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Formalisms and concepts

Chapter objectives

By studying this chapter, you will:

logic programming.

Discover the different techniques and

problems.

Formalisms and concepts

Chapter plan

Next in this chapter, we will cover:

Symbolic A.I.

Calculations and reasoning.

System resolution by

predicates.

Formalisms and concepts

Symbolic A. I.

Symbolic AI

Part plan

In this part, we will cover:

The first-order logic.

Symbolic AI

functioning of neural networks (simulation of

intelligence at a neurobiological level).

algorithms (makes use of strategies inspired

by the natural evolution).

Symbolic AI

global level.

(simulation of the intelligence on the psychological level,

through the use of symbolic manipulation).

information, using, for example, the mechanisms of

transformation.

Symbolic AI

the intelligence by the observation of behavior.

of the content).

Symbolic AI

Antiquity and Middle Ages (Scholastic) syllogisms,

modal logic, quantification.

ARISTOTE (Greek philosopher - 300 B.C.)

main developer of classical logic.

studies on human reasoning.

Organon.

Symbolic AI

Classical Logic:

Proposition: a decidable sentence.

Only two truth values, TRUE or FALSE

binary logic.

Principle of the no contradiction.

Reasoning by deduction.

syllogisms.

Symbolic AI

calculation does not manipulate numbers or numerical

expressions, but only the values of truth: TRUE, FALSE.

Premises: If all men are mortals and if Socrate is a man,

then Socrate is mortal.

Socrate is a man.

Conclusion: SM

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Symbolic AI

Salvador Dali was European

All the birds are barking

Valid conclusion:

Therefore, all the dogs are barking

????

Symbolic AI

Studies in epistemology (how do we know the world?).

Logic = algorithmic calculus (mechanically decidable).

Types of knowledge (Kantian):

Analytic (from reasoning, so deductive).

Synthetic a posteriori (from the experience, so inductive).

Synthetic a priori (categories of the spirit adapted to the

world).

Symbolic AI

Formalization of the logic: Boole, Frege (XIXe), Russel, Hilbert,

Gdel (XXe) ...

Research on the unification between mathematics and logic.

Basis from the mathematical logic (Boolean, 1840).

FALSE = 0 ; TRUE = 1

OR = + ; AND = x

Symbolic AI

The Temporal logic (taking time into account in reasoning)

The Fuzzy logic (multiple truth values)

The Multi-valued logic (3 possible values).

The modal logic (addition of modifiers).

.

Symbolic AI

science:

Writing of conditionals and correct stop conditions.

Realization of circuits based on logical gates in order to

construct functions of [0,1]n into [0,1]p.

Program proofs.

Satisfaction of properties through research functions.

Program corrections.

Databases using the research functions.

Symbolic AI

science (continued):

Typed functional programming (Python):

the type = the logical formula.

the program = the formal demonstration.

the evaluation = the normalization of the demonstration.

Logic programming (Prolog):

the description of the problem = the logical axioms.

the problem solving = the construction of a demonstration.

Symbolic AI

The logic deals with the truth. It is independent of the content of the

statement.

For example:

"If (he drives fast) then (he will crash)"

This statement may be true or false (but if he is a good driver and he

masters his driving he will perhaps not have an accident).

On the other hand:

"If (he drives fast) then ((he will drive faster) or (he will slow down))"

This statement will always be true no matter what the circumstances.

Symbolic AI

statements that are always true.

Syntax - interpretation semantics.

Forward - interpretation truth values in the realm of possibilities

Table1 is a permutation of Table2.

The elements of Table2 are arranged in increasing order.

Symbolic AI

verify a program:

{for the integers: x, y, z, t}

z 10 ; (x, y) (z, 1) ;

While (x > 0) do

(y, x) (y x, x1) ; t y ;

Actually, t is equal to z!

Symbolic AI

programs

the propositional calculus (elementary reasoning).

the predicate calculus (more complex reasoning).

