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The

History
Compendium
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CONTENTS
Unit-I : ANCIENT HISTORY OF INDIA
1. Sources of Ancient Indian History H-1-H-12
Introduction; Religious; Secular & Sangam Literature
2. Pre-historic Period H-13-H-22
Introduction; Stone Age; Chalcolithic (Bronze) Age; Iron Age
3. Indus Valley Civilization H-23-H-38
Introduction; Discovery; Geographical Extent; Nomenclature; Centres; Controversial Period
Features; Link with other Civilizations; Decline; Survival and Continuity
4. The Vedic Age H-39-H-52
Introduction; Coming of The Aryans; Various; Theories regarding the ancestry of Aryans;
Original Home of the Aryans; Important Vedic Fact; Advent and Expansion of Aryans in India;
Vedic Rivers; Early Vedic Age; Later Vedic Age
5. Emergence of Mahajanapadas & Magadh H-53-H-58
Introduction; Origin and Development; Causes of New Culture and Religion; Different
Mahajanapadas; Emergence of Magadh
6. Religious Revolution H-59-H-74
Introduction; Society; Jainism; Buddhism; Hindu Revivalist Movement
7. The Mauryan Empire H-75-H-90
Introduction; Chandragupta Maurya; Bindusura; Ashoka; Mauryan Administration; Mauryan
Art and Architect; Aftermath of Maurya
8. The Sangam Age H-91-H-98
Introduction; The Cholas; The Pandayas; The Cheras; Sangam Literature & Polity; Law and
justice; Social life; Economy; Religion; Art and Architecture
9. The Gupta Empire H-99-H-118
Chandragupta I; Samudragutpa; Chandragupta II; Kumaragupta I; Maheraditya; Skandagupta;
Vikramaditya; Revenue and Trade; Administration: Art and Architecture; Literature; Science
and Technology; Post-Gupta Age
10. India After Harsha H-119-H-128
Introduction; Gurjara-Pratiharas; Palas; The Rajputs; Growth of Regional Languages; Muslim
Invasion of Sindh

UNIT-II : MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF INDIA


11. Medieval Period H-129-H-138
Introduction; Sources of Medieval Period; Early Medieval Period; Emergence of new Kingdoms
12. The Delhi Sultanate H-139-H-154
The Background of Delhi Sultanate; Slave Dynasty; Khilji Dynasty; Tughlaq Dynasty; Sayyid
Dynasty; Lodi Dynasty; Administration of Sultanate; Post-Sultanate Period; Prominent Rulers
of Delhi Sultanate
13. The Vijayanagar Empire H-155-H-160
Introduction; Vijayanagar Dynasties; Amara-nayaka System; Architecture of the city of
Vijaynagar

 
15. The Mughal Empire H-167-H-186
Introduction; Major Events During Mughal Period; Features Of Mughal Administration; The
Mughal Family Tree; Emperors of Mughal Dynasty; The Suri Dynasty; Economic And Social
Developments; Arts & Culture; Decline of Mughal empire

UNIT-III : MODERN HISTORY


 
Introduction; The Portuguese; The Dutch; The English; The French; Carnatic War; 18th Century
India; Socio-Economic Condition; Governor Generals; Important Acts in British India
 
Introduction; Bengal In 18th Century; Battle of Plassey; Battle of Buxar ; The Expansion of
British Empire; Economic Impact of British Rule in India; Stages of British Colonialism
18. Indian Freedom Struggle H-219-H-264
Intro; Revolts; The 1857 Revolt; National Movement
Indian National Congress; Major Movement Acts, Commission and Parties; Famous Personalities
of Indian Freedom Struggle
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SOURCES OF ANCIENT 1
INDIAN HISTORY Chapter

Introduction
Generally, Ancient History of India is divided into three periods - Palaeolithic period (pre-historic period);
Mesolithic period (Prime historic period) and Neolithic period. The three stone ages (old, middle and new) are known as pre-
historic period and there is no written evidence found for the study of that period. Though with the help of different sources we
are able to study it in a chronological order. These sources include coins, monuments, old weapons, toys and ornaments, etc.
For the study of ancient history in a good chronological order we need to divide the different sources into three broad divisions
- (1) Literary sources (2) Archaeological sources (3) Accounts of foreign travellers and writers.

