from the master data library. The application
description Equipment Modules Using the Example of the Chemical Industry and
the sample projects including the individual equipment modules and process tag
types are available under the entry ID: 53843373.
The fermenter application example includes the following components:
Cleaning in place (CIP): detergent inflow and outflow
pH value control (pH): controlling the acid content of the product
Filling level (Level): ingredient inflow and drainage of the product after the
fermentation process and stirring the product
Pressure control (Pressure): regulation of the tank pressure
Jacket temperature control (JacketTemp): regulation of the jacket temperature
Product temperature control (ProductTemp): regulation of the product
temperature
Sequencer (SFC) for a production
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Comprehensive process simulation (ProcSimulation)


Key performance indicators (KPI)

The following subchapters explain the structure of the individual equipment


modules, as well as the expansions of and changes to the equipment modules and
process tag types used. Furthermore, the SFC for reactor start-up is described.
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Note All necessary descriptions, configurations and procedures for the reference
versions are available in the documentation with the entry ID: 53843373. For
further information on individual equipment modules, please refer to chapter 5
Equipment Modules and the process tag types in chapter 4 Process Tag
Types.

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.3 Cleaning (CIP)

3.3 Cleaning (CIP)


Tank cleaning is realized by adding a detergent. Process tag type Val_An_Afb1
of the master data library is used for detergent inflow and drainage and controlled
via SFC.

3.3.1 Structure

Opening and closing the valves is performed via the SFC CLEANING.
The table below provides an overview of the individual elements and the process
tag types used.
Table 3-3
Designation Process tag type Description
YC_CIP_In Val_An_Afb1 Control valve for detergent inflow
YC_CIP_Out Val_An_Afb1 Control valve for detergent outflow

The following figure shows a simplified illustration of the structure of the feed
inflow, including any interconnections or SFC access across different CFC charts.
Figure 3-3
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YC_CIP_In Sim_CIP
SFC IN_CIP
V
In1
MV

OUT_CIP
V
In1
OpenAut
CloseAut
CIP_Flow_Sum
ModLiOp
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Out
AutModLi
ManModLi

YC_CIP_Out

V
MV

V
OpenAut
CloseAut
ModLiOp
AutModLi
ManModLi

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.3 Cleaning (CIP)

Simulation
In simulation chart Sim_CIP, the difference is formed from YC_CIP_In and
YC_CIP_Out and transferred to simulation chart Sim_Level for calculating the
filling level.
Figure 3-4

If the valve is opened 100%, the CIP inflow and drainage correspond to 50 (factor
0.5) liters per second.
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3.3.2 Configuration

YC_CIP_In
Valve process tag YC_CIP_In is used to control the flow rate of the detergent
(acid or base) to the tank. The communication blocks (subchart A, sheet 6) in the
process tag were deleted since no controller is employed for controlling. For
opening or closing, valve block V receives an external actuating signal via SFC.
In a simulation environment, both channel blocks of subchart B (Rbk and MV)
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have the same value (control value of the valve block (subchart A, sheet 1)) via
the preceding simulation block; i.e. the delay between valve control and valve
action will not be simulated.
The following table shows how the instance of Val_An_Afb1 is configured.
Table 3-4
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnection to the simulation
V MV (Level\\Sim_Level\IN_CIP.In1)
ER_AH_En Disables the alarm message for maximum
V (hidden) 0 valve opening
ER_AL_En Disables the alarm message for minimum
V (hidden) 0 valve opening
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the readback value
Interconnects with the simulation of the
readback value from the valve
Sim Sim1ValueOp (YC_CIP_In\V.MV)
Sim Sim2ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the control value
Interconnection with the simulation of the
manipulated value from the valve
Sim Sim2ValueOp (YC_CIP_In\V.MV)

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.3 Cleaning (CIP)

YC_CIP_Out
The valve process tag YC_CIP_Out is used to control the detergent drainage
from the tank. The communication blocks (subchart A, sheet 6) in the process tag
are not required since no controller is employed for controlling. For opening or
closing, valve block V receives an external actuating signal via SFC.
In a simulation environment, both channel blocks of subchart B (Rbk and MV)
have the same value (control value of the valve block (subchart A, sheet 1)) via
the preceding simulation block; i.e. the delay between valve control and valve
action will not be simulated.
The following table shows how the instance of Val_An_Afb1 is configured.
Table 3-5
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnection to the simulation
V MV (Level\\Sim_Level\IOUT_CIP.In1)
ER_AH_En Disables the alarm message for maximum
V (hidden) 0 valve opening
ER_AL_En Disables the alarm message for minimum
V (hidden) 0 valve opening
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the readback value
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Interconnects with the simulation of the


readback value from the valve
Sim Sim1ValueOp (YC_CIP_Out\V.MV)
Sim Sim2ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the control value
Interconnection with the simulation of the
manipulated value from the valve
Sim Sim2ValueOp (YC_CIP_Out\V.MV)
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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.4 pH value control (pH)

3.4 pH value control (pH)


pH level control is realized by means of equipment module pH-Control-Std. This
equipment module realizes a non-linear pH value control taking into consideration
the titration profile. Most of the fermenters are operated at constant pH value
(beneficial to the microorganisms used) and not subjected to sudden disturbances
of the pH value.
For most of the fermenters, a linear control of the pH value is sufficient without
knowing the titration profile. Instead of the equipment module pH-Control-Std, the
more simple equipment module Level-Control can then be used for pH value
control.

Note The flow rate control with equipment module Level-Control contains an
integrated behavior. Change the simulation before applying for pH value control.

In the simulation chart, all influencing variables (inflow, drainage) are acquired
across all process tags and taken into account for forming the pH value.

