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Chapter 1

The Problem and its Setting

Background of the Study

Today the exercise of every human right is seen as a crime and the adjudicatory

system is afraid of disciplining the police and the armed forces for 'fear of consequences'. A

system that is not prepared to risk the absence of state violence can never tolerate any

attempt to secure human rights. Extrajudicial killing or extra judicial executuion has been

rampant nowadays in many countries, allegedly involved of which are the police authority

that are thought to protect the people.

In a documentation by Amnesty International incidents that "appear to have been

extrajudicial executions" against Palestinian civilians. Those incidents occurred after

Palestinians reportedly attempted to attack Israelis, but even though the attackers did pose a

serious threat due to soldiers' armor, they were shot without ensuring that the threat was real

and without attempt to arrest suspects before resorting to the use of lethal force.

Moreover, Amnesty International published in 1990 its first report on extrajudicial

executions in Turkey. In the following years the problem became more serious. The Human

Rights Foundation of Turkey determined the following figures on extrajudicial executions in

Turkey for the years 1991 to 2001: In 2001 the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial,

summary or arbitrary executions, Ms. Asma Jahangir, presented a report on a visit to

Turkey. The report presented details of killings of prisoners (26 September 1999, 10

prisoners killed in a prison in Ankara; 19 December 2000, an operation in 20 prisons

launched throughout Turkey resulted in the death of 30 inmates and two gendarmes).

Moving the matter in the national arena, Philippines has been the topic both by the

national and international media and Human Rights organization because of its alleged

extrajudial killings. Since the inauguration of President Rodrigo Duterte on June 30, 2016,

and his call for a war on drugs, Philippine National Police officers and unidentified
vigilantes have killed thousands. Reports said that in several instances it investigated,

suspects in police custody were later found dead and classified by police as "found bodies"

or "deaths under investigation".According to Philipine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA),

Philippine National Police PNP and the National Bureau of Investigation, out of 9,432

homicide cases they have recorded from July 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017, 1,847 or 19.6

percent were drug operations-related.

The problem about extrajudicial killings draw reactions and firm objections by

different organizations and even by ordinary citizens. This as well, greatly affects the

integrity of the law enforcers, specifically the Ntional Police because it is them who conducts

operations that may have resulted to brutality and worse, allege killings.

Purpose of the Study

Extrajudicial killings put the lives of individuals at stake. This also deprives the right of

everyone to due process which is clear in the Constitution. Many Human Rights advocates

have already raised awareness and objecton about this matter.

The purpose of the study, however, is to hear the other side of th story. To hear the

side of police officers as they are the body that enforces the law and they are also the

center of every single alleged cases about extrajudicial executions. We, in this study, will

view the perceptions of our police officers, how they feel about this, the evidences that they

have and the truthfulness of media reports that drawn so much attention and reactions in the

national and international stage.

Limitations and Delimitations

The scope of this study are the police officers themselves, particularly the officers in

Tagum City Police District. As there have also been reports about extrajudicial killings in

Tagum City, the researchers will focus their efforts in the collection of data from the police

officers who regularly conducts raids and/or drug related operations in the City.
Theoretical Lens

Anchored on the study of Wahl (2001), stating that cultures contain competing

values from which individuals may draw as they negotiate their beliefs and what they

see as required by their professional roles and circumstances. Officers understand

their religious and cultural traditions as advocating the kind of non-violence and

compassion that they associate with human rights. Yet they also articulate

conceptions of justice deeply contrary to these ideals, in which the priority is placed

on the control and punishment of those who do wrong or threaten social order. At

times, they draw from aspects of their traditions and human rights that they interpret

as condoning violent acts.

At other times, they concede that they must compromise or reject traditional

and human rights ideals in favour of the violence they see as necessary and right in

police work. The varying moral narratives on which officers draw to explain

themselves, and the way in which they negotiate with different value systems,

suggests that no simple characterization of their world view as opposed to human

rights is sufficient.

Wahl (2001) stated further that officers insistence on the necessity of violence

is rooted in how they understand the role of police, which they believe is to ensure

that criminals are controlled rather than to follow the rule of law. This view is

informed by their perception of the environment in which they work. They believe that

flaws in the legal system mean that justice will not be upheld by following the law.

Kolbe and Hutson (2000), also stated that officers believe that justice is

served when each person receives what he or she deserves rather than when each

person is treated equally. And there is little to deter officers from acting on these
views. In officers perception, many factors make themunable to abstain from it, and

many reasons promote their use of it. That educators efforts to connect human

rights to officers religious and cultural traditions were not sufficient, then, does not

indicate that such efforts would be unsuccessful in other areas. Many officers speak

enthusiastically about actions that have been inspired by the human rights course,

such as their volunteering with organizations devoted to the education of poor

children. It may be that the salience of human rights with religious and cultural beliefs

is an important factor, but that its importance is conditional upon other constraints

such as the extent to which police view a violation as a necessary and legitimate part

of their work.

Research Questions

The following research questions will be asked accordingly to the polic

respondents of this study.

1. How do you perceive or think about the alleged extrajudicial killings in this

country, particularly in Tagum City?

2. As member of the Philippine National Police (PNP), what are your views

towards other police officers who allegedly conduct operations resorting to

extrajudicial killings?

3. What are your perceptions about why other police officers conduct

extrajudicial killings?

Significance of the Study

This study will be conducted not only to ask questions, hear answers and

collect data, but also for the significance of the following groups and individuals.
Criminology Students. As future law enforcers of this country, this study will

be of significance to them including the researchers ourselves, for us tobe

enlightened about this specific issue in our future profession.

School Administrative. As builders of future law enforcers, this study will be

beneficial to them to further their understanding about how extrajudicial killings

are perceived by police officers.

Government. As the body which Philippine National Police is a part of, the

study will help the government understand the insights of the police about

extrajudicial killings.

Media. As news providers locally and internationally, this study will greatly

give them information about our police officers perception about eectrajudicial

killings. Furthermore, this will help them uphold their integrity as media outlets for

a fair, evidential, unsubordinated and responsible reporting.

Public. The study will educate the public on how police officers perceive

alleged extrajudicial killings. This will also help them to be a more responsible

and law-abiding citizens.

Definition of Terms


Extrajudicial killing