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Broadband optical absorption

enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol


by goldsilver alloy nanoparticles
fabricated under laser ablation
technique

Mohammed A. Al-Azawi
Noriah Bidin
Khaldoon N. Abbas
Mohamed Bououdina
Shrook A. Azzez

Mohammed A. Al-Azawi, Noriah Bidin, Khaldoon N. Abbas, Mohamed Bououdina, Shrook A. Azzez,
Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver alloy
nanoparticles fabricated under laser ablation technique, J. Nanophoton. 10(2), 026009 (2016),
doi: 10.1117/1.JNP.10.026009.

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Broadband optical absorption enhancement of
N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver alloy nanoparticles
fabricated under laser ablation technique

Mohammed A. Al-Azawi,a Noriah Bidin,b,* Khaldoon N. Abbas,a Mohamed


Bououdina,c,d and Shrook A. Azzeze
a
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,
Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
b
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Laser Center, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and
Industrial Research, Johor Bahru, Johor 81310, Malaysia
c
University of Bahrain, Nanotechnology Centre, P.O. Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain
d
University of Bahrain, College of Science, Department of Physics,
P.O. Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain
e
Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Physics, Institute of Nano Optoelectronics Research and
Technology Laboratory, Penang 11800, Malaysia

Abstract. The formation of goldsilver alloy nanoparticles (AuAg alloy NPs) by a two-step
process with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser without any additives is presented. Mixtures of Au and Ag
colloidal suspensions were separately obtained by 1064-nm laser ablation of metallic targets
immersed in ethanol. Subsequently, the as-mixed colloidal suspensions were reirradiated by
laser-induced heating at the second-harmonic generation (532 nm) for different irradiation peri-
ods of time. The absorption spectra and morphology of the colloidal alloys were studied as a
function of exposure time to laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the
formation of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a homogeneous size distribution in
all the synthesized samples. UVvis and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were
also employed to characterize the changes in the light absorption and emission of N719 dye
solution with different concentrations of AuAg colloidal alloys, respectively. The localized
surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of AuAg alloy NPs enhanced the absorption and fluores-
cence peak of the dye solution. The mixture of dye molecules with a higher concentration of
alloy NPs exhibited an additional coupling of dipole moments with the LSPR, thereby contrib-
uting to the improvement of the optical properties of the mixture. 2016 Society of Photo-Optical
Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) [DOI: 10.1117/1.JNP.10.026009]

Keywords: laser-induced heating; AuAg alloy nanoparticles; surface plasmon resonance;


N719 dye.
Paper 15055 received Jun. 27, 2015; accepted for publication Mar. 29, 2016; published online
Apr. 21, 2016.

1 Introduction
Bimetallic NPs, either as alloys or coreshell nanostructures, have been extensively studied.
These NPs have attracted much attention for their remarkable properties in catalysis,17 biosens-
ing technology,810 magnetic devices,1113 and photovoltaic devices.1416 Increasing efforts have
been recently devoted to gold (Au) and silver (Au) NPs because both metals display a maximum
absorption peak in the visible spectrum at 520 and 400 nm, respectively.17,18 This peak is
produced by the interaction between light and the free electrons of metal,19 and well-defined
localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band. Furthermore, a goldsilver (AuAg) system
was selected because both metals are completely miscible in the bulk phase, given their very