3.4.1 Structure
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The PID controller captures the pH value from the simulation chart and controls by
adding neutralizer depending on the specified pH value.
The table below provides an overview of the individual elements.
Table 3-6
Designation Equipment module / Description
process tag type
QIC_pH pH-Control-Std pH value control via the concentration difference
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YC_NeutrSubst pH-Control-Std Control valve for the inflow of the neutralizer


QI_pH_Tank pH-Control-Std Display process tag of the pH value

Note A description and further information on the configuration and principle of the
equipment module pH-Control-Std is available in chapter 5 Equipment
Modules of the documentation which is available at entry ID: 53843373.

Simulation
CFC chart Sim_pH (part of the equipment module pH of the Fermenter unit
template) calculates the pH value in the reactor based on the inflow (ingredient and
neutralizer).

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.4 pH value control (pH)

Figure 3-5

3 1

4 2

(1) + (2) The simulation is based on the SimpHTitr simulation block of


equipment module pH-Control-Std and was expanded by integrators for
discontinuous operation.
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(3) + (4) additional blocks for resetting the simulation values


Figure 3-6

5
Copyright

Creating (5) a slight noise and adding (6) it to the process value

3.4.2 Configuration

QIC_pH
The configuration of this process tag deviates from pH value control pH-Control-
Std as follows:
Table 3-7
Block Connection Value Use
C Gain 190 Controller gain
C TI 720 Controller delay
Interconnection deleted, block renamed and
moved to sheet 6. Additionally, a conversion
block (pH -> Mol/L) was added and
pH_SP interconnected with the display block

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V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 25
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.4 pH value control (pH)

Note Controller optimization for the pH-Control-Level process tag has already been
performed with the PID tuner. The controller is optimized for a fast neutralization
process. For a slow (homogenous) neutralization process you change the
controller parameter (Gain = 41, TI = 300) accordingly.
A description for performing the controller optimization is available in chapter 6
Equipment Modules of the documentation which is available under the entry ID:
53843373 and in the article How do you do a controller optimization with the PCS
7 PID Tuner? under the entry ID: 8031495.

Note To specify the value (internal setpoint value) in non-production mode of


operation, you can use the converted pH value from the pH_Mol_per_Liter
faceplate in the OS. Alternatively you can insert an additional OpAnL block in
CFC QIC_pH chart and interconnect it with the Connector.SP_Ext input. The
specified setpoint occurs in the operator control and monitoring block of the
OS. In this case, the controller for the automatic mode must be set with the
external setpoint value.

YC_NeutrSubst
The configuration of this process tag deviates from pH value control pH-Control-
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Std as follows:
Table 3-8
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnection to the simulation
(Sim_ProductTemp\Temp_Incr_Neutr.In1)
V MV (Sim_Level\Neutr_Scale.In1)
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QI_pH_Tank
The configuration of this process tag does not deviate from pH value control
pH-Control-Std.

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26 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.5 Filling level (Level)

3.5 Filling level (Level)


Filling level control in batch operation (dosing control) is not performed with an
equipment module with continuous control, but with a process tag type from the
master data library. The control commands are handled via SFC sequence chains
which control the ingredient inflow, mixing, and the product outflow.
Preparation and mixing of the ingredient (various musts, yeast) is performed in a
preceding unit. Therefore, the inflow in this example consists of one ingredient
(preliminary product). The filling level is calculated in the simulation chart.

3.5.1 Structure

The filling level in the product is controlled via SFC. The respective valves and the
stirrer motor are opened/closed and started/stopped via the respective valves. In
the simulation chart, any inflow is recorded and the filling level is output in the
display process tag as a percentage. The table below provides an overview of the
individual elements.
Table 3-9
Designation Equipment module / Description
process tag type
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LI_Level AMON__Std Display of the measured filling level as a


percentage
YC_Product Val_An_Afb1 Control valve for product discharge (drainage)
YC_Feed Val_An_Afb1 Control valve for the preliminary product (inflow)
NS_Motor MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std Stirrer motor for homogenous mixing

Note Detailed information on the individual SFC sequence chains is available in


chapter 3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC).
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Figure 3-7
YC_Feed Sim_Level
SFC
V Feed_Scale
MV In1

YC_Product
V Outflow_Scale
OpenAut V In1
CloseAut MV
ModLiOp Level_Max_Percen
V
AutModLi Out
OpenAut
ManModLi
CloseAut
ModLiOp
NS_Motor AutModLi
LI_Level
U ManModLi
StartAut I
StopAut Sim1ActOp
ModLiOp
AutModLi
ManModLi

U
FbkRunOut

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V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 27
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.5 Filling level (Level)

Simulation Sim_Level
In the simulation chart, the filling level is calculated from the total of any inflow and
the drainage converted as a percentage.
Figure 3-8

4
2

3
6 7

5
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1. Inflow of the ingredient (100 % valve opening correspond to 20 l/s) with a delay
of 1 second (PT1 behavior)
2. Inflow of the neutralizer (100 % valve opening correspond to 1 l/s) with a delay
of 1 second (PT1 behavior)
3. Drainage of the product (100 % valve opening correspond to 20 l/s)
4. Summarizing any inflow and drainage including CIP and forming an integral
value
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5. Creating a noise signal as of a filling level of 30%


6. Adding the noise signal to the filling level
7. Converting the filling level from liters into percent (100% filling level correspond
to 4000 liters)

3.5.2 Configuration

LI_Level
The LI_Level display process tag uses the filling level percentage of the
Sim_Level simulation for the process value display.
The following table shows the configuration of the instance from AMON__Std.
Table 3-10
Block Connection Value Use
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation
Interconnection to the simulated process
value
Sim Sim1ValueOp (Sim_Level\Level_Max_Percen.Out)
PV Scale 100 Maximum value of the process value
Unit of the process value as a
PV PV_InUnit 1342 percentage

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.5 Filling level (Level)