Sources of Ancient History

Literary Archaeological Accounts of foreign


Sources Sources travellers and writers

Painting & Idol s Greek


Authors
Religious Secular Sangam Articles from excavations
literature literature Chinese
literature Coins
travellers
Monument s and
Inscriptions writers
Brahman Buddhist Jai n
and Vedic Lit. Literature Literature Mohammadan
Indigenous Foreign
writers
edas Brahmans ripita  Angas
Non-Historical Historical

  Vedangs Jatak Upangas
Literature Literature
Upanishads Sutras Pal i Prakirna
Smritis Puranas Sanskrit Chhed Sutra
Arthashastra  Rajta rangini
Mahakavya(Epic) lit. and others
Astadhyayee Ramcharit
and others
Mahabhashya
and others
H-2 Sources of Ancient Indian History

LITERARY SOURCES
RELIGIOUS LITERATURE About 1200 Mantras have been taken from the Rigveda. The
hymns of Atharvaveda tell how to over come the evil spirit.
Brahmans and Vedic literary Source Shaunk and Pippalad are the two available branches of this
veda. The Atharvaveda is also known as Brahmaveda or
The Vedas Atharvagirasveda. For a very long time it was not considered
in the category of the Vedas. It is a book of magical formulae.
The word veda originated from the root vidi, i.e. to know,
signifying knowledge. It is also known as Shruti (to hear). Points to Remember
There are four vedas - the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and x In Rigveda we have 40 rivers and the Saraswati river is
Atharvaveda. called the mother of rivers.
Rigveda x The name of four oceans found in the Rigveda are Apar,
Purva, Saraswat and Sharyajavat.
The Rigveda is the oldest one, and therefore, is also known as
x 6 mandals from 2nd to 7th of Rigved are called Gotra
VJGTUVVGUVCOGPVQHOCPMKPF. It must have been composed
Vamsha Mandalas (Kula Grantha).
CTQWPF$%6JGTUVVJTGGXGFCUCTGMPQYPCU6TC[K.
It has 1017 hymns (Sukta) and is divided into ten mandalas. Vedas Upvedas dealing with
After the addition of the eleven Bal Khilya Sutra the total no. of
Rig Dhanurveda Archery
hymns becomes 1028. The tenth mandala, said to have added
later as its language differs from the other nine mandalas, Sam Gandharva the art of music
contains the famous Purushasukta explaining the four varnas Atharva Ayurveda the medical science
(Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) born from the
Yaju Sthapatyaved Architecture
mouth, arms, thighs and feet of the creator. Thus, the Rigveda
has 10 Mandalas, 1028 Suktas and 10,580 Richas.
6JG VJ CPF PF /CPFCNCU YGTG VJG XGT[ TUV EQORQUKVKQP The Brahmanas
later on the other mandalas were composed. The 7th and 2nd The Brahmanas were composed after the vedas to explain
Mandalas are called Vansha Mandal; the handwritten script the hymns of the vedas. Every veda has several Brahmanas
of 8th mandal is called Khila and the 1st and 10th are known attached to it. -CWUKVKMK and Aitareya are the Brahmans
