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K.Meena alias Jeyanthi1, Dr.A.P.Kabilan2,

Department of Electronics and communication,PSNACET,Dindigul.
Principal,Chettinad college of engineering & technology, Karur

Received May 8, 2009

IEEE 802.16 is an emerging global broadband wireless access standard capable of delivering
multiple megabytes of shared data throughput supporting fixed, portable and mobile operations.
WiMAX represents a scalable and cost-effective solution to offer wider area coverage, improved
performance in terms of QOS, service continuity in case of terrestrial network failure and long
range user mobility. The ever increasing demand of OFDMA and MIMO, plays a major role in
multiuser and multicarrier frame work. We propose a suboptimal, subcarrier allocation criteria
for OFDMA-MIMO systems. The computational complexity grows linearly with the number of
users and the number of sub carriers. Numerical results are presented to compare the two sub
carrier allocation criteria with the optimal criterion. It is observed that BER and FER
approaches rapidly for lower energy to noise ratio.

Keywords: WiMAX, MIMO, OFDMA, Bit error rate and Frame error rate, CCDF.


К. Мина Джеянти1, А. П. Кабилан2
Факультет электроники и связи колледжа PSNACET, Диндигул, Индия
Инженерно-технологический колледж, Карур, Индия

Получена 8 мая 2009 г.

Стандарт IEEE 802.16 - это стандарт широкополосного беспроводного доступа,
допускающий мультимегабайтную пропускную способность данных с общим доступом.
WiMAX представляет собой масштабируемое и экономичное решение для расширения
области охвата, улучшения производительности, обеспечения бесперебойности связи в
случае разрыва наземных сетей и большой диапазон мобильности пользователя.
Требование OFDMA и MIMO играет основную роль в среде с многими пользователями и
несколькими несущими. В работе предлагается оптимальный критерий для размещения
субнесущей для системы OFDMA-MIMO. Сложность вычислений линейно растет с
числом пользователей и числом поднесущих. Приводятся численные результаты для
сравнения критерия размещения двух субнесущих с оптимальным критерием.
Обнаружено, что частота ошибок по битам и частота ошибок по фреймам быстро
достигается при более низком отношении энергия-шум.

Ключевые слова: передача данных, WiMAX, MIMO, OFDMA, обработка сигналов,

частота ошибок по битам, частота ошибок по фреймам, CCDF.

1. Introduction

WiMAX is a world wide interoperability microwave access is a telecommunication

technology that provides wireless data in a variety of ways and its name was created by WiMAX

forum. In several countries, manufacturers, operators and public authorities look at WiMAX

system as a viable technology to fill the “digital divide”, providing broadband services mainly in

suburban and rural areas, but also in densely populated areas[1]. WiMAX is a wireless digital

communication system, also known as IEEE 802.16 or wireless MAN that is intended for

wireless “metropolitan area networks”. WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA)

up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed station and 3 to 10 miles (5-15 km) for mobile stations. WiMAX

provides up to 70Mbps per station for cells with radii of several kilometers. Traditional wireless

system uses single antenna for transmission and single antenna for reception, called single input

and single output systems(SISO).In recent years, significant progress has been made in the field

of wireless communication, that use multiple antennas for transmission and reception, called

multiple input and multiple output(MIMO)[3].

1.1 Multiple antenna system

It uses the advantage of diversity in wireless communication. The channels are affected by

rayleigh fading. Multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver can provide diversity gain and

increased data routes through the space time signal processing. Adaptive array provides high

antenna gain for extended battery life, extended range, high throughput, multipath diversity gain

for improved reliability including more robust operation of services and also provides

interference suppression, reduced interference, reduced interference in other systems on

transmission,high link capacity through the use of MIMO with spatial multiplexer[4].