YC_Product
The YC_Product valve process tag controls the product flow rate (opening drain
valve) from the tank. The communication blocks (subchart A, sheet 6) in the
process tag were deleted since no controller is employed for controlling. For
opening or closing, valve block V receives an external actuating signal via SFC.
In a simulation environment, both channel blocks of subchart B (Rbk and MV)
have the same value (control value of the valve block (subchart A, sheet 1)) via
the preceding simulation block; i.e. the delay between valve control and valve
action will not be simulated.
The following table shows how the instance of Val_An_Afb1 is configured.
Table 3-11
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnection to the simulation
V MV (Sim_Level\Outflow_Scale.In1)
ER_AH_En Disables the alarm message for
V (hidden) 0 maximum valve opening
ER_AL_En Disables the alarm message for
V (hidden) 0 minimum valve opening
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from_CTRL Block deleted


to_CTRL Block deleted
Activates simulation of the readback
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 value
Interconnects with the simulation of the
readback value from the valve
Sim Sim1ValueOp (YC_Product\V.MV)
Sim Sim2ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the control value
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Interconnection with the simulation of


the manipulated value from the valve
Sim Sim2ValueOp (YC_Product\V.MV)

YC_Feed
The valve process tag YC_Feed is used to control the ingredient flow rate (by
opening the feed valve) to the tank. The communication blocks (subchart A, sheet
6) in the process tag were deleted since no controller is employed for controlling.
For opening or closing, valve block V receives an external actuating signal via
SFC.
In a simulation environment, both channel blocks of subchart B (Rbk and MV)
have the same value (control value of the valve block (subchart A, sheet 1)) via
the preceding simulation block; i.e. the delay between valve control and valve
action will not be simulated.
The following table shows how the instance of Val_An_Afb1 is configured.
Table 3-12
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnection to the simulation
V MV (Sim_Level\Feed_Scale.In1)
ER_AH_En Disables the alarm message for
V (hidden) 0 maximum valve opening

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V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 29
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.5 Filling level (Level)

Block Connection Value Use


ER_AL_En Disables the alarm message for
V (hidden) 0 minimum valve opening
Limiting the manipulated variable (max.
V MV_HiLim 60.0 inflow)
from_CTRL Block deleted
to_CTRL Block deleted
Activates simulation of the readback
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 value
Interconnects with the simulation of the
readback value from the valve
Sim Sim1ValueOp (YC_Feed\V.MV)
Sim Sim2ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the control value
Interconnecting with the simulation of
the manipulated value from the valve
Sim Sim2ValueOp (YC_Feed\V.MV)

NS_Motor
The stirrer mixes the ingredient with the neutralizer in the reactor. Stirrer control is
performed via SFC and based on process tag type MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std.
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This process tag type is included in the master data library and it is used for motors
driven at constant speed.
Configuring the instance from MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std was not necessary.

Note A description and further information on the configuration and principle of the
process tag type MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std can be found in chapter 4 Control
Modules of the documentation which is available under the entry ID: 53843373.
Copyright

Note The Limit block of the APL can be used for interlocking the motor, e.g. when
falling short of the filling level, and be connected to the interlock block of the
motor process tag. In this case, the stirrer interlock becomes active when falling
short of a defined filling level of the reactor and the motor cannot be started.

3.5.3 Extension possibilities

Filling level acquisition


For tanks, additional measures for protecting the plant can be taken irrespective of
the control concept. This includes, for example, a filling level switch which opens a
drain valve upon contact with the medium, and subsequently drains the tank
contents. Some filling level switches (Pointek CSL200) can forward their signals to
the automating system where a message is displayed in the OS on demand.

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.6 Pressure control (Pressure)

3.6 Pressure control (Pressure)


Pressure control is realized by means of the Level-Control equipment module.
Using the pressure control, surplus pressure ( 8 mbar) is released from the tank
during the neutralization (fermentation) process.
Pressure calculation is effected in the simulation chart.

3.6.1 Structure

The PID controller detects the tank pressure from the simulation chart and reduces
the pressure (venting). The table below provides an overview of the individual
elements.
Table 3-13
Designation Equipment module / Description
process tag type
PIC_Pressure Level Control Pressure control of a tank
YC_Out Level Control Control valve for venting

Note The description, configuration, and procedure for equipment module Level-
Control is available in chapter 5 Equipment Modules of the documentation at
Siemens AG 2013 All rights reserved

entry ID: 53843373.

Simulation Sim_PressLevel
CFC chart Sim_PressLevel (which is part of the Split-Range-Pressure
equipment module) receives the manipulated variable of the venting valve
(negative value). The control valve for the inert gas was substituted by adding two
Copyright

disturbance values.
The figure below shows the structure and process of simulation.
Figure 3-9

In the Diff block (1), the fermentation volume (pressure change due to the
fermentation process) and the filling level-related inflow (pressure change due to
different filling levels) is recorded in addition to the manipulated venting variable.

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.6 Pressure control (Pressure)

3.6.2 Configuration

PIC_Pressure
The configuration of this process tag deviates from filling level control Level-
Control as follows:
Table 3-14
Block Connection Value Use
C Gain 8.0 Controller gain
C TI 75.0 Controller delay
C SP_InHiLim 15.0 Maximum value of the internal setpoint
New interconnection to the simulation chart
Sim Sim1Value (Sim_PressLevel\PressLevel.Out)
PV Scale.High 15.0 Maximal process value
PV PV_InUnit 1138 Unit of the process value (mbar)

Note Controller optimization for the process tag has already been performed with the
PID tuner. The controller is optimized for the operating range (8 mbar).
Descriptions for performing the controller optimization are available in chapter 6
Equipment Modules of the documentation which is available under the entry ID:
Siemens AG 2013 All rights reserved

53843373 and in the article How do you do a controller optimization with the
PCS 7 PID Tuner? under the entry ID: 8031495.

YC_Out
The configuration of this process tag deviates from filling level control Level-
Control as follows:
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Table 3-15
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnection to the simulation
V MV (Sim_PressLevel\Out.In1)

3.6.3 Extension possibilities

Wear at the stirrer


Changes due to leakage (pressure loss) can be detected by means of long-term
recordings (trend of the manipulated variable) from monitoring and analyzing the
pressure losses during plant operation. One possible cause, for example, is the
sealing wear of a stirrer shaft. Alternatively, a leakage is also apparent from the
gain factor (StatGain) of the pressure control system (ConPerMon block).