as Kshepak. books of the Rigveda composed by Hotri priests. Aitareya
Yajurveda has 40 chapters. Kausitiki is also called Sankhyayan Brahman.
Taittiriya is the Brahman of Krishna Yajurveda and Shatpath
It has 40 chapters and 2000 hymns. It is a ritual veda and has
two main texts: Krishna Yajurveda and Shukla Yajurveda. It is is attached to shukla Yajurveda composed by Adhvaryu priest
CNUQECNNGFVJGDQQMQHUCETKEKCNprayers. Krishna Yajurveda Yagyavalka. It narrates the progress of culture from Kuru-
contains mantras (hymns) and the Shukla has commentary Panchal to Videha. The one hundred chapters of Shatpath
in prose. Kasthak, Kapishthal, Maitrayani, Taittiriya and are divided into 14 sections which are very exhaustive and
8CLCUPG[K CTG VJG XG DTCPEJGU QH ;CLWTXGFC KP YJKEJ VJG important of all the Brahmanas. The Samaveda has three
TUV HQWT CTG TGNCVGF VQ VJG -TKUJPC ;CLWTXGFC CPF VJG NCUV Brahmanas i.e. Tandayamaha Brahman, Khadvisha Brahmana
one is to Shukla Yajurveda. Yajurveda is a good collection of and Jaiminiya Brahman were composed by Udgatri priests.
hymns composed in both prose and poetry. Ishopanishad, the The Gopath Brahman is attached to the Atharvaveda.
last chapter of Yajurveda, is philosophical and metaphysical
In his Mahabhashya, Patanjali has described thousands of
whereas the rest of all parts of Yajurvedas subject matter is
branches of Samveda but only three branches, i.e. Kauthum,
the law and legislation of various yajanas.
Ranayaniya and Jaimaniya are available.
Samaveda The name of Rishabha and Arishtanemi (Jaintirthankar) are
The Samaveda is a collection of melodies. It has 1549 found in the Rigveda environment of jungles were called
Shlokas (richas) but except 78 all the rest of the hymns have Aaranyak (the word aranyak means the forest). They deal
been borrowed from the Rigveda. These were meant to be with philosophical doctrines and mysticism to answer the
UWPICVVJGVKOG QHUQOCUCETKEG 5COCXGFC JCUVYQRCTVU various complex questions, related to human life. In fact,
Purvarchika (having six subdivisions called Apathaka) and these are the concluding portion of the Brahmanas. There are
Uttrarchika (having nine subdivisions called Prapathaka). To
seven Aranyakas, i.e. #KVCTG[C 5CPMJ[C[CPC 6CKVVKTK[C
the historical point of view the Samaveda has less importance.
Maitrayani, Madhyanandin, 6CNXCMCTand ,CKOKPK[C. These
Atharvaveda books are QRRQUGFVQUCETKEGUCPFTKVWCNUand lay emphasis
It is the latest of the four. It describes the popular beliefs on meditation and moral virtues to form a bridge between the
and superstitions of the humble folk. It is divided into 20 Karma Marga (way of work) and the Gyan Marga (way of
books volumes. It contains 731 hymns and 5,987 mantras. knowledge).
Sources of Ancient Indian History H-3