*Address all correspondence to: Noriah Bidin, E-mail: noriah@utm.my


1934-2608/2016/$25.00 2016 SPIE

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

similar lattice constants.20 The LSPR originating from goldsilver alloy nanoparticles (AuAg
alloy NPs) can be continuously fine-tuned as a single entity by adjusting the size, shape, and
relative amount of the two components in the alloy.19,21 AuAg alloy NPs generally exhibit a
single absorption band located at a position between the SPR peaks of pure Au and Ag NPs.
Numerous methods have been used for the preparation of AuAg alloy NPs, including chemical
reduction,22,23 galvanic replacement reaction,3 microwave reduction,24,25 and laser-induced
heating.21,2628 Among these methods, laser-induced heating is a typical process to synthesize
bimetallic nanoparticles inside a liquid by the direct interaction of metal NPs with a laser beam.
Takami et al.29 and Kurita et al.30 reported that sufficiently high laser energy may cause the
melting of NPs during each laser pulse. Kuladeep et al.21 presented experimental results for
the synthesis of AuAg bimetallic nanoalloys under nanosecond laser-induced heating of met-
allic salts in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol as a reducing and capping agent. It was suggested
that the chemical composition of AuAg alloy NPs can be controlled by tuning the initial con-
centration of Au and Ag colloids as well as the laser irradiation time. It was reported that the
energy transferred to the NPs strongly depends on the particle size and parameters of the laser
pulse, such as the energy, wavelength, and pulse duration.26,31,32 Given the absorption of laser
radiation by NPs, the energy of electronic excitation occurs and transfers to the crystal lattice of
NPs, in which the electronphonon relaxation time occurs for a few picoseconds, i.e., within 3 to
5 ps.33 When the solution contains different colloids of particles, their absorption of laser energy
can differ as a result of the differences in their lattice constants. A mixture of Au and Ag NP
suspensions irradiated by laser pulses may lead to conformational changes in the particles via
a melting process.29 If the absorbed energy is sufficiently high, Au and Ag NPs can be heated
above their melting and boiling points to induce a reaction of the NPs with other NPs. Therefore,
the AuAg alloy NPs may be formed. Moreover, the pulsed laser ablation of solid targets in
liquids has been considered as an approach to generate NPs. By this technique, the average
size and size distribution of the prepared particles can be controlled using appropriate laser
parameters34,35 and physicochemical properties of the liquid.3638
In general, Au and Ag NPs existing in the dye solution are expected to modulate and to
improve the optical properties of their mixture due to the electromagnetic interaction between
metallic NPs and dye molecules. In particular, in the case that absorption band of dye molecules
lies close to the LSPR of metallic NPs. Thus, the tunability of this LSPR over a wide energy
range always remains of interest. In addition, the enhancement and quenching of the photolu-
minescence (PL) spectra of a material are attributed to the scattering and absorption processes,
respectively. The emission is quenched because absorption dominates scattering; by contrast,
emission enhancement emanates from scattering dominating over absorption.39 Although
using N719 dye in various applications is popular, only a few studies have reported particular
information on the LSPR effects of AuAg alloy NPs on some physical properties of the dye
system.
In this research work, an alloy is formed by a mixture containing two different metallic NPs
under laser irradiation. Herein, we separately synthesized colloids of pure Au and Ag NPs by
pulsed laser ablation of the relevant single metal targets in ethanol. The as-prepared Au and Ag
colloids were mixed with a volume ratio of 41 and reirradiated using laser pulses for different
periods of time to form AuAg alloy NPs. The morphology and optical characteristics of all
prepared samples, as well as the effect of postablated laser irradiation time on the mixture
of Au and Ag colloids, were also presented and discussed. Finally, the effects of AuAg colloidal
alloys on optical properties of N719 dye solution were studied.

2 Experimental Section

2.1 Preparation of Plasmonic Colloidal Solutions


First, Au and Ag colloids were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of the relevant single metal
targets immersed in ethanoldeionized water. High-purity plates (99.99%) of noble metals Au
and Ag were employed as target materials. The targets were alternately cleaned in an ultrasonic
bath of acetone and ethanol for 10 min each and then rinsed with deionized water to eliminate

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of experimental setup for AuAg colloidal alloys formation.

