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Russian Academy of Sciences

Institute of Oriental Studies


Institute of Linguistics
Research Group Theory of Grammar

Studies
in the Theory
of Grammar

3
Edited by Yury A. Lander,
Vladimir A. Plungian, Anna Yu. Urmanchieva

Irrealis
and Irreality
Moscow
Gnosis
2004







2004

................................................................................................................9
I.
. . . ....................28
. , . . ...........75
. . .
?......................................................................88
. . . ..........................................................107
. . .
......................................124
. . . ():
-.......................................................................147
. . . ......................................................177
. . . :
..............................188

II. :
1.
. . . :
. .....................................................................................212
. . . :
...........................................................................226

2.
Sonia Cristofaro. Past habituals and irrealis. .............................................................256
. . .
. ........................................................................................273
. . .
. .............................................................292
. . .
. ......................................................................313
. . . : + ...................330

3.
. . .
. ....................................................................353
.-. .
-te-. ............................................................................375

4.
. . .
. ..................................................................................385
. . . . .............................................................414
. . , . . . :
, . ...................................430

.....................................................................................................456
...............................................................................................463
English abstracts .......................................................................................................466

6
CONTENTS

Foreword .......................................................................................................................9
Part I. Irrealis as a grammatical category
Anna Yu. Urmanchieva. Irrealis is real: the seventh proof..........................................28
Johan van der Auwera, Ewa Schalley. From optative and subjunctive
to irrealis.............................................................................................................75
Ariadna I. Kuznetsova. Status of evidentiality and irrealis. ........................................88
Aleksey K. Ogloblin. Irrealis in Old Javanese. .........................................................107
Nina R. Dobrushina. On some correlations between dependent
and independent uses of irreal forms. ...............................................................124
Yury A. Lander. The scope of (ir)reality: dative verb forms
in Pama-Nyungan. ............................................................................................147
Tatyana B. Agranat. Irreality in Votic.......................................................................177
Andrey B. Shluinski. Beyond realis and irrealis: semantically unmarked
verbal forms......................................................................................................188

Part II. The domain of irreality: categories with irreal semantics


1. FUTURE

Elena S. Maslova. Towards a typology of prospective:


providential prospective in Yukaghir. ..............................................................212
Sergey G. Tatevosov. Is would will: discerning the path
of diachronic development ...............................................................................226

2. PAST

Sonia Cristofaro. Past habituals and irrealis. .............................................................256


Vladimir A. Plungian. Counterfactual uses of pluperfect..........................................273
Dmitrij B. Sitchinava. On the origins of Slavic conditional. .....................................292
Pavel V. Petrukhin. The expansion of the perfect tense
in the Old Russian chronicles as a typological problem. ..................................313
Julia N. Panova. Irrealis in Persian: past & .........................................................330
Contents

3. EVIDENTIALITY

Svetlana I. Burkova. Evidentiality and epistemic modality in Nenets.......................353


Hong Taek-Gyu. On the meaning of the verbal suffix -te- in Korean. ......................375

4. MODALITY

Valentin Yu. Gusev. Non-specialized verbal forms


in the function of imperative. ...........................................................................385
lga V. Khanina. Desiderative and reality................................................................414
Timur A. Maisak, Solmaz R. Merdanova. Verificational form in Agul:
its structure, semantics and a hypothesis about its origin. ................................430

Language index .........................................................................................................456


List of contributors....................................................................................................463
English abstracts .......................................................................................................466

8
. ,
.

O
*

,
, ;
, ( -
). , , ,
, ;
,
. , ,
, , ,

, ( -
). -
.

-
(subjunctive)1, , -
*
-
(-
, 2003). : Frank
Brisard, Michael Meeuwis & Bart Vandenabeele (eds.). Speech, Community, and Se-
duction. Amsterdam: Benjamins. John Benjamins,
.
-
, , -
.
1
subjunctive, -
, ,
. -
conjunctive (. coniunctivus, . Konjunktiv),
subjunctive .

75
. , .

.
( 1) (
2) , (
3); 4 ,
.

1.

, -
( ) . , -
-
, , , -
, , .
.. (Palmer 1986: 3940; 2001: 108109), , -
, Lakoff 1968: 172 ff,
, .
(1) Navig-et! []
-SUBJ:PRES:3SG
!
(2) Sed maneam etiam. []
:SUBJ:PRES:1SG
!
(3) Sit fur at est bonus [2]
:SUBJ:PRES:3SG
imperator.

(. ) -
.
(4) Iam absolutos cense-as []
-SUBJ:PRES:2SG
, .

2
. , ,

, . (deliberative),
(mandative) .