1.2 MIMO

MIMO stands for Multiple Input and Multiple Output, and refers to the technology where there

are multiple antennas at the base station and multiple antennas at the mobile device. Typical

usage of multiple antenna technology includes cellular phones with two antennas, laptops with

two antennas.OFDMA and MIMO integrated to offer the benefits of both systems simplicity and

high performance.Beam forming MIMO, Standards-compatible techniques to improve the range

of existing data rates using transmit and receive beamforming, Also reduces transmit interference

and improves receive interference tolerance.Spatial multiplexing MIMO,allows even higher data

rates by transmitting parallel data streams in the same frequency spectrum. Figure 1 shows the

simple MIMO system model.

1.3 MIMO Techniques in WiMAX

WiMAX implementations that use MIMO technology have become important. The use of

MIMO technology improves the reception and allows for a better reach and rate of transmission.

The implementation of MIMO also gives WiMAX a significant increase in spectral efficiency. A

simple MIMO system shown in figure 1 shows 2x2 antenna system. Nearly orthogonal

signatures can be constructed to simultaneously transmit to multiple users at the same bandwidth

or to transmit to distinct data rates on the same bandwidth but with differing spatial

signatures.let the input data be serial data s1,s2, transmitted by two antennas through the

channel.The test vectors are generated using channel matrix and received by two antennas to

produce two distinct received signals r1 and r2.This is explained in detail in the section 2.3.

1.4 Modulation scheme

Single frequency signal is always on at the same phase and amplitude conveys no information.

To transmit the data, a sinusoidal signal must change with time, the signal must be modulated.

The different modulation standards are introduced starting from the on off keying to the

quadrature modulation. Code rate is a type information rate, states that the percentage of useful

information content in a signal. If a coder generates ‘n’ bits total data, and ‘k’ bits of useful

information, the code rate is ‘k/n’.

1.5 Benefits and challenges:

The WiMAX standard depends upon a grand-request access protocol that doesn’t allow data

collisions and therefore uses the available bandwidth more effectively. Other characteristics of

WiMAX standards includes higher quality of service,full support for WMAN service, WiMAX

support more users and deliver faster data rates at longer distances. As more users join they must

share the aggregate bandwidth and their individual throughput decreases linearly. This capability

is termed “efficient multiple access”. Smart antenna support-Smart antennas are being used to

increase spectral density and to increase signal to noise ratio for WiMAX. Because of

performance and technology, WiMAX standards support several adaptive smart antenna types,

including Receive spatial diversity antennas, Simple diversity antennas, beam steering antennas,

Beam forming antennas.

2. Orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing

All the modulation schemes are single carrier modulation techniques. Single carrier modulation

are versatile and relatively simple to implement. Those schemes have some fundamental

limitations in a wireless link. In a real world transmission, the concept of multipath, that is

various sorts of obstacles may exist that reflect the signal providing alternatives to the direct

path. OFDM has been proposed for very high data rate and provides parallelism, allowing 10

fold increase in the transmission delay allowed before serious multipath distortion occurs[7].

2.1 OFDM transmitter

In the OFDM transmission system, the OFDM symbol, each data set is converted into a complex

number of decreasing amplitude and phase of the subcarrier and that complex number becomes

the complex amplitude of the corresponding subcarrier[5]. In Figure 2, the inverse FFT convert

the frequency spectrum into a sequence of time samples. This set of numbers is read out serially

and assigned to successive time slots.The resulting complex numbers for signal versus time are

converted into a pair of voltages by an ADC. The real part determines the Inphase or I channel

and the imaginary part determines the quadrature or Q channel. These I and Q voltages are

multiplied, by a cosine and sine at the center frequency[7]. The received symbol is demodulated

in a similar fashion. Figure 2 shows how the data is mapped and transmitted in a channel and

received in a OFDM system.

2.2 OFDM reception

OFDM symbol is quite complex, for a modest number of subcarriers. As the number of sub

carriers grow large, the few symbols with all the subcarriers in phase grow increasingly rare as a

percentage of the possible symbols. The received signal is demodulated, processed and mapped

on QAM. Thus the output resembles the input.