Symbolic AI

Formalisms and concepts

Calculations and reasoning

Part plan

In this parts, we will cover:

Propositional calculus.

Predicate calculus.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

of the simplest logic, it is defined by:

a syntax that allows you to build correct propositions.

five logical connectives to combine the propositions.

the rules of inference (form of reasoning) can deduce new

truths: IF fever THEN illness.

a semantics that assigns truth values (TRUE, FALSE) to

proposals.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

the atomic propositions (or basic). It is just simple

sentences. They allow to determine in an interpretation (or

context) if they are true or false.

They are representations.

We dont care about the internal structure.

We note them: A, B, C a , b, c,

For example:

A = I am in Paris

B = I am in France

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

set of atoms.

Atom.

Atomic formula.

Atomic variable.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

OR denoted V (disjunction)

NOT denoted ~,,

IMPLIES denoted

EQUIVALENT denoted ,=

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

A and B are atoms and we have therefore two formulas:

A = I am in Paris

B = I am in France

A B,A B are formulas.

A B is a formula.

A B is a formula.

These formulas are also propositions.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Examples of formulas:

((a b) c ) , (a (FALSE b)).

Examples: these arent formulas:

(a b), (b b)

Associativity:

and are left associative.

is right associative.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The order isnt total but partial and it is possible to represent the

proposals as a tree.

Examples:

((a b) c ) , (a (FALSE b)).

a b c FALSE b

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The semantics:

A truth value (TRUE, FALSE) is given for each atomic

propositions, it is his valuation (or interpretation).

TRUE, FALSE are constants.

Notation of the formulas interpretation:

The valuation for the atom a is denoted by: v(a) or a.

The valuation for the formula A is denoted by: v(A) or A.

for example: v(a) = a.

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Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Let A be a formula and v his interpretation. The relation of

satisfiability (denoted v A) is defined as follow:

If A is an atom a : v A if and only if a = TRUE

If A is a formula of the form a : v A if and only if v(a) =

FALSE

If A is a formula of the form a V b : v A if and only if v(a) =

TRUE or v(b) = FALSE

If A is a formula of the form a b : v A if and only if v(a) =

TRUE and v(b) = TRUE

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

A formula is satisfiable (or consistent) if there is at least one

interpretation v that makes it true: v A.

a b is satisfiable.

contradictory) if and only if there is no v interpretation that makes it

true. A is a contradiction if and only if A is valid.

a a is not-satisfiable.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

A formula A which is true for any v interpretation is a tautology, it is

called universally valid. We can also say v(A) = TRUE (or A =

TRUE). A is a tautology if and only if it is satisfied by all

interpretations: F

(a b) a b : is a tautology.

Theorem: A formula A is valid if and only if its negation A is not-

satisfiable:

A is valid.

v(A) = TRUE, for all v interpretations.

v(A) = FALSE, for all v interpretations.

A is not-satisfiable.

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Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Some definitions:

Model:

The v interpretation is a model for the formula A if v A.

v is a model for an set of formulas Ai , 1 i n if i, v Ai

Logical consequence:

The formula A is logical consequence of the formula Z (Z

A) if for all v such as v Z then v A or if all model of Z is a

model of A.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Let A be a set of formulas and B a formula, A B if and only

if A B are not-satisfiable.

A1, . . . , An B if and only if (A1 An B) is valid.

Let B be a formula. If A is a set not-satisfiable of formulas,

then B is a logical consequence of A.

If B is a valid formula, then B is logical consequence of any

set of formulas.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Proof of A B if and only if A and B is not-satisfiable.

Per hypothesis: Lets assume that A and B are satisfiable. There

is a v interpretation so that.

v satisfies B : v( B) = TRUE and v(B)=FALSE. But v

satisfies A, so we also have v(B) = TRUE.

Per hypothesis: Lets assume that A and B not-satisfiable.