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3.7 Jacket temperature control (JacketTemp)

3.7 Jacket temperature control (JacketTemp)


Temperature control of the fermenter jacket is realized by means of the
Split-Range-Temperature equipment module. In addition, the process tag type
MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std is used to pump over the jacket liquid. The temperature
calculation is effected in the simulation chart.

3.7.1 Structure

The PID controller records the temperature of the fermenter jacket and increases
or reduces the jacket temperature by means of hot steam or cooling water
according to the specified temperature. The table below provides an overview of all
components.
Table 3-16
Designation Equipment module / Description
process tag type
TIC_Jacket Split-Range-Temperature Slave controller for split-range control with one
manipulated variable and two actuators
YC_Heat Split-Range-Temperature Control valve for heating steam
YC_Cool Split-Range-Temperature Control valve for cooling water
NS_PumpJacket MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std Pump (e.g. stream pump) for continuous
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circulation of the jacket liquid

Note The display process tags and the process tag for master controller
TIC_Reactor of the Split-Range-Temperature equipment module are not
required and are therefore not part of this solution. Therefore, the communication
blocks to_Master and from_Master are deleted in the TIC_Jacket controller
process tag. The missing process tags and interconnections will not affect the
Copyright

proper function and are not described separately.

Simulation Sim_JacketTemp
CFC chart Sim_JacketTemp (which is part of equipment module
Split-Range-Temperature) was reduced by the simulation part of the heat
exchanger (TempLevel block) and contains an additional disturbance signal.
The figure below shows the structure and process of simulation.

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.7 Jacket temperature control (JacketTemp)

Figure 3-10

1. Creating a noise signal (process behavior)


2. Adding the noise signal to the temperature value of the reactor jacket and
environment-related temperature drop (0.001 degrees Celsius)

NS_PumpJacket
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The pump is controlled in the CFC NS_PumpJacket on the basis of the process
tag type MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std. This process tag type is part of the master
data library.

Note A description and further information on the configuration and principle of the
process tag type MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std can be found in chapter 4 Control
Modules of the documentation which is available under the entry ID: 53843373.
Copyright

Note For the following cases, a pump interlock can be performed (configured):

for switched off controller


detecting a leakage in the jacket

3.7.2 Configuration

Temperature control via the reactor jacket is configured for independent operation.
Since, in this example, the system is not influenced by other plant units and the
controllers react very quickly, no further modifications are required.

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34 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
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3.8 Product temperature control (ProductTemp)

3.8 Product temperature control (ProductTemp)


Temperature control is used for cooling the product temperature. During the
fermentation and neutralization process, the product heats by means of exothermal
reaction energy. In order to oppose this temperature change, the product is
pumped through a heat exchanger and cooled. For realizing the temperature
control, the process tag types of the master data library were used. The
temperature calculation is effected in the simulation chart.
The setpoint value for the inflow rate is given to the PID controller and controlled
via the control valve.
The table below provides an overview of the individual elements and the process
tag types used.
Table 3-17
Designation Process tag type Description
TIC_Reactor CTRL_ Std4Valve Controller for the product temperature
YC_Cool Val_An_Afb1 Control valve for the cooling water/agent for heat exchange
YC_Cooling Val_An_Afb1 Control valve for inflow to the heat exchanger
NS_PumpReactor MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm Pump (e.g. stream pump) for pumping the reactor content
__Std through the heat exchanger and to the product outlet
(YC_Product valve)
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In the following figure the entire structure of the product temperature control,
including all interconnections across all CFC charts, are represented in a simplified
format.
Figure 3-11

TIC_Reactor YC_Cool Sim_ProductTemp

Sim V Temp_HeatExchang
Copyright

Sim1ValueOp MV In1

to_Valve from_CTRL Temp_Out


Out In Out

from_Valve to_CTRL
In Out

SFC
YC_Cooling NS_PumpReactor
V U
OpenAut StartAut
CloseAut StopAut
ModLiOp ModLiOp
AutModLi AutModLi
ManModLi ManModLi

The controller process tag TIC_ Reactor captures the product temperature
(simulation chart Sim_ProductTemp) and controls it with the help of the control
valve YC_Cool.

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V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 35
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.8 Product temperature control (ProductTemp)

Simulation
In the simulation chart, the product temperature is calculated based on the flow
rate of the neutralizer, the flow rate of cooling water to the heat exchanger, and the
influence from jacket temperature control.
Figure 3-12

1 3 4

6
5

1. Temperature rise by adding the neutralizer (100 % valve opening corresponds to


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0.02C/s positive temperature change) with a delay of 3 seconds (PT1 behavior)


2. Temperature drop of the product due to inflow of the cooling water into the heat
exchanger (100 % valve opening corresponds to 0.1C/s negative temperature change)
with a delay of 3 seconds (PT1 behavior)
3. Adding up all influences on the temperature (neutralization process, heat exchanger,
influence from jacket temperature, and resetting the temperature change)
4. Integrating all influences on the temperature
5. Adding the temperature change to the ingredient temperature of 20C
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6. For under 20C, resetting the temperature change (activated by SFC)

3.8.1 Configuration

TIC_Reactor
The following table shows the configuration of the instance from the CTRL_
Std4Valve process tag type.
Table 3-18
Block Connection Value Use
C NegGain.Value 1 Negative controller gain
C Gain.Value 8.5 Controller gain
C TI.Value 4 Controller delay
C SP_InHiLim 100.0 Maximum value of the internal setpoint
C PropFacSP 0.8 Applying the P-action to the feedback
Inverts the hardware error signal from
Intlock InvIn02 1 the valve process tag
Inverts the out of service signal from
Intlock InvIn03 1 the valve process tag
Interconnection to the valve (control)
to_Valve Out (YC_Cool\from_CTRL.In)