2.3 System model

Test bench is simulated using Agilent’s ADS2008 module. The RF source is designed to provide

the signal strength of 10dBm at a center frequency of 2.305GHz for bandwidth of 10MHz. The

system is simulated for 2x2 antenna. The RF signal is passed through MIMO channel. The

system is modeled as OFDMA based on IEEE 802.16e design information. It is very important

in the information theory study, the channel capacity of the wireless system. MIMO channel

capacity is modeled as follows, there are m-number of transmitting antenna and n-receiving


The receives signal, y ( k ) = H ( k ) x ( k ) + I ( k ) + z (k ) , (1)

y(k)-is nx1 received signal vector at time constant k,

y (k ) = [ y1 (k ) y 2 (k ) y 3 (k ) y 4 (k )........... y n (k )]H , (2)

x(k)-is mx1 received signal vector at time constant k,

x(k ) = [x1 (k ) x 2 (k ) x3 (k ) x 4 (k )...........x m (k )]H , (3)

H(k) is nxm channel gain matrix at time instant k,

h11 (k )h12 (k )h13 (k )...............h1m (k ) 

h (k )h (k )h (k )...............h (k )
 21 22 23 2m 
. 
H (k ) =  , (4)
 . 
. 
 
hn1 (k )hn 2 (k )hn3 (k )..............hnm (k ) 

noise vector, Z (k ) = [z1 ( k ) z 2 ( k ) z 3 ( k ).............z n ( k )]


Interference, I ( K ) = [I 1 (k ) I 2 (k ) I 3 (k )............I k (k )]

I (k ) = H I (k ) x I (k ) (5)

y ( k ) = H ( k ) x( k ) + H I ( k ) x I ( K ) + z ( k ) , (6)

y (k ) = H (k ) x(k ) + w(k ) , (7)

  Pi HH H 
channel capacity, C = B log 2 det  I +  , (8)
  σ w2  

H channel matrix, Pi , i=1,2, ….λ- eigen value λ1 >λ2> λr.

3. BER & PER Measurements

The most commonly encountered ratio is the bit error ratio (BER) - also sometimes referred to as

bit error rate i.e., the number of erroneous bits received divided by the total number of bits

transmitted.Packet Error Rate (PER) is used to test the performance of an access terminal's

receiver. In performing the PER measurement, the test set, it always operates with 100% packet

activity, means that all slots contain Forward Traffic Channel or Control Channel packets (data).

Test bench is based on a modulation technique WMAN IEEE802.16e OFDMA for transmitter

and receiver .It has the following features: Top-level baseband signal sources and RF signal

source for downlink and uplink were provided. The system is modeled in the basis of TDD/FDD

frames for downlink and uplink, it has 512,1024 &2048 FFT sizes, Channel coding is

CC(Convolution coding) and CTC(Convolution turbo coding),STC/MIMO with two antenna

source for both the uplink & downlink, Collaborative MIMO(SM) source with one transmit

antenna for uplink signal.

Top-level baseband receivers and RF receivers for downlink and uplink were also developed.

The functionalities are as follows: 512, 1024, 0r 2048 FET sizes with variable bandwidths, CC

decoding with soft decision(with channel state information(CSI)),CTC decoding with soft

decision(with channel state information(CSI)),STC/MIMO decoding(with ZF and MMSC). The

figure 3 shows bit error rate and frame error rate of 2x2 MIMO channel operated at a center

frequency of 2.305GHz with the FFT size of 1024 and the packet length is 100 bytes. From the

figure 3 ,64QAM shows the better performance than other modulation schemes. The following

table shows the code rate and bits per symbol for the different modulation schemes.

Table.1 Comparison of code rate and bits/symbol for various modulation scheme

Modulation Code rate Bits/symbol

QPSK ½ 0

QPSK ¾ 1

16 QAM ½ 2

16 QAM ¾ 3

64 QAM ½ 4

64 QAM 2/3 5

64 QAM ¾ 6

4. CCDF Measurements

CCDF curves provide the peak to average power data needed by component designers. This

provides the power characteristics of 3G signals. This shows how much time the signal spends at

or above a given power level. In the figure 4 , the peak to average power reaches 9.056dB.