Lets have v A and prove that v(B)=TRUE. If v(B)=FALSE

then v( B)=TRUE. Therefore v satisfies A and B, but its not

allowed according to hypothesis, therefore v(B)=TRUE.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

We have A and B two formulas.

A is logically equivalent to B if and only if A B or (A B

and B A).

A B can be written as: (A B) (B A)

A B can be written as: A V B

(A B) = A V B (law of De Morgan)

If A is valid, and if A is empty, B is logical consequence of A

if and only if B is valid. B or B.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

We have A, B and F formulas.

A = A

A V (F B) = (A V F) (A V B) (distributivity of V on and

conversely).

A (F V B) = (A F) V (A B) (distributivity of V on and

conversely).

A FALSE means that A is not-satisfiable. Because for

any model of A to be a model of False, then the set A must

admit no model at all.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Proof of A F B if and only if A,F B

Per hypothesis: Let v be an interpretation: v A,F. Lets show that v

satisfies B.

v satisfies A therefore v satisfies F B, we have v(F)=TRUE

therefore v(F B)= TRUE = v(B)

Per reciprocal hypothesis (A, F B. show A F B): Let v be an

interpretation: v A. Lets show that v(F B) = TRUE.

If v(F)=TRUE then v satisfies A and F, therefore per

hypothesis v satisfies B. Therefore v(F B)=v(B)=TRUE

If v(F) = FALSE then v(F B) = TRUE

In both cases, we have v F B.

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Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

A system of inference is correct if, for any rule of the system, the

conclusion is a logical consequence of its premise (the conjunction

of its premises) denoted*

A system of inference is complete if it is possible to prove any valid

formula:

A, A, then * A.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

The formulas of the propositional calculus are inductive, which

means there is a principle of induction applicable:

If a property, true for any proposal, exists and we have the

formulas A and B, then the formulas A, (A B), (A B), (A

B) and (A B) are true.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Exercise:

A Logician listening to one of his friends evoke his passion for his

programming languages:

I love Lisp or I love Python.

If I love Lisp, then I love Python.

The logician may conclude that his friend loves Python. Why?

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Exercise (answer):

Let a be the propositional: I love Lisp and b the propositional: I

love Python'. The propositional can be rewritten as:

I love Lisp or I love Python: a b

If I love Lisp then I love Python: a b

(a b,a b) b

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfiability:

Exercise (answer):

Interpretations where the two propositionals are true:

v(a) = v(b) = TRUE

a b a b : v(a) = FALSE, v(b) = TRUE

In both cases, the truth value of b is TRUE.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

a set of formulas A by syntactic manipulation and not relying

anymore on the interpretations (cf. complete deductive system or

the sequent's calculus).

inference). Let P1 and P2 be the premises of the system and C

the goal, we note the proof by:

1 P1 2P2

C

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

P = He is in Paris

1 P Q 2 P

Q = He is in France

Q

1 P Q 2 Q

P

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

R = He is a player Conjunction

S = He is French 1 R 2 S

T = He is English R&S

Simplification Addition

1 R & S 2 S

R S T

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Premises:

If I'm in Paris, I'm necessarily in France:

P F

When I am in France, I eat croissants:

F C

I'm in Paris:

P

Goal:

I'm in France and I eat croissants and / or madeleine cookies:

F (C M)

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Demonstration (deductive):

P & (P F) F

F & (F C) C

C (C M)

F & (C M) F (C M)

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Exercise

Premises:

(B C) A

B

Goal:

A B

Demonstration (deductive):

( B) B

B (B C)

(B C) & ((B C) A) A

A& B (A B)

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Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Exercise

Premises:

A B

B C

A D

Goal:

C

Demonstration (deductive):

( A D) A

(A B) & A B

B & (B C) C

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

based on the connectors: a (b a):

a (b a)

a , (b a)

a,b a,a

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

trees:

a (b a) = FALSE

a = TRUE , (b a) = FALSE

a b a a

a b a

a (b a)

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The algorithm of proof is based on the refutation:

Let A be a set of formulas and C a Goal. To demonstrate A

C we must demonstrate that A and C are not-satisfiable,

that is: A, C

The resolution: A1 and A2 two formulas and a an atom.