The Upanishads Points to Remember


The word upanishad is a combined form of the two sanskrit
0COGQHVJG5OTKVKU %JKGH%QOOGPVCVQTU
word, i.e. upa and nishad which means to sit down near
someone (here, the Guru) and get the secret knowledge by Manu Vishwarupa, Medghatithi, Govindraj
him. There are 108 upanishads, e.g. Jesh, Kath, Ken, Kulluk Bhatt
/CPFWM[C $TKJCFCTCP[MC /WPFCMC %JJCPFQI[C Yajnavalkya, Narad Vishwarupa, Vijnyaneshwar, Apararka
6CKVVKTK[C #KVCTG[C CPF -CWUJKVKMK CTG some important Parashar Madhavacharya
upanishads. The Upanishads are anti-ritualistic discussing the
VJGQTKGUQHETGCVKQPQHVJGWPKXGTUGCPFFGPKPIVJGFQEVTKPG Assess Yourself
of action with the goal to attain salvation through meditation /CVEJVJG%QNWOP
and self-control. The Upanishads were composed by several
A. Srauta 1. Geometrical construction & making of
learned saints between 800 and 500 B.C. The famous doctrine canopy
of Adwaitavad is ascertained in the Upanishads. The famous B. Grihya 2. Therapeutic
national statement Satyameva Jayate has been taken from the C. Dharma 3. %GTGOQPKEUCPFUCETKEGU
Mundaka Upanishad.
D. Kaushiki 4. Husbandry
All the works referred above are known as shrutis, which E. Sulva 5. Social behaviour and religious matters
means revelation. The word shruti means hearing and and Varnasramas
TGHGTUVQVJGTJ[VJOUQHVJGKPPKVGJGCTKPID[VJGUQWN
Puranas
Vedangas
The Purana means the old. There are 18 Puranas in which
The six vedangas - 5JKMUJC -CNRC 8[CMCTCPC 0KTWMVC the Matsya purana is the oldest puran. These puranas describe
%JJCPFC CPF ,[QVKUJC were composed in the later Vedic the genealogies of various royal dynasties, i.e. Maurya, Andhra,
period. Shiksha deals with the appropriate pronunciation of Shishunag, Gupta, etc. The name of puranas are: Brahma,
the Mantras. Kalpa is related to rituals, duties and sanskara. Padma, Vishnu, Shiva, Bhagvat, Narad, Markandey, Agni,
Vyakarana deals with grammar and the science of language, Bhavishya Brahma-vaivartya, Linga Varah, Skanda, Vaman,
Kurma, Matsya, Garur and Brahmand. Besides these there are
Nirukta with etymology. Yaskacharyas Nirukta is very famous.
19 Upapuranas. Lomharsha or his son Ugrashrava is said to be
Chhanda deals with rhyming scheme. Chhandasutra was the compiler of puranas.
composed by Aacharya Pingle. Jyotish deals with astronomy
KPYJKEJYGPFVJGRTQRGTECNEWNCVKQPQHVJGTKIJVRQUKVKQPQH Mahakavya (Epics)
the sun and the moon and various heavenly bodies to perform There are two Mahakavyas (Epics), i.e. the 4COC[CPC(Valmiki)
rituals and ceremonies. Jyothish vedanga is a famous book for and the Mahabharata (Ved Vyasa). 6JG4COC[CPCthe oldest
it in which we get as many as 400 slokas. epic of the world, is known as Adi Kavya. It consists of 24,000
shlokas divided into 07 Kandas (Bal Kand, Ayodhya Kand
Sutrars and Aranya Kand, Kishkindha Kand, Sundar Kand, Lanka Kand
and Uttar Kand). The 1st and 7th Kand were the latest additions
Kalpasutra is quite famous among Sutra Literature. It has three to the Ramayana. The Ramayana is said to be composed in 5th
parts - Srauta, Grihya and Dharma. Srauta Sutra explains the century B.C. Originally it had only 6, 000 verses. Later on it
subjects of rituals and various types of yajnas ceremonies. DGECOGCPFPCNN[KVJCUUJNQMCU
5CPMJ[CPCP #CUJXCMC[CP .CVMC[CP -CVV[C[CPC CPF The Mahabharat of Ved Vyasa is the longest epic of the world
$QFJC[CP CTG VJG EJKGH EQORQUKVKQPU QH 5WVTC NKVGTCVWTG consisting of 1,00,000 shlokas in 18 parvans or chapters in
Griha Sutra deals with various sanskaras and the four which shanti parvan is the largest parvan. The Bhagavad Gita
Ashramas, i.e. Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanprastha and is extracted from the Bhishma Parvan of the Mahabharata.
The Mahabharata is said to be composed between 400 B.C. to
Sannyasa of human life. Dharmasutra deals with the social life
A.D. 400. Originally it had only 8,800 shlokas under the name
of the Vedic era in which various code of conduct and religious of Jay Samhita, later on it was called chaturvinshati sahastri
matters are explained. Besides these we have Kaushiki sutra samhita or Bharat EQPUKUVKPIQHUJNQMCUCPFPCNN[KV
(Medical science and remedies) and Sulva sutra. became Mahabharata or Shatasahastri Samhita with 1,00,000
shlokas. It is also called 2CPEJCOXGFC
Smritis
Smriti means remembrance. Smiritis, the auxiliary treatises Darshans
of the vedas, are regarded as a part of the revelation. There Like Smritis, Vedangas and Upvedas, Darshans are also the
are six famous smiritis: Manu smriti (of pre-Gupta period), auxiliary treaties of the vedas. There are six schools of Indian
philosophy known as Shad-Darshans. These are Sankhya
Yajnvalkya smriti (of Pre-Gupta period), Narad smriti (of
(Kapil), Yoga (Patanjali), Nyaya (Akshapad Gautam),
Gupta period), Parashara smriti (Gupta period) Brihaspati Vaishesika (Uluka Kanada), Purva Mimansa (Jaimini) and
smriti (Gupta period) and Katyayana smriti (Gupta period). Vedanta or Uttar Mimansa (Badarayana).
H-4 Sources of Ancient Indian History