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.8 Product temperature control (ProductTemp)

Block Connection Value Use


Interconnection to the valve (status and
readback)
from_Valve In (YC_Cool\to_CTRL.Out)
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 Activating the simulation value
Interconnection to the simulated process
value
Sim Sim1ValueOp (Sim_ProductTemp\Temp_Out.Out)
PV Scale 100.0 Maximum value of the process value
Unit of the process value (degree
PV PV_InUnit 1001 Centigrade)

Note Controller optimization for the process tag TIC_Reactor already performed with
the PID tuner. Descriptions for performing the controller optimization are
available in chapter 6 Equipment Modules of the documentation which is
available under the entry ID: 53843373 and in the article How do you do a
controller optimization with the PCS 7 PID Tuner? under the entry ID: 8031495.
Siemens AG 2013 All rights reserved

YC_Cool
The valve process tag YC_Cool controls the flow rate (opening feed valve) of the
cooling water to the heat exchanger. The process tag includes communication
blocks for data exchange (control signals and control commands) with the
controller process tag.
The valve block V includes an external control value (via a communication block)
from the controller process tag. In a simulation environment, both channel blocks of
subchart B (Rbk and MV) have the same value (control value of the valve block
Copyright

(subchart A, sheet 1)) via the preceding simulation block; i.e. the delay between
valve control and valve action will not be simulated.
The following table shows how the instance of Val_An_Afb1 is configured.
Table 3-19
Block Connection Value Use
Interconnecting to the simulation
V MV (Sim_ProductTemp\Temp_HeadExchang.In1)
ER_AH_En Disables the alarm message for maximum
V (hidden) 0 valve opening
ER_AL_En Disables the alarm message for minimum
V (hidden) 0 valve opening
Interconnection to the controller
from_CTRL In (TIC_Reactor\to_Valve.Out)
Interconnection to the controller
to_CTRL Out (TIC_Reactor\from_Valve.In)
Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the readback value
Interconnecting with the simulation of the
readback value from the valve
Sim Sim1ValueOp (YC_Cool\V.MV)
Sim Sim2ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the control value

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.8 Product temperature control (ProductTemp)

Block Connection Value Use


Interconnecting with the simulation of the
manipulated value from the valve
Sim Sim2ValueOp (YC_Cool\V.MV)

YC_Cooling
The valve process tag YC_Cooling controls the flow rate (opening feed valve) of
the product through the heat exchanger.

Note An alternative is using an on/off valve. In this case, a new process tag must be
configured for an on/off valve

The communication blocks (subchart A, sheet 6) in the process tag were deleted
since no controller is employed for controlling. For opening or closing, valve block
V receives an external actuating signal via SFC.
In a simulation environment, both channel blocks of subchart B (Rbk and MV)
have the same value (control value of the valve block (subchart A, sheet 1)) via
the preceding simulation block; i.e. the delay between valve control and valve
action will not be simulated.
The following table shows how the instance of Val_An_Afb1 is configured.
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Table 3-20
Block Connection Value Use
ER_AH_En Disables the alarm message for max. valve
V (hidden) 0 opening
ER_AL_En Disables the alarm message for min. valve
V (hidden) 0 opening
from_CTRL Block deleted
Copyright

to_CTRL Block deleted


Sim Sim1ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the readback value
Interconnects with the simulation of the
readback value from the valve
Sim Sim1ValueOp (YC_Feed\V.MV)
Sim Sim2ActOp.Value 1 Activates simulation of the control value
Interconnecting with the simulation of the
manipulated value from the valve
Sim Sim2ValueOp (YC_Feed\V.MV)

NS_PumpReactor
The pump is used for pumping the product through the heat exchanger, as well as
for pumping the product out. The pump is controlled via SFC and based on process
tag type MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std. This process tag type is included in the
master data library and it is used for motors/pumps driven at constant speed.
Configuring the instance from MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std was not necessary.

Note A description and further information on the configuration and principle of the
process tag type MOT_1sp_1fb_1cm__Std can be found in chapter 4 Control
Modules of the documentation which is available under the entry ID: 53843373.

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38 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC)

3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC)


The fermenter was designed for discontinuous operation. The sequencers perform
plant startup and shutdown automatically for the plant operator including the
production of the fermentation product and the cleaning process. After processing,
the plant is in an empty and cleaned state.
With the help of SFCs, different behaviors and control strategies can be realized. In
the example project, an SFC with four sequence chains has been configured. The
SFC StartFermenter is configured for automatic production and subsequent
cleaning without user interaction. If the SFC is stopped or aborted, the unit will be
brought into non-production mode. The SFC includes the following sequences
which are described in a simplified form below:
ABORTINGSTOPPING
PREPARING
PRODUCTION
CLEANING
The SFCs can be considered as reference points and are adapted to the
simulation behavior. For application in real plants, the sequence chains must be
modified, if necessary.
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Note The parameter assignment for the selection of setpoints and operating modes,
including the schematic illustrations, are taken from the function manual
SIMATIC Process Control System PCS 7 PCS 7 Advanced Process Library
V8.0. This function manual is available under the entry ID 57265842 and
includes information on operating modes and setpoint selection, as well as
further detailed information about all parameters of the APL blocks.
Create and use SFC types, SFC instances for recurring sequences. Continuing
information on SFC configuration and on creating SFC types is available in the
Copyright

programming and operating manual SIMATIC Process Control System PCS 7


SFC for SIMATIC S7 at entry ID: 57265603 and in operating manual SIMATIC
Process Control System SIMATIC PCS 7 Compendium Part C Equipment
Modules with SFC Types at entry ID: 63187297.

PREPARING
When starting the fermenter, the PREPARING sequence will be executed to bring
the unit into a non-production mode of operation. For this reason, all valves and
controllers are prepared for automatic mode with specified SFC value. Then, any
inflow is stopped and the fermenter is drained via the CIP outflow. Additionally, the
process simulation is reset.
The flowchart below shows a simplified scheme of all sequential steps and
transitions of the SFC operations. Selection of the operating mode and the type of
default setpoint are not considered.