A1 V a A2 V a

A1 V A2

The factorization: Let A be a formula and a an atom.

AVaVa

AVa

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Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

{a b c, a b c, b c , c} with c the refutation of c.

a b c a b c

b c c b b c c

b b c

c c

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

of c from the hypotheses of A is a sequence of atoms c1, . . . ,cn

such as i , 1 i n:

ci A

ak i such as ck

ci by factorization

j and k i such as cj ck

ci by resolution

A refutation of A is a derivation by resolution of from the

hypotheses of A.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

A refutation of A is a derivation by resolution of from the

hypotheses of A, therefore it can be depicted as a tree of refutation:

{a b c, a b c, b c , c} with c is the refutation of c.

b c c a b c a b c

b b c c

b

b c

c c

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

The satisfaction of elementary formulas can be made by

substitutions and simplifications.

For example:

Substitutions of atoms by constants: (a c) c

a = TRUE

(TRUE c) c

c c = always true

OR

a = FALSE

(FALSE c) c

FALSE c = always true

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Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

proposition, we define by induction the formula A[c:=B] obtained

by substituting c in A.

Example:

Let A be the formula (c c b) and B the formula (a b):

(c c b) [c:=B] = (a b) (a b) b

(c c b) [c:=TRUE] = TRUE (TRUE) b

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

for disjunctive).

A clause is a disjunction C1 C2 Cn where each Ci is a

literal.

A literal is an atom or the negation of an atom: c, c

A propositional formula is said to be in the clausal form or in the

conjunctive normal form if it is a conjunction C1 C2 Cn

where each Ci is a clause.

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

Method for transforming a propositional formula into its conjunctive

normal form.

Example:

(a (b c )) (c d)

Simplification of :

(a (b c )) ((c d) ( d c))

a ((b c) ( c b)) ((c d) ( d c))

Simplification of :

a (( b c) (c b)) ((c d) ( d c))

a (( b c) (c b)) (( c d) (d c))

Calculations and reasoning

Propositional calculus

normal form.

Example (continued):

Propagation of and simplification :

a (( b c) ( c b)) (( c d) (d c))

Distribution of operators and :

( a b c) ( a c b) ( c d) (d c)

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

that any object satisfying a hypothesis also verifies the thesis.

For example:

Any absolute value is positive.

A reformulation would be:

For all number, if n is an absolute value then this implies that

n is positive.

The calculus of predicate us gives:

((n) Abs(n)) Positive(n).

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

There is a relationship between the elementary propositions.

Term: Constant, Variable or Function(t1, , tn)

Atomic statement: Predicate(t1, . . . , tn) or t1 = t2

Example:

john goes to the sea goes(john, sea)

john goes to the sea or the mountains goes(john, sea) V

goes(john, mountains)

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

and quantifiers:

variable: symbol that can take various values.

: existential quantifier: x (there is an x).

: universal quantifier: x (for all x).

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

( x) elephant (x) color(x, grey)

Example 2: IF x is the father of y and y is the father of z THEN x is

the grandfather of z:

( x) ( y) IF father(x,y) & father(y,z) THEN grandfather(x,z)

( x) ( y) ( z) father(x,y) & father(y,z) grand-father(x, z)

Example 3: All men are mortals, and Socrates is a man, therefore

Socrates is mortal:

( x) human(x) mortal(x) & human(s) mortal(s)

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

{x, y, z, are integers}.

z 10; (x, y) (z, 1);

While (x > 0)

(y, x) (y x, x1);

[ 0 x1 z (y x) (x1)! = z!])

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

The model contains the objects (called elements of the

domain) linked together by relationships.

The interpretation specifies the reference of the symbols:

Symbols of constants objects.

Symbols of predicates relationships.