any contaminants.40 In each case, the cleaned targets were kept in a Pyrex vessel containing
15 mL of an ethanoldeionized water solution (7030 volume ratio). The laser radiation (fun-
damental wavelength, 1064 nm; pulse duration, 8 ns; and repetition rate, 10 Hz) of a Q-switched
Nd:YAG laser was employed during ablation. The laser beam was focused by a lens with a focal
length of 100 mm to obtain a laser fluence of 20 and 18 Jcm2 on the surfaces of the Au and Ag
targets, respectively. The ablation process was performed at room temperature and for an abla-
tion time of 12 min for each of the Au and Ag targets. After only several seconds of the ablation
process for the Au and Ag targets, the color of the solutions gradually changed to red and yellow,
respectively, thereby indicating the presence of Au and Ag colloids. The red and yellow colors
represent absorption in a spectrum range at 520 and 400 nm because of the presence of LSPR,
which originated from the as-produced Au and Ag colloids, respectively.41
The second step included the synthesis of bimetallic alloy NPs. Au and Ag colloids prepared
by the aforementioned methods were mixed together with a volume ratio of 41. The as-mixed
colloids were irradiated for different irradiation periods of time with a second-harmonic gen-
eration (532 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser pulses, which operated at a maximum fluence of
0.7 Jcm2 and similar laser parameters of repetition rate and pulse duration. These steps are
summarized in Fig. 1.

2.2 Preparation of N719 Dye Solution


A light-sensitive N719 dye known by its chemical formula RuL2 NCS2 2TBA (L is 2,2-
bipyridyl-4,4-dicarboxylic acid and TBA is tetra-n-butylammonium) was purchased from
Dyesol. The 0.3 mM dye solution in extra pure ethanol (99.7%) was prepared. To study the
changes in the optical absorption of the dye solution, a series of dye molecules and alloy
NPs solutions was prepared by mixing a 6 mL constant volume of dye solution with different
volumes of AuAg colloidal alloys (i.e., 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL), which were labeled as G1,
G2, G3, and G4, respectively. The dye solution without alloy NPs was labeled as G0 and used as
a reference.

2.3 Characterization Techniques


The optical spectra of the ablated colloidal solutions, the as-mixed colloids before and after
irradiation, and the N719 dye solution with and without AuAg colloidal alloys were measured
with a UVvis Perkin-Elmer Lambda 25 spectrophotometer. A 0.5-cm path-length quartz
cuvette was utilized for absorption measurements. The PL spectra of the N719 dye solution
with and without AuAg colloidal alloys were also recorded using a spectrometer (Perkin-
Elmer, Luminescence LS55) at an excitation wavelength of 350 nm with a quartz cuvette

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

(path-length: 1 cm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission


electron microscopy (HRTEM) micrographs of each sample were obtained with a Philips CM12
microscope operating at 120 kV and an FEI TECNAI G2 F20 X-TWIN operating at 200 kV,
respectively. For sample preparation, a small droplet of each freshly synthesized sample was
introduced on a carbon-coated copper grid and then air dried at room temperature. The micro-
graphs were analyzed with ImageJ processing software to determine the average particle size.
The particle size distribution was acquired by counting more than 250 individual particles that
were identified within a TEM micrograph.