The figure 5 shows that the number of tones increases, the channel resembles the AWGN curve.

This becomes an important application of Noise power ratio measurements(NPR).The RF peak

power for downlink signal is 9.055dB.

5. Waveform and spectrum Measurements

The model is designed in the ADS momentum 2008 for the IEEE 802.16e WMAN. Two signals

analyzed in the MIMO channel, CCDF waveform is analyzed for various modulation schemes.

The model is created for WMAN uplink and downlink channel for OFDMA system shown in the

figure 5 & 6.

6. Conclusion

The proposed implementation system is a key enabler for high capacity data services, which is

fundamental to success for WiMAX .It has been shown that multiple input and multiple output

antenna systems offer spectral efficiency significantly higher than values reached in conventional

radio systems. MIMO system can solve the problem of limited bandwidth. The competitive

technology to MIMO is OFDMA. It is preferred over a single carrier solution due to lower

complexity of equalizers for high delay spread channels or high data rates. The system has

improved quality throughput, improved frequency spectrum utilization and the system shows the

processing bandwidth of 1.25 to the maximum of 10MHz for different modulation schemes like



[1] www.WiMAX.forum.org.

[2] S.Chandran, “Adaptive antenna arrays, Trends and communication”,springer

International Edition,2008.

[3] Jeffrey H.Reed, “Software defines radio”, Pearson Education,2006.

[4] George Tsoulos, “Adaptive antennas and MIMO systems for Mobile

communications”,Wiley IEEE Press,January 2001,pp. 3-26.

[5] Wolfgang Utschick and Pedro Tejera, “The spatial Dimension in wireless multicarrier

communications’ springer International Edition,2008,pp.29-45.

[6] S.Catreux,P.F.Driessen,L.J.Greenstein, “Attainable throughput of an intreference

limited multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) cellular system”,IEEE


[7] Z.Liu,G.B.Giannakis,S.Barbarossa and A.Scaglione,’Transmit antenna space time

block coding for generalized OFDM in the presence of unknown multipath”, IEEE

Journal on Selected Areas in communications, vol.19, no.7,pp.1352-1364,July 2001.

s1,s2 Transmitter

Figure.1 MIMO system

A simple example of OFDM operation

QAM IFFT I-Q FFT Demapping Data
Data Modulator Demodulator

0 .0 3 1 .5
1 .5 0 .0 3
0 .0 2
0 .0 2

0 .0 1

1 .0 0 .0 1 1 .0


0 .0 0
0 .0 0
-0 .0 1 0 .5
0 .5 -0 . 01
-0 .0 2
-0 . 02
-0 .0 3 0 .0
0 .0 -0 . 03
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
In d ex In d e x
I nd e x In d e x

Symbol to be transmitted I-channel signal (after IFFT) I-channel signal Recovered Symbol
(after I-Q demodulator)
(after FFT)

Figure. 2 Operation of OFDM system

Downlink BER and FER on 2x2 WiMAX MIMO channel
BER on 2x2 WiMAX MIMO channel PER on 2x2 WiMAX MIMO channel
5E-2 5E-1






Rate ID
0 QPSK 1/2
2 16QAM 1/2
4 64QAM 1/2
1E-4 1E-4
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
EbNo EbNo

Simulation condition: DL PUSC, FC=2305MHz, BW=10MHz, FFT=1024, CP=1/8

PacketLength=100 bytes, Pedestrian B, V=3km/h
High correlation

Figure.3 Measurement of BER & FER

RF Pow er Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)


CCDF (%)


-10 -5 0 5 10
SignalRange (dB)