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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC)

Figure 3-13

Start

Product outlet closed

Operating mode switch for all valves,


Feeds closed

motors/pumps and cotnrollers


CIP outlet open

Drainage
no
Filling level
0.0

yes
CIP outlet closed

End
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PRODUCTION
The PRODUCTION sequence is followed by the PREPARING sequence and
comprises the discontinuous fermentation process. For the production (batch), the
unit is filled with an ingredient at plant shutdown (no production). The valve of the
ingredient is opened until a defined filling level has been reached. Neutralizing is
performed after filling and during the fermentation process. The pH value controller
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controls the addition of the neutralizer using the pH value in the tank. Drainage is
performed after neutralization has been completed.
All controllers obtain the setpoint values relevant for the production process, such
as temperature (reactor jacket and product temperature), tank pressure and pH
value, from the sequencer. The sequence of steps includes some further queries
so the devices (pump and stirrer) for the production process will only start after a
filling level of, for example, 20 % has been reached and the pressure controllers
have been activated. After the production has been completed (drainage), the
process simulation is reset.
The flowchart below shows a simplified scheme of all sequential steps and
transitions of the SFC operations.

Fermenter
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3 Structure and Function Principle
3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC)

Figure 3-14

Start

Ingredient inlet open

temperature control
pH setpoint = 7.0
Jacket temperature = 21.0

Inlet open,

Filling
no
Temperature 20.0
Filling level 20.0

yes

temperature and pH value control active


Stirrer (motor) active
Pump for jacket temp. control active

no

Motor, pumps active, pressure,


Jacket pressure = 8.0
Filling level 49.0
Product temperature = 21.0
Pump for jacket temp. control active

Fermentation
Ingredient inlet closed
pH value control
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no

Stirrer active
pH 6.9* 7.1
Temperature 20.0* 22.0
Press. 10.0

yes

Product outlet open and pump active


pressure, temperature and pH value control inactive
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Controller for product temperature locked


no

Filling level 20.0


Motor, pumps inactive

Drainage

Stirrer (motor) inactive


Controller for pH value and pressure locked
no

Filling level = 0.0

Product outlet closed, pump


inactive and simulation reset

End

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V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 41
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC)

CLEANING
In the CLEANING sequence chain the cleaning of the tank interior is performed
by rinsing with a detergent. A lower jacket temperature is set, the YC_CIP_Out
drain valve is closed and the feed valve YC_CIP_In is opened until a defined
reactor filling level has been reached. The detergent liquid is stirred in the tank for
a given period of time and pumped through the heat exchanger. Afterwards, the
liquid is pumped out via the YC_CIP_Out valve. All controllers, valves and pumps
are enabled for the operator and the simulation is reset.

Note The cleaning process was shortened for this example so none of the multiple
rinsing (detergent and water) typical for the process, possibly with a specific
resting time, is performed.

The flowchart below shows a simplified scheme of all sequential steps and
transitions of the SFC operations.
Figure 3-15

Start

Jacket temperature = 9.0


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Temperature control, CIP valves,


no

Preparation and filling


Temperature 9.5

yes
CIP intlet open
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no

Filling level 70.0

yes

CIP intlet closed


Rhrer und Pumpe aktiv
valve for heat exchanger open
cleaning duration = 1 min
Temperature control, CIP valves,

Cleaning and drainage

Stirrer and pump inactive


pumps and motors

Wait time (resting time) = 10 s

CIP outlet open


no

Filling level = 0.0

yes
CIP outlet closed and simulation
reset

End

Fermenter
42 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.9 Sequential function charts (SFC)

ABORTINGSTOPPING
In the ABORTINGSTOPPING sequence chain, all controllers, valves and
motors/pumps of the fermenter are stopped and enabled for the operator.
Additionally, the process simulation is reset. In the same way as after the cleaning
process, the operator has the option to operate all plant units as follows:
controlling all of the valves
controlling the motor and both pumps
changing the setpoint specification (internal setpoint) of the controllers and
monitoring the process
performing controller optimization (changing individual controller parameters or
using the PID tuners)

Note The simulation values for the pH value are based on the respective totals of
ingredient and neutralizer. After emptying the tank, these values are not reset
automatically but only after a renewed SFC run.
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Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 43
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.10 Process simulation (ProcSimulation)

3.10 Process simulation (ProcSimulation)


CFC chart Sim_Product contains simulation influences across the individual
equipment modules of the fermenter. The simulation influences are described
below.

Temperature influence of the jacket temperature on the product temperature


Figure 3-16

2
1

1. Comparison of jacket temperature and product temperature


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2. Jacket temperature larger than product temperature The product


temperature is increased by 0.001 degree Celsius.
3. Jacket temperature smaller than product temperature The product
temperature is reduced by 0.001 degree Celsius.

Filling level dependent pressure change


Figure 3-17
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1 2

1. Pressure change (disturbance variable) resulting from a changed filling level.


Depending on the filling level of the fermenter, the pressure is increased
(IncrValue) or decreased (DecrValue) in 10 steps over a defined period of time
(IncrHold and DecrHold).
2. Standard pressure change of 0.01 mbar, with positive or negative gain due to
filling level change (1).

Pressure change due to fermentation process


Figure 3-18

Delayed transfer of the ingredient inflow (corresponds to 0.12 mbar at 60% valve
opening) to simulation chart Sim_PressLevel of the pressure control.

Fermenter
44 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
3 Structure and Function Principle
3.11 Process characteristics (KPI)

3.11 Process characteristics (KPI)


CFC chart KPI contains process-relevant characteristics, which inform the
operator of process data. The figure below shows the structure and sequence of
CFC chart KPI.