3 Results and Discussion


The UVvis absorption spectra of pure Au and Ag colloidal solutions were separately prepared
with 1064 nm pulses (Fig. 2). The absorbance peaks of Au and Ag colloids were located at 520
and 402 nm, respectively, to elucidate the characteristic features of the LSPR. A more strong
effect on the LSPR is observed when the nanoparticles shape is varied, which can be related to
various surface charge distributions of NPs that are interpreted in terms of diverse multipolar
moments.42,43 The prominent single peaks suggested that the morphology of the produced Au
and Ag NPs were reasonably uniform and spherical in the colloidal solution,40 which was vali-
dated by TEM analysis (Fig. 3). The TEM micrographs shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) indicated
that the majority of Au and Ag particles had diffused and did not possess apparent aggregation.
The histogram obtained from the TEM micrographs, as shown in Figs. 3(c) and 3(d), indicated
an average particle size of 10.50  4.99 and 7.87  3.05 nm for Au and Ag NPs, respectively.
The UVvis absorption spectra of the colloidal solutions (Fig. 4) were obtained by mixing the as-
prepared Au and Ag colloids with a volume ratio of 41 before and after irradiation at different
durations with 532 nm pulses. For the initial mixed Au and Ag colloids, two distinct peaks are
observed at wavelengths of 400 and 521 nm, which originated from Ag and Au NPs absorption
in the suspension mixture, respectively. These peaks were located at nearly the same position
with those measured from their pure colloidal solutions (Fig. 2), thereby indicating the presence
of pure Au and Ag NPs in the prepared mixture. The relative intensity ratio of the two distinct
peaks is an indication of the relative amount of Au and Ag colloids in the ethanol suspension. In
the case of as-mixed colloidal solutions exposed to the laser beam, the absorbance spectra have
been extremely changed. This change depends on the irradiation time and the initial AuAg
ratio. After 5 min of irradiation (Fig. 4), the maximum absorption peak corresponding to the
SPR absorption band of Au NPs decreased and shifted toward shorter wavelengths of the spectra,
whereas the maximum absorption peaks corresponding to the Ag SPR absorption band slightly
increased without a clear spectrum shift. When the irradiation time increased, the Au SPR
absorption band increased in intensity and continued toward the blueshift, whereas the Ag
SPR absorption band intensity decreased. The blueshift of the absorption peak may be attributed

3.0
Au colloids
Ag colloids
2.5
Absorbance (arb. unit)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0
300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 2 Optical absorption spectra of Au and Ag colloidal solutions prepared by 1064-nm laser
ablation of individual targets in ethanol for 12 min.

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

(a) (b)

50
50 Ave.= 10.50 nm Ave.= 7.87 nm
(c) Std. Dev.= 4.99
(d) Std. Dev.= 3.05
40 40
Number of particles

Number of particles
30 30

20 20

10 10

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 4 8 12 16 20
Particle size (nm) Particle size (nm)

Fig. 3 TEM images of (a) Au and (b) Ag NPs; (c) and (d) demonstrate a representative size dis-
tribution histogram of (a) and (b), respectively.

to the increased interband transitions in Au NPs compared with Ag NPs.44 By further increasing
the irradiation time to 20 min, a single separate SPR band located in between pure Au and Ag
SPR peaks at a wavelength of 501 nm was generated. The curve also confirmed a broadband
light absorption enhancement of the colloidal mixture, indicating the increased NP concentration
in the generated nanostructure. By increasing the irradiation time up to 30 min, no further
changes occurred in the absorbance spectrum (optical properties) of the colloidal mixture,
thereby indicating a saturation state. The existence of a single absorption band at 501 nm
and the change in the optical properties of a colloidal solution after exposure to laser beams
for 20 min may be caused by the formation of AuAg alloy NPs.22,45 The formation of colloidal
alloys was observed by HRTEM analysis. The HRTEM micrographs in Fig. 5 demonstrated the
formation of alloy NPs prepared by 532-nm laser reirradiation of the mixture of Au and Ag
colloids (volume ratio of 41). HRTEM micrograph of the colloidal mixture after exposure

4
as-mixed
5 min
Abosorbance (arb. unit)

10 min
3 15 min
20 min
30 min

0
300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 4 Optical absorption spectra of AuAg colloidal suspension before and after different laser
irradiation periods of time at the wavelength of 532 nm.

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

(a) (b)

50
(c) Ave.= 18.69 nm (d)
Std. Dev.= 6.26
40
Number of particles

30

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Particle size (nm)

Fig. 5 HRTEM images of AuAg colloidal suspension after exposure to laser irradiation for
(a) 15 min and (b) 20 min. (c) and (d) The representative size distribution histogram and a single
particle of the prepared AuAg alloy NPs after 20 min irradiation, respectively.

