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10/4/2017 MasteringPhysics: Assignment 1: Motion in 1-D

GivenPositions,FindVelocityandAcceleration

LearningGoal:
Tounderstandhowtographposition,velocity,andaccelerationofanobjectstartingwithatableofpositionsvs.time.

Thetableshowsthexcoordinateofamovingobject.Thepositionistabulatedat1sintervals.Thexcoordinateisindicated
beloweachtime.Youshouldmakethesimplificationthattheaccelerationoftheobjectisboundedandcontainsnospikes.

time(s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
x(m) 0 1 4 9 16 24 32 40 46 48

PartA
Whichgraphinbestrepresentsthefunctionx(t),describingthe
object'spositionvs.time?

Hint1.Meaningofaboundedandnonspikyacceleration
Aboundedandnonspikyaccelerationresultsinasmoothgraphofxvs.t.

ANSWER:

Graph1

Graph2

Graph3

Graph4

Correct

PartB

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10/4/2017 MasteringPhysics: Assignment 1: Motion in 1-D
Whichofthefollowinggraphsinbestrepresentsthefunctionv(t),describingtheobject'svelocityasafunctionoftime?

Hint1.Findthevelocitytowardtheendofthemotion
Velocityisthetimederivativeofdisplacement.Giventhis,thevelocitytowardtheendofthemotionis__________.
ANSWER:

positiveandincreasing

positiveanddecreasing

negativeandincreasing

negativeanddecreasing

Hint2.Whataretheimplicationsofzerovelocity?
Twoofthepossiblevelocityvs.timegraphsindicatezerovelocitybetweent = 4 andt = 7 s .Whatwouldthe
correspondingpositionvs.timegraphlooklikeinthisregion?
ANSWER:

ahorizontalline

straightbutslopinguptotheright

straightbutslopingdowntotheright

curvedupward

curveddownward

Hint3.Specifythecharacteristicsofthevelocityfunction
Theproblemstatesthat"theaccelerationoftheobjectisboundedandcontainsnospikes."Thismeansthatthe
velocity___________.
ANSWER:
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10/4/2017 MasteringPhysics: Assignment 1: Motion in 1-D

hasspikes

hasnodiscontinuities

hasnoabruptchangesofslope

isconstant

ANSWER:

Graph1

Graph2

Graph3

Graph4

Correct
Inprinciple,youcouldalsojustcomputeandplottheaveragevelocity.Theexpressionfortheaveragevelocityis
x(t 2 )x(t 1 )
vavg [t1 , t2 ] = .
t 2 t 1

Thenotationv avg [t1 , t2 ] emphasizesthatthisisnotaninstantaneousvelocity,butratheranaverageoveraninterval.


Afteryoucomputethis,youmustputasinglepointonthegraphofvelocityvs.time.Themostaccurateplacetoplotthe
averagevelocityisatthemiddleofthetimeintervaloverwhichtheaveragewascomputed.

Also,youcouldworkbackandfindthepositionfromthevelocitygraph.Thepositionofanobjectistheintegralofits
velocity.Thatis,theareaunderthegraphofvelocityvs.timefromt = 0 uptotimetmustequalthepositionofthe
objectattimet.Checkthatthecorrectvelocityvs.timegraphgivesyouthecorrectpositionaccordingtothismethod.

PartC
Whichofthefollowinggraphsinbestrepresentsthefunctiona(t),
describingtheaccelerationofthisobject?

Hint1.Findtheaccelerationtowardtheendofthemotion
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10/4/2017 MasteringPhysics: Assignment 1: Motion in 1-D
Accelerationisthetimederivativeofvelocity.Towardtheendofthemotiontheaccelerationis__________.

ANSWER:

zero

positive

negative

Hint2.Calculatetheaccelerationintheregionofconstantvelocity
Whatistheaccelerationaovertheintervalduringwhichtheobjecttravelsatconstantspeed?
Answernumericallyinmeterspersecondsquared.
ANSWER:

a= 0 m/s2

Hint3.Findtheinitialacceleration
Accelerationisthetimederivativeofvelocity.Initiallytheaccelerationis_________.
ANSWER:

zero

positive

negative

ANSWER:

Graph1

Graph2

Graph3

Graph4

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10/4/2017 MasteringPhysics: Assignment 1: Motion in 1-D

Correct
Inonedimension,alinearincreaseordecreaseinthevelocityofanobjectoveragiventimeintervalimpliesconstant
accelerationoverthatparticulartimeinterval.Youcanfindthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationusingtheformulafor
averageaccelerationoveratimeinterval:
v(t 2 )v(t 1 )
aavg [t1 , t2 ] = .
t 2 t 1

Whentheaccelerationisconstantoveranextendedinterval,youcanchooseanyvalueoft1 andt2 withintheinterval


tocomputetheaverage.

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