Production volume
Figure 3-19

1 2 3

1. Inverting the product outflow


2. The total of the product outflow is formed while the tank is filled (filling level > 0).
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3. Forming the integral value by totaling the product outflow and displaying the
integral value by means of display block MonSumProduction.
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Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 45
4 Integrating the Unit Template
4.1 Preparation

4 Integrating the Unit Template


4.1 Preparation
The following instructions describe how the unit template can be integrated in a
PCS 7 project by completing the following steps:
Adjustment of HW-Config
Configuration of the communication between AS and OS (NetPro)
Adaptation of the hierarchy folders
Use of a consistent master data library

Note In order to use the example project in your own project, the function blocks
Titr_pH, TitrDeltaC and TitrLimDeltaC must be copied for pH value
conversion. Additionally, an update of the attributes must be performed when
copying the functions and function blocks.

Table 4-1
No. Action
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1. Copy the file 68098270_Fermenter_PCS7V801.zip to the configuration computer and then


open the SIMATIC Manager.
2. Select File > Retrieve in the menu bar and select the file
68098270_Fermenter_PCS7V801.zip. Then click Open to confirm your selection.
3. Select the folder where the project is saved and confirm with OK.
The project will be extracted.
4. In the Retrieve dialog, click the OK button and then Yes to open the project.
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5. Change over to Plant View


6. Simultaneously, open the project where the fermenter shall be integrated.

4.2 Implementation
The following instructions describe how you can integrate the unit template into
your project. Not described are the interconnection of each individual signal and
the settings for each individual parameter.
The unit template and the target project must be open in the plant view.
Table 4-2
No. Action
1. Open the plant view of the fermenter, select the hierarchy folder Fermenter in the AS project
and click Edit > Copy.
2. Change over to the target project.
In the AS project, select the hierarchy folder where the fermenter shall be added, then select
Edit > Paste from the menu bar.
Note
All charts including interconnections and simulations will be copied.
3. In the target project, select the AS project and select Options > Plant View > Update in the
Multiproject from the menu bar.
A dialog for the export of the Plant hierarchy opens.

Fermenter
46 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
4 Integrating the Unit Template
4.2 Implementation

No. Action
4. Click OK in this dialog and also confirm the next dialog with OK. The Plant hierarchy in the
OS project of the target project will be matched accordingly.
5. Compile and download the AS project and then compile the OS project.

Note You may use the process image of the reactor from the sample project. This
project is available at
< ProjectPath>\UT_Ferm\Ferm_OS\wincproj\OS\GraCS\Fermenter.Pdl>.

In chapter 6 of the application description Equipment Modules for PC7 Using the
Example of the Chemical Industry under the entry ID 53843373 you will find
detailed instructions and notes on the following subjects:
Integration of equipment modules
Adjusting the parameters of an equipment module
Interconnecting an equipment module
Integrating a color palette into the OS
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Note Please take note of the modified project path when integrating the color palette in
the OS. The project path valid for the stirred tank reactor unit template is
<ProjectPath>\UT_Ferm\Ferm_OS\wincproj\OS\GraCS\UnitTemplates.xml>.

Process connection
Configuration of the PID controllers
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Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 47
5 Starting the Unit Template
5.1 Preparation

5 Starting the Unit Template


5.1 Preparation
The following instructions describe how the unit template can be started by
simulating the controller with the S7-PLCSIM program. If a real controller is used,
the relevant hardware components must be configured in HW-Config.
Table 5-1
No. Action
1. Copy the 68098270_Fermenter_PCS7V801.zip file to any folder on the configuration
computer and then open the SIMATIC Manager.
2. Select File > Retrieve in the menu bar and select the file
68098270_Fermenter_PCS7V801.zip. Then click Open to confirm your selection.
3. Select a folder where the project shall be saved and confirm with OK.
The project will be retrieved.
4. In the Retrieve dialog, click the OK button and then Yes to open the project.
5. Click the UnitTemplate_OS > SVE20E > WinCC Appl. > OS with your right mouse button
and then select the menu command Open object.
6. Confirm the dialog The configured server is not available with OK.
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7. Use the WinCC Explorer and open the properties window for your computer; click on the Use
local computer name button in the Computer properties dialog.
Confirm the Change computer name prompt with OK.
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8. Click File > Exit to close the WinCC Explorer and select Close project and exit WinCC
Explorer in the next dialog.
Then click OK to confirm.
9. Open the WinCC Explorer again as described in step 5.
10. Double-click to open the Tag Management. In the WinCC Configuration Studio, right-click on
Tag Management > SIMATIC S7 Protocol Suite > Industrial Ethernet and select the menu
command System parameters.
11. Use the Unit tab to check the defined Logical device name. When using the S7-PLCSIM
program, the device name PLCSIM(ISO) will be selected. If the device name has been
changed, the program must be restarted. Open the WinCC Explorer again as described in
step 5.
Note
If the OS cannot create a connection with the AS (grayed faceplates), select the logic device
name CP_H1_1: and restart the OS.

Fermenter
48 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
5 Starting the Unit Template
5.2 Commissioning

5.2 Commissioning
The following instructions describe how the unit template fermenter can be set to
initialization mode.
Initialization requires that the SIMATIC Manager has been opened and the project
has been selected in the components view.

Starting simulation (S7-PLCSIM)


To start the simulation, proceed as follows:
Table 5-2
No. Action
1. Select Options > Simulate Modules from the menu.
The dialog window of S7-PLCSIM opens.
2. Open the Open project dialog and select the option Open project from file.
3. Select the file Fermenter.plc from the path
<ProjectPath>\UT_Ferm\Ferm_AS\Fermenter.plc >.
4. Select Execute > Key switch position > RUN-P from the menu.
5. Change over to the components view of the SIMATIC Manager and select UnitTemplate_AS
> AS01.
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6. Click PLC >Download in the menu bar and confirm the Download dialog with Yes.
Confirm the Stop Target Module dialog with OK and then the Download dialog with Yes.