Buddhist Literature Assess Yourself


Tripitaka Macth the column
There are three tripitak - Vinay Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and A. Navasahasanka charit 1. Jai Singh
Abhidhamma Pitaka. Pitaka means basket. The original texts B. Kumarpal charit 2. Nyaya Chandra
were written on palm-leaves and kept in baskets. Therefore C. Hampir kavya 3. Ballal
these works were called Pitaka. Sutta Pitaka is the gist of D. Bhoja prabandh 4. Aswaghosha
Buddhas sayings, Vinay Pitaka explains the code and conduct E. Buddhacharita 5. Bhadrabahu
of Buddhist organization. Abhidhamma Pitaka is divided into F. Kalpa sutra 6. Sarvanandin
seven parts. Dighra Nikaya, Majjhim Nikaya, Samyukta G. Loka vibhanga 7. Padmagupta
Nikay, Anguttar Nikaya and Khuddaka (Kshudraka Nikaya)
are the chief divisions of sutta-pitaka. Sutta Pitaka deals with Secular Literature
the religions discourses of Buddha.
Deepvansha and Mahavansha present the chronicles of Sri Non-historical Sources
Lanka dealing with the important events related to the various Arthashastra: It was composed by Kautilya (Chanakya). It
rulers and their administrations. gives a methodological analysis of political and economic
conditions of the Mauryan period.
Milindapanhs (i.e. questions of Milinda, the gando-greck
/WFTCTCMUJCUC It was written by 8KUJCMJ &WVV during
rules) presents dialogues between Menander and Buddhist Gupta Period. It explains the destruction of the Nandas by
saint Nagsen. Chandra Gupta Maurya with the help of %JCPCM[C.
Astadhyayee composed by Panini, is a grammar on which
Sanskrit Texts
Patanjali has written annotation. Its name is Mahabhashya.
$WFFJCEJCTKV[C, Saundarananda, Sutralankar, Sariputra Prakaran This book explains the conditions of Mauryan Period. Gargi
and Vajra suchi are famous books written by Ashwaghosha. Samhita describes the onset of the yavanas in India. Similarly,
Pragyaparimita Karika are the sources of the contemporary Kalidashs Abhijnayan Shakuntalam and Malvikagnimitram
historical materials. Visudhamagga, Atthakatha, Vasumitras explain the conditions of society and culture of the Guptas
Mahavibhasha Shastra and Nagarijunas Madhyamika Kuria RGTKQF 6JG IJV DGVYGGP VJG ;CXCP CPF 2WUJ[COKVTC 5WPIC
are Sumangalvasini by Buddhaghosa supply us some important is also mentioned in it. The Swapnavasvadutta of Bhasa
throws light on the various events of the Gupta period. Buddha
historical material with doses of religious messages.
swamis,Vrihadkata, Kshemendras. Vrihatkathamanjari,
Jatak Kathas Somdevas, Kathasaritsagar are the important books describing
the ancient society and culture of India.
There are 549 or 547 tales describing the pre-birth stories of
/WFTCTCMUJCUC and &GXKEJCPFTCIWRVCO are the
Buddha. These are the parts of art and literature and useful for compositions of the Gupta period. The establishment of the
the historical study of 3rd century B.C. They present a socio- Maurya dynasty, the fall of the Nanda Vansha, Ramgupta
economic conditions of Mauryan Period. as well as &JTWXCFGXKU story, all are explained by
Assess Yourself Vishakhadutta. King Harshavardhana of 7th century A.D.
wrote Naganand, Priyadarshika and Ratnavali. In the very
/CVEJVJGEQNWOP period his courtier poet Banabhatta wrote Harshacharita.
A. Indian Buddhist text 1. Jatakas In all these compositions we gain the knowledge of Harshas
kingship and administration.
B. Ceylonese Buddhist Chronicles 2. Dipavansha
Gaudvaho by Vakpatiraj explains the victory of king
C. Tibetan Buddhist text 3. Mahavansha Yashovarman of Kannauj and the subjugation of Gauda.
4. Divyavadana Padmagupta Parimal wrote Navsahsanka Charit. It describes
the various events of the Parmara of Malva. Vilhana in his epic
Jain Literature 8KMTCOCPMFGXEJCTKVCOhas described the achievements of
the King of Chalukya Vikramaditya (VI). Chand Bardais
The literature of the Swetambaras is written in Ardhamagadhi (Prithviraj Raso), Jayanaks Prithviraj Vijay and Kumarparpal
Prakrit including 12 Angas, 12 Upangas, 10 Prakirnakas, 06 Charit, Jaganakas Parmal Raso are some important compositions
Chhedasutras, 04 Mulasutras and 02 Sutra Granthas. All the Jain through which we understand the various events of Rajputana
granthas were compiled in the Council of Vallabhi in A.D. 516 in Period.
YJKEJYGECPPFVJGGZRQUKVKQPQHCDQWV2TCUGPLKV#LCVUJCVTW
Vimbishar etc. Parishtaparvan and Bhadrabahucharit supply Historical Literature
the descriptions about Chandragupta Maurya. Parishistaparvan, In 12th century A.D Kalhana wrote Rajtarangini describing
Trishishta Shalaka, Purusham Choritra, Dwayashray Mahakavya, about the rulers of Kashmir. Rajtarangini is considered to
be the TUV JKUVQTKECN DQQM QH +PFKC. Sandhyakar Nandis
Mahaveer Charit, Kumarpal Charit are the important religious
Ramcharit is also a historical creation describing the works
books helpful for the study of ancient history.
and achievements of Rampal, the pal ruler of Bengal.
Sources of Ancient Indian History H-5