to a laser beam for 15 min revealed that the bimetallic particles (indicated by arrows) were at
the melting step [Fig. 5(a)]. After 20 min of irradiation, the AuAg alloy NPs were found to
have a nearly spherical shape and were slightly sintered [Fig. 5(b)]. The size distribution histo-
gram based on the HRTEM micrograph of AuAg alloy NPs yielded an average particle size of
18.69  6.26 nm [Fig. 5(c)]. As shown in Fig. 5(a), 5(d) the highly magnified TEM micrograph
of one typical particle indicated the formation of an alloy nanostructure. The contrast caused by
the difference in the atomic number between bright Ag and the dark Au atoms in the TEM
micrograph is a well-defined method to confirm AuAg alloy structural nanoparticles.46
Moreover, the results of HRTEM micrograph analysis clearly confirmed the random distribution
of metal atoms with smaller light and dark domains in alloy NPs.
The LSPR effect of colloidal alloys on the optical absorbance of a dye solution was inves-
tigated. The UVvis absorption spectra of the N719 dye molecules in ethanol with and/or
without AuAg colloidal alloys are shown in Fig. 6. The N719 dye molecules solution (G0)
exhibited two characteristic absorption bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic
spectrum at 386 and 527 nm, respectively. These bands were attributed to the metal-to-ligand
charge transfer transitions.47 Both characteristic bands of the dye solution in the presence of
AuAg alloy NPs shifted slightly toward lower wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum,
which corresponded well with the SPR absorption band of AuAg colloidal alloys. The absorp-
tion peak intensity and spectral broadening of the dye solution also increased as the concen-
tration of alloy NPs increased. The relative enhancement of the maximum dye absorption in
the presence of alloy NPs occurred at 514 nm. This evolution in optical properties of the
dye solution could be attributed to partial matching between the optical absorption bands of
alloy NPs (Fig. 4) and the dye molecules, which were larger at the absorption band of
514 nm. Therefore, the dipole moments of the dye molecules strongly coupled with SPR of
AuAg alloy NPs, which caused effective energy transfer between them.48 Further concentration
of dye molecules in the mixture enhanced the contribution from alloy NPs to absorb the inci-
dent light.
The PL spectra of dye solutions with and/or without AuAg colloidal alloys are shown in
Fig. 7. The PL emission spectra were measured at room temperature with a 350-nm excitation

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

1.8
G0
1.5 G1

Absorbance (arb. unit)


G2
1.2 G3
G4

0.9

0.6

0.3

0.0
400 500 600 700 800 900
Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 6 Optical absorption spectra of the N719 dye solution in the presence of different concen-
trations of AuAg colloidal alloys formed at the optimal time compared with the bare N719 dye
solution.

wavelength. With the increase in the concentration of AuAg colloidal alloys, the fluorescence
intensity of the dye and colloidal alloy mixtures was significantly enhanced. The center of the PL
band remained almost constant at 707 nm, and the spectra shape was unchanged in the presence
of plasmonic alloy NPs. The dependence of PL enhancement factor on the concentration of Au
Ag alloy NPs is shown in the inset of Fig. 7. Here, the enhancement factor was calculated
through the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of the dye solution in the presence and absence
of plasmonic alloy NPs. The inset reveals an extreme increase in the enhancement factor of these
mixtures as the AuAg alloy NPs concentration increases. The highest enhancement factor of the
dye solution with 0.4 mL AuAg colloidal alloy was recorded to be 10-fold larger than the bare
dye solution. The enhancement indicates the increase in the nonradiative energy transfer from
AuAg alloy NPs (donors) to the dye molecules (acceptors) by fluorescence resonance energy
transfer mechanism due to the increase in the interaction between the dye molecules and plas-
monic alloy NPs. The enhancement also indicated that the increase in the AuAg alloy NPs
absorption of the incident light excited the dye molecules, which can exhibit the enhancement
in fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, the strongest fluorescence intensity of the dye and Au
Ag alloy NPs mixture suggested that scattering was a dominant process over the absorption.
These results verified that a certain interaction between the dipole moments of the dye and
the LSPR of AuAg alloy NPs occurred. In addition, the dipole moments and the LSPR
were found to be within a minimal spatial range in order to transfer the resonance energy
between the two components.49,50

1200
G0 10

G1
Enhancement factor

8
1000 G2 6
G3
4
800 G4
Intensity (a.u)

0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
600 Au-Ag colloidal alloys content (mL)

400

200

0
650 700 750 800
Wavelength (nm)

Fig. 7 PL spectra of the N719 dye solution with different concentrations of AuAg colloidal alloys
formed at the optimal time compared with the bare N719 dye solution.