Activating the OS (WinCC Runtime)


To activate the OS, proceed as follows:
Table 5-3
No. Action
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1. Click the UnitTemplate_OS > SVE20E > WinCC Appl. > OS with your right mouse button
and then select the menu command Open object.
2. Select File > Activate from the WinCC Explorer menu to activate the OS (WinCC Runtime).
3. In the System Login dialog, enter Unit as user name and Template as password and then
confirm with OK.
4. In the picture section, select the unit template Fermenter.

Note
The fermenter is already in the production/cleaning process, since the AS program processing
(PLCSIM) has already been started.

Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 49
6 Operating the Application
6.1 Overview

6 Operating the Application


6.1 Overview
All components of the fermenter can be operated and monitored via the process
image, as well as a production and cleaning process (CIP) be started. The
following two scenarios relate to the mode of operation with the Fermenter unit
template.
Scenario A: SFC start with changed parameters
Scenario B: working in non-production mode

6.2 Scenario A
Description
After activating the OS, the fermenter is either in the production/cleaning process
or has already completed this process. The operator can decide between the
following options:
Operating the motor, the actuators, pumps and controllers (cleaning
completed)
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Interrupting/stopping the production or cleaning process in the Manual


mode of the SFC, and pressing the Stop or Cancel buttons
Restarting the production with cleaning at the end by pressing the Start
button
The following scenario explains how to handle the SFC and change the production
volume (filling level) from 49 to 39 ( 49% corresponds to approx. 2000 liters,
39 correspond to approx. 1600 liters).
Table 6-1
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No. Action
1. Go to Plant View and click on the hierarchy folder Fermenter_MP > UnitTemplate_AS >
Fermenter. The contents of the folder are displayed in the right window pane.
2. Double-click to open the SFC StartFermenter.

3. The SFC description in chapter 3.9 tells us that the filling level is polled in sequence chain
PRODUCTION (Transition).

Fermenter
50 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
6 Operating the Application
6.3 Scenario B

No. Action
4. In the SFC you select the PRODUCTION sequence chain and enter the new filling level 39 in
the Condition tab of the object properties of the Filling_Complete (Transition) query. Click on
the Accept button and close the Properties window of the condition.
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5. Compile and load the AS user program via menu item PLC > Download .
Note
Perform a delta download without parameter readback.
6. Go to the OS and monitor the renewed production process.
Notice
In the OS, the production is performed with the new filling level. In the SFC, the original filling level
is still displayed. To update the SFC display, the OS must be recompiled.
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Note The scope of the necessary SFC adjustments increases depending on the
change request. If you wish to change the pressure, for example, you need to
enter the new setpoint value in the step of the setpoint specification and adjust
the step enabling condition in the subsequent (polling) transition.

6.3 Scenario B
This scenario discusses running the plant in non-production mode. In this mode
you have the option to operate the individual components of the fermenter and
perform a controller optimization, for example.
In the following scenario, a production ( 30%) is performed without specific
temperature and pressure control with a pH value of 5 pH. All required changes
(valves and controller) are made by the operator.

Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 51
6 Operating the Application
6.3 Scenario B

Table 6-2
No. Action
1. Go to the OS and wait until the production and cleaning process has been terminated or terminate
SFC processing by pressing the Stop or Abort button in MANUAL mode.

2. Click on the block icon of the valve of the ingredient, YC_Feed, and change the command in the
faceplate to Open.
3. Watch the filling level of the tank and close the valve for the ingredient, YC_Feed, after reaching
the filling level of approximately 30 %.
4. Use the conversion block to calculate the concentration difference of 5 pH.
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5. Click on the block icon of the QIC_pH and change the operating mode of the controller to
Automatic in the faceplate.
6. Click on the Setpoint input field and enter the calculated concentration difference -208.0 into
the input field of the expansion and click on the OK button.
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Note
The controller of the pH value control is active and reacts to a pH value smaller than 5 pH.
7. After controlling the pH value, the controller reacts to the process changes, e.g: by reopening the
valve for the ingredient, YC_Feed.

Note In order to obtain a precise pH value, the simulation must be reset prior to a
renewed filling. In the SFC you press the Stop or Abort button or restart a
production and cleaning process.

Fermenter
52 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270
7 Related Literature

7 Related Literature
7.1 Bibliography
This list is not complete and only represents a selection of relevant literature.
Table 7-1
Topic Title
/1/ Practice book for SIMATIC S7 and Controlling with SIMATC
SIMATIC PCS7 control systems Mller, Jrgen / Pfeiffer, Bernd-Markus /
Wieser, Roland
Publicis Kommunikationsag
ISBN 978-3895783401
/2/ Fermenter in red biotechnology Pfeiffer, B-M., Grieb, H., Rougoor, J.:
PLS-Toolbox zur Automatisierung von
Bioreaktoren.
(PLS Toolbox for automation of bioreactors)
VDI-Kongress Automation 2011, Baden-
Baden. VDI-Berichte 2143, S. 217-221,
VDI-Verlag, Dsseldorf.
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7.2 Internet links


The following list is not complete and only represents a selection of relevant
information.
Table 7-2
Topic Title
\1\ Link to this document http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/
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68098270
\2\ Siemens Industry Online http://support.automation.siemens.com
Support
\3\ Controller Optimization with the http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/
PID Tuner 8031495

\4\ SIMATIC PCS 7 Overview (link http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/


collection on FAQ, manuals, 63481413
compendium, forum, application
examples and multimedia)
\5\ Equipment Modules for PCS7 http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/
using the example of the 53843373
Chemical Industry
\6\ PCS 7 Unit Template Stirred http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/
Tank Reactor using the 60546560
example of the Chemical
Industry
\7\ PCS 7 Unit Template Distillation http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/
Column using the example of 48418663
the Chemical Industry
\8\ PCS 7 V8.0 SP1 Manual http://support.automation.siemens.com/WW/view/en/
Collection 71178283

Fermenter
V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270 53
8 History

8 History
Table 8-1
Version Date Modifications
V1.0 07/2013 First version
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Fermenter
54 V1.0, Entry ID: 68098270