PeakPow er_dBm MeanPow er_dBm RF_Peak_to_Avg_dB

-0.449 -9.505 9.056

Figure.4 CCDF Measurement

802.16e OFDMA Push into Inf o to read
Design Information local inf ormation

WMAN OFDMA MIMO : Transmitter CCDF, Waveform and Spectrum Measurements

Va r VAR
Eq n Va r
Eq n
VAR Va r
Eq n
FCarrier = 2305 MHz RF_Channel_VARs Measurement_VARs
SignalPower = 10 (dBm) Gain = 0 OutputPoint=1000
Bandwidth=10 MHz
Ov ersamplingOption=1 SymNum=30
FFTSiz e = 1
Cy clicPrefix = 1/8
FrameDuration = 3
ZoneTy pe = 0
ZoneNumOfSy m =18
NumberOfBurst=1 Note:
BurstWithFEC=1 Note: Rate_ID Modulation CTC
BurstSy mOffset = {0} Rate_ID Modulation CC 0 QPSK 1/2
BurstSubchOffs et = {0} 0 QPSK 1/2
BurstAs signedSlot={35*6} 1 QPSK 3/4 1 QPSK 3/4
Rate_ID = {3} 2 16QAM 1/2
2 16QAM 1/2 3 16QAM 3/4
3 16QAM 3/4 4 64QAM 1/2
4 64QAM 1/2
5 64QAM 2/3 5 64QAM 2/3
6 64QAM 3/4 6 64QAM 3/4
7 64QAM 5/6

8 0 2.1 6 e 8 0 2 .1 6 e

Gain=dbpolar(Gain,0) WMAN_M_UL_MIMO_RF_CCDF
UL So u rc e
SymLen=Sy mLen
STC RF_Signal2 SymNum=Sy mNum
2 An te n n a
RF_Signal1 OutputPoint=OutputPoint
WMAN_M_UL_2Ant_Src_RF Cyc licPrefix =Cyc lic Prefix
WMAN_M_UL_2Ant_Src_RF GainRF FrameMode=FDD
FCarrier=FCarrier DataPattern=PN9 DUT1 DL_Ratio=0.5
Bandwidth=Bandwidth STC_Matrix =B Gain=dbpolar(Gain,0) FrameDuration=FrameDuration
Ov ersamplingOption=Ov ersamplingOption
FFTSiz e=FFTSiz e OversamplingOption=Overs amplingOption
Cy clicPrefix=Cy clicPrefix ZoneNumOfSym=ZoneNumOfSym
DL_Ratio=0.5 NumberOfBurst=NumberOfBurst
FrameDuration=FrameDuration BurstSymOffset=BurstSymOffset
ZoneTy pe=ZoneTy pe
DF BurstSubchOffset=BurstSubchOffs et
ZoneNumOfSym=ZoneNumOfSym BurstAss ignedSlot=BurstAss ignedSlot
NumberOfBurst=NumberOfBurst DefaultNumericStart=0 FrameStartSym=FrameStartSym
Burs tWithFEC=BurstWithFEC
DefaultNumericStop=100 FrameStopSym=FrameStopSym
Burs tSy mOffs et=Burs tSy mOffs et
DefaultTimeStart=0 usec
Burs tSubchOffs et=BurstSubc hOffset DefaultTimeStop=10 us ec
Burs tAs signedSlot=Burs tAssignedSlot

Res BW ResBW
RF_Signal1 RF_Signal2
RF_Signal1 RF_Signal2

SpectrumAnaly zerRes BW SpectrumAnaly zerResBW

TimedSink TimedSink
Spectrum_Ant1 Spectrum_Ant2
Data_Ant1 Data_Ant2 Start=0 Start=0
Start=0 Start=0 Stop=FrameDurationTable[int(FrameDuration)+1]*2
Stop=ZoneNumOfSym*SymTime Stop=ZoneNumOfSym*Sy mTime
Window=8510 6.0 Window=8510 6.0
ControlSimulation=YES ControlSimulation=YES ResBW=30 k Hz Res BW=30 kHz