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

4 Conclusion
Spherical AuAg alloy NPs were successfully formed in ethanol under the laser irradiation of a
mixture of individual Ag and Au colloidal solutions in the absence of any surfactant. The evo-
lution of the absorption spectrum and morphology of the resulting nanoparticles relied on the
laser irradiation time. The formation of alloy NPs was confirmed by UVvis absorption spectra
and HRTEM measurements. UVvis absorption spectroscopy of the mixed Au and Ag suspen-
sions showed that the SPR band was slightly blueshifted from the Au peak position toward the
Ag peak position, depending on the increase in laser irradiation time. This study also indicated
that the laser-induced heating methodology provided an efficient approach to form AuAg col-
loidal alloys with the enhanced broadening of SPR absorption between SPR bands of individual
metallic Au and Ag NPs (400 and 521 nm). The optimal irradiation time of alloy NPs formation
was found to be 20 min. The enhancement of the absorption and fluorescence of the dye and
AuAg alloy NPs mixture also occurred. The enhancement ratio of the light absorption of N719
dye molecules was found to be relative to the concentration of the AuAg alloy NPs. It has also
been observed that increasing the alloy NPs concentration in the dye solution led to the enhance-
ment of dye fluorescence peak. It was found that a 10-fold enhancement factor of the dye
solution was realized with the highest AuAg alloy NPs concentration, compared to the
bare dye solution. These results confirmed the existence of a certain interaction between the
dipole moments of the dye and the LSPR of AuAg alloy NPs favoring to transfer the resonance
energy in between. The results of this study could be applied to some potential technological
development of dye-sensitized solar cells. This approach may directly facilitate the investigation
of bimetallic colloids effects on optical properties of the dye solution before cell fabrication.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to express their immense thanks to the Malaysian Ministry of Education
through the FRGS fund with vote 4F543, and UTM through RMC for the financial support of
the project and the management and performance of the project.

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Mohammed A. Al-Azawi is currently a fourth year PhD student in the Laser Center at Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). He graduated from Al-Mustansiriya University, Iraq, with a bach-
elor of science in physics in 1995. He earned his MSc degree in applied physics (specialization in
laser science) from University of Technology, Iraq, in 2004. His main area of academic interest
focuses on the laser applications, nanoscience, and nanotechnology.

Noriah Bidin received her BS from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, her MSc from
Loughborough University, United Kingdom, in 1989, and her PhD in laser physics from
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia in 1995. She is a professor in laser physics and engineering.
Currently, she is a director of the Laser Center, University Teknology Malaysia. Her research
interests include laser science and engineering, including nanotechnology. She has published
more than 80 papers in indexed journals.

Khaldoon N. Abbas is currently a third year PhD student in the Laser Center at Universiti
Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). He received his BS from Baghdad University, Iraq, in 1997. He
obtained his MSc degree in applied physics (specialization in laser science) from University of
Technology, Iraq, in 2002. His research interests focus on laser applications, nanoscience, and
nanotechnology.

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Al-Azawi et al.: Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by goldsilver. . .

Mohamed Bououdina is the founding director of the Centre of Nanotechnology at University of


Bahrain. He obtained his PhD in condensed matter physics from University Joseph Fourier,
France. He has been a research fellow at leading institutions in France, United Kingdom,
and Japan. He has published over 215 research papers and numerous book chapters. He is
an associate editor for numerous international journals. His research expertise includes renew-
able energy, advanced materials, nanoscience and nanotechnology, spintronics, biomedical
applications, and wastewater treatment.

Shrook A. Azzez: Biography is not available.

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