Symbols of functions functions.

A predicate is TRUE in a model, according to an interpretation, if

the relationship to which the symbol of the predicate refers, applies

to the objects in argument.

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

The satisfiability:

An interpretation is a function that manipulates the symbols of the

predicate through its field.

A formula is satisfiable if it is true for at least one interpretation in

a field.

( a)( male(a) female(a))

A formula is not-satisfiable if it is true for no interpretation in any

field.

( a)(P(a)) ( b)( P(b))

A formula is valid if it is true for all the interpretations in all the

fields.

(( a) P(a)) ( a) ( P(a))

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Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

We have A and B of formulas.

(( x) A) = ( x) ( A)

(( x) A) = ( x) ( A)

(( x) A) (( x) B) = ( x) (A B)

(( x) A) (( x) B) = ( x) (A B)

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

the variables:

A variable is free if it is not within the scope of a quantifier (

or ), otherwise it is called bound.

Example:

( x)( y) (employee(x, y) leader(x, z))

x and y are bound.

z is free.

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

The free variables (resp. bound) of the set of formulas of A are

those of A.

The free variables (resp. bound) of A op B where op

{ , ,,} are those of A and B.

The free variables (resp. bound) y distinct of x in ( x) A and

( x) A are those of A and the variables x are all bounded in ( x)

A and ( x) A.

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

form.

Example:

( a) p(a) ( b) q(b) ( b) (p(b) q(b))

Elimination of operators :

(( a) p(a) ( b) q(b)) ( b) (p(b) q(b))

The variables b are bound, they must be renamed:

(( a) p(a) ( b) q(b)) ( c) (p(c) q(c))

Propagation of the operator :

((( a) p(a)) (( b) q(b))) (( c) (p(c) q(c)))

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

Example (continued):

Skolemization: Removal of existential quantifiers by elimination:

( p(F(a))) (( b) q(b))) ((p(F(c)) q(F(c))))

Removal of universal quantifiers:

( p(F(a)) q(b)) (p(F(c)) q(F(c)))

Distribution of operators and for a conjunctive normal form:

(( p(F(a)) q(b) (p(F(c))) (( p(F(a)) q(b) (q(F(c)))

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

( A B C) is a Horn clause because logically equivalent

to: (A B) C

( C A B) isnt a Horn clause

Premise = conjunction of positive literals.

Goal = single positive literal.

Calculations and reasoning

Predicate calculus

exactly one positive literal:

Positive literal = head.

negative literals = body of the clause.

Fact = clause without negative literals.

Calculations and reasoning

Formalisms and concepts

predicates

The resolution of a system by predicates

Part plan

In this part, we will cover:

of the cubes.

The resolution of a system by predicates

Final state

Exercise:

Initial state a

c b

a b c

of the cubes, given that only a single cube can be moved at any

time. For a cube to move, there should be no other cube on top, a

cube is placed on the table or on another cube. Define the

predicates, make the displacements?

The resolution of a system by predicates

Definition of the states

on and free

The initial state:

on(c, a) on(a, table) on(b, table) free(c) free(b)

a b

Table (t)

The resolution of a system by predicates

Definition of the states

on(a, b) on(b, c) on(c, table) free(a)

Table (t)

The resolution of a system by predicates

The rules of displacement

Rule 1: (to verify that a cube is free)

For any cube to be free, this implies that there is no cube on it.