Assess Yourself Sangam Literature


/CVEJVJGEQNWOP Sangam was a college or assembly of Tamil poets held under
A. Ramcharit 1. Kalhan Royal patronage of Pandayan Kings in Madurai. It is said
B. Rajtarangini 2. Vakpatiraj that the assembly lasted for 9,990 years and was attended by
C. Parmal Raso 3. Vilhan 8,598 poets and 197 pandyas. The narrative texts are called
D. Prithviraj Vijay 4. Jayanak /GNMCPPCMMW (consisting of 18 major works and 10 idylls)
E. Vikrmankdev Charit 5. Jagnik show that the early Tamil people were pastoral. These are
F. Gandvaho 6. Sandhyakar Nandi heroic poetry giving ideas of the state formation in which the
army consisted of the groups of warriors, and the taxation
Assess Yourself system and judiciary.
/CVEJ$QZ The didactic texts cover the early centuries of the Christian era.
A. Arthashastra 1. Harshvardhana 2CFPGMKNMCPCMMW is called -KNCMCPCMMW (18 minor works)
B. Astadhyayee 2. Chanakaya
describes the code of conduct and occupations of various social
C. Mahabhashya 3. Panini
groups. Kural or Muppal, a part of Padnekilkanakku, was
D. Malvikagnimitram 4. Patanjali
E. Swapnavasavdutta 5. Bhash written by Tiruvalluvar is called The Bible of Tamil Land.
F. Ratnavali 6. Kalidas

6JG6JTGG5CPICOCVCINCPEG
Sl. No 8GPWG %JCKTOCPUJKR #XCKNCDNGVGZVU No. of patron
I Sangam Ten-Mudurai (South) Agattiyar 89
(Old-Capital) of Pandayas
II Sangam Kapatapuram/Alvai Agastaya Tolakapiyyar Tolkappiyam 59
(engulfed in sea) (grammar & poetics)
III Sangam North Madurai Nakkirar Ettutogai, Pattu-Pattu* 49
Patinenkanakku
*Ettutogai and Pattu-Pattu are called Melakanakku.
SCPICO 'RKEU 5KNCRRCFKMCTCO /CPKOGMCNCK 5KXCIC 5KPFCOCPK etc. Around the 6th century A.D. the two epics, i.e.
5KNCRRCFKMCTCO
VJGUVQT[QHVJG#PMNGV CPF/CPKOGMCNCKYGTGEQORQUGF6JGTUVYCUYTKVVGPD[Ilango Adigal which deals
with the story of Kovalan and Madhavi of Kaveripattinam. Kovalan falls in love with Madhavi and forgets his noble wedded wife
Kannagi. This epic is called Illiad of Tamil poetry. The Manimekalai, written by a grain merchant named Sittalai Sattanar,
deals with the adventures of Manimekala, the daughter born of Kovalan and Madhavi. The authors of the two epics were friends
who were the contemporaries of the Chera King Senguttuvan, who ruled in the 2ndEGPVWT[#&6JGUGGRKEUTGGEVUVJGUQEKCN
and economic life of the Tamils upto about the 6th century A.D. The Manimekalai is strongly tinged with