76
O

(5) Quid ag-am iudices? []


-SUBJ:PRES:1SG
, ?
(6) Ut illum di perde-ant! []
-SUBJ:PRES:3PL
!
-
. ,
, , -
(. , Menge 2000: 157166) -
.
-
. Quirk et al.
1991: 155157, 850
, -
. , -
,
.
(7) They recommended that the tax be abolished. []
.
(8) Long live the queen! [ , o]
! (. )
(9) Be that as it may [ , oa]

Bubenik 1999: 123 -
, [t]he subjunctive in the main clause is most typically used to express
the wish and the subjunctive in this function is called optative (-
-
; ).
. -
subjunctive ( -
) ,
conjunctive. , , -
(Konjunktiv). , conjunctive
: coniunctivus

77
. , .

, coniunctivus subiunctivus -
-
( subiunctivus hypotaktikos -
, . . subordinate; . Glck 2000,
Konjunktiv Coniunctivus subiunctivus). subjun-
ctive conjunctive, -
-
Bubenik 1999. subjunctive
(., ,
Bybee et al. 1994: 212).

2.

, -
. , -
, -
( -
euktikos ,
optativus).
. ,
Duhoux 2000: 206242, (10).
(10) :
:


()
()


(10) .
: ,
; -
, . , , -
, . , -
,

78
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-
.
, ,
I, II.
(11) : I II
:



()

, ,
, , . -
,
,
.
,
, . -
, -
; ,
,
. . Duhoux
2000: 226 , -
(99%) -
.

, : -
, 63,8% .
, -
(Duhoux 2000: 226), , , -
,
. ,
,
(c. Sihler 1995: 582 ). ,
,
.

79
. , .

-
( , ) -
. , ,
, . -
, , , -
. (12)

() (Sihler 1995: 590600) , , ,
, -
, ,
(Luraghi 1998: 184), .
(12)

. . . .

,
. , -
, -
.
,
(Ramat 1998: 403). ,
(Ajello 1998: 220), ,
( ), ,
, . , -
,
.
(13) . 0 . . . 0

. . . .

, -
, -
.

80
O

, -
. ,
. -
, -
. ,
, -
. ,
-
. ,
.

3.


.
,
, . -
(14) .
(14) 1- 2- 3-
Sg -(y)AyIm -(y)AsIn -(y)A
Pl -(y)AlIm -(y)AsInIz -(y)AlAr
Lewis 1990: 124 2000: 134 -
, Kornfilt 1997: 353 , Koopman 1996: 199200
. Lewis 2000: 134
-. , ,
, , (14),
; : , .
( ) ,
.
: (i) -
, , Cherchi 1999: 15 -
, Hewitt 1995: 254258 -
; (ii) , Wilson 1970:
118121 , Loogman 1965: 206209
.

81
. , .

.
(15):
(15) !
,
, , (14) ( -
gel-e), ,
, , (gel-sin) ,
, -
keke .
-
(10)(11). (15) -
().
: -
, -
, .
, ,

, ;
< + > (Holvoet, ).
: , -
(Kachru 1980), (Montaut to appear;
Shapiro 2003: 267 root subjunctive, .
), a
, , contingent future (. -
, . Masica 1991: 281).
: -
-
.

4.

-
. -
. . Mood and
Modality (Palmer 1986; 2001).
, , -

82
O

, .
-
, 1.1, . -
Bowern 1998,
Bhat 1999, Elliott 2000 Verstraete 2002.
(Bybee et al. 1994: 236) -
. , -
, ;
, -
, ,
. ,

.
, -
.
. -, -

( . Mithun 1995). -, -
, -
.
-
? , -
-
. , -
, -

Mithun 1995 An-
thropological Linguistics (1998, Vol. 40, 2), .
,

,
.


. . (Bybee 1998: 269)
: it appears that the term irrealis
is simply too general to be useful, except as a pointer to a very broad
domain (-,

83
. , .

, , -
, c. . Bybee et al. 1994: 236240).
, . -
.

, , -
. , , , -
.
( ) -
( , (.
(1)(6)) . (10)). ,
.
, ,
, . -
/ -
-
. -
.
Haspelmath 2003. -
,
(van der Auwera, Plungian 1998; van der Auwera, Dobrushina, ),
Verstraete 2002
.

5.

, -
. -,
, -
. ,
,
, . , -
-
- ,
, , ,
, , ; -

84
O

. - -
,
, , .
-
, , , , -
-
. -
.
, -
, , (
), , -
-

. 1924 ,
, , [a] precise terminology is
a c o n d i t i o s i n e q u a n o n if one wants to understand grammatical
facts ( , , -
, Jespersen 1924: 315). -
,
, .


1, 2, 3 1-, 2-, 3-
PRES
PL
SG
SUBJ


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. , .

Bybee, J. 1998. Irrealis as a Grammatical Category. Anthropological Linguistics


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O

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