( x) [ free(x) ( y) on(y,x) ]

If a free cube, which was on top of another cube, is removed, then it

implies that this later cube becomes free.

free(y) on(y,x) remove(y,x) free(x) and on(y,x)

Y

X X Y

The resolution of a system by predicates

The rules of displacement

To define the rules, we add the predicates stack and table:

If two cubes are free, one can be stacked upon the other, this

implies piling.

free(x) free(y) stack(y,x)

on(y,x) free(x) table(y)

Y

Y X

X

x) [table(x) ( y) on(x,y)]

The resolution of a system by predicates

on(c, a) table(a) table(b) free(b)

b

free(c) free(b) c c free(c)

c b a table(b)

a b Table (t) a table(a)

Table (t) Table (t)

on(c, a)

decompose the initial facts

... find (mechanically)

the correct sequence

of transformations

decompose the goal

a b

b a c table(c)

c b on(b, c)

Table (t) c on(a, b)

on(a, b) on(b,c) table(c) free(a) Table (t)

The resolution of a system by predicates

find a rule for the transformation b free(b)

c c free(c)

R2 table(b)

b a

free(y) on(y,x) remove(y) Table (t) table(a)

a

on(c, a)

Table (t)

free(x) table(y) on(y,x)

verify the conditions

free(b)

R3 b c free(c)

free(x) free(y) table(y) b a table(b)

stack(y,x) Table (t) Table (t) table(a)

free(a)

on(y,x) free(x) table(y) c a table(c)

Table (t)

new state of the system

b

a c table(c)

b on(b, c)

Trying to satisfy one of the goals

c on(a, b)

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The resolution of a system by predicates

table(a)

table(b)

c on(c, a) Initial state

free(b)

a b free(c)

R3 R2

table(a)

table(a)

table(b)

b on(b, c)

table(c)

c on(c, a)

free(a)

a free(b) a c b free(b)

free(c)

R3

table(a) table(b)

table(c) table(c)

a b c b a

b c a c a b on(b, c) on(a, b)

a c free(a) b c free(a)

free(b) free(c)

R3

a table(c)

on(b, c) c

b on(a, b) a

Final state c free(a) b

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The resolution of a system by predicates

Strategy to reach the final state: c

a b

on(a,b) on(b,c) on(c,table)

Initial state

Application of R3, where: x = a, y = b

R3-conditions:

free(a), free(b), stack(a,b) (sub-goals)

sub-goal1: free(a) R1 shows that a is not free for release

to free a R2 (with x = a): on(y,a), remove(y,a)

on(y,a) is accomplished by y = c (initial state)

The resolution of a system by predicates

Strategy to reach the final state: c

a b

Initial state

intermediate state 1) a c b

intermediate state 2) a

c b

Intermediate state 2

The resolution of a system by predicates

a

c b

We apply R3, where x = b, y = c

Intermediate state 2

R3 sub-goals: free(b), free(c), stack(b,c)

R1 shows that b is not free, therefore:

R2: remove(a,b)

undo the previous action c b a

state 3

(third command intermediate state 3)

The resolution of a system by predicates

(fourth command intermediate state 4)

b

c a

Intermediate state 4

We execute: stack(a,b)

a

b

c

Final state

The resolution of a system by predicates

Conclusion:

First on(c,table), subsequently on(b,c), next on(a,b).

We need additional information called: meta-knowledge

Example of meta-knowledge:

Seek to satisfy low-level goals first.

(Otherwise) use some approach to fulfill the goals.

(Otherwise) adopt a blind approach to reach the goal if all

possibilities have been explored (time consuming approach).

The resolution of a system by predicates

Formalisms and concepts

Module Summary

Supplementary

... remain A.I. means to

interactive with = solutions:

its environment intelligent the heuristics

concepts

being intelligent:

The intelligent it is seeking

concepts do autonomy,

have their learning,

limits

Formalisms and concepts

If you want to deepen your knowledge:

Publications

intelligence to P.NORVIG: Artificial

artificial intelligence Intelligence

(Paperback) by (translated from

Hugues Bersini English) - Eyrolles,

2006

Artificial intelligence E. RICH:

and theoretical Artificial Intelligence

computer science (translated from

(2nd ed.) (Paper- English) Masson,

back) by J.-M. 1987

Alliot, T. Schiex, P.

Brisset

SUPINFO International University http://www.supinfo.com

Formalisms and concepts

End of module

attention

SUPINFO International University http://www.supinfo.com

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