Figure.5 Uplink model for WMAN-OFDMA

802.16e OFDMA
Des ign Information


Va r
Eq n
VAR Delay
Signal_Generation_VARs D2 Va r
Eq n
SignalPower=10 N=DataLength[BurstWithFEC]*8 Meas urement_Vars
FCarrier=2305MHZ DecoderTy pe=2
FFTSiz e = 1 Var
STCDec oder=1
ZoneNumOfSy m=4 RF_Bandwidth=floor(Bandwidth*n_num/(n_den*8000))*8000
TStep=1.0/(RF_Bandwidth*2^int(Ov ers amplingOption))
BurstSubchOffs et={0} DurationPerOFDMSymbol=FFT*(1+Cy clic Prefix )/RF_Bandwidth
BurstNumOfSy m={2}
8 02 .1 6e Unc odedBytePerOFDMSy mbol=UncodedSlotSize_Matrix B[int(FEC_RateID)+1]/Sy mPerSlot
DataLength={100} Unc odedSlotSize_MatrixB={6*2, 9*2, 12*2, 18*2, 18*2, 24*2, 27*2, 30*2}
CodingTy pe={1}
Rate_ID={0} SNRPerRx Ant=EbN0+SNR_Offs et[int(FEC_RateID)+1]+3
RF Ov ers amplingOption=1
Bandwidth=10 MHz RES RES
R1 R7
Bus Merge2 802.16e
R=50 Ohm
DL So urc e B1
STC Temp=-273.15
2 An ten n a 802.16e
M IM O Cha n n el
AddNDens ity
M o d el Noise2
WMAN_M_DL_2Ant_Src_RF RES RES NDensity =NDens ity M IM O 2 x 2
R8 WMAN_M_Channel_MIMO Bus Split2 R4 DL Re c e i v er
FCarrier=FCarrier STC_PwrRatio=3.0 MIMO_Channel B2 R=50 Ohm
ModelType=A Temp=-273.15
Ant1Power=dbmtow(SignalPower) WMAN_M_DL_MIMO_Ant2_Rx_RF
Ant2Power=dbmtow(SignalPower) CorrelationCoefTy pe=2 DL_Rec eiv er
Inc ludePathloss ={0.0, 4.0}
Bandwidth=Bandwidth FCarrier=FCarrier
TxRxDis tanc e=2
FFTSize=FFTSize Bandwidth=Bandwidth
ZoneTy pe=ZoneType NumTx Antennas={0.0, 0.5} AddNDens ity FFTSize=FFTSize
TxArrayDimens ion= Nois e1
ZoneNumOfSy m=ZoneNumOfSy m ZoneType=ZoneType
NumberOfBurs t=NumberOfBurs t NumRxAntennas= NDens ity=NDensity ZoneNumOfSy m=ZoneNumOfSy m
Rx ArrayDimens ion=2
Burs tWithFEC=Burs tWithFEC NumberOfBurs t=NumberOfBurst
PASTy pe=35
Burs tSy mOffset=Burs tSy mOffs et BurstWithFEC=BurstWithFEC
Burs tSubchOffset=Burs tSubc hOffset Ric eanFactor=-8 BurstSymOffset=Burs tSy mOffs et
Burs tNumOfSy m=BurstNumOfSy m BurstSubchOffs et=Burs tSubchOffset
Burs tNumOfSubc h=BurstNumOfSubch BurstNumOfSy m=BurstNumOfSy m
Rate_ID=Rate_ID PARAMETER SWEEP BurstNumOfSubc h=Burs tNumOfSubch
STC_Matrix =B Rate_ID=Rate_ID
ParamSweep DF DecoderTy pe=DecoderTy pe
Sweep1 DF STCDec oder=STCDec oder
SweepVar="EbN0" DefaultNumeric Start=0 BurstFEC_CodingTy pe=CodingType[Burs tWithFEC]
SimIns tanceName[1]="DF" DefaultNumeric Stop=100
SimIns tanceName[2]= DefaultTimeStart=0 us ec
SimIns tanceName[3]= DefaultTimeStop=100 usec
SimIns tanceName[4]=
SimIns tanceName[5]=
SimIns tanceName[6]=

Figure 6 Downlink for WMAN-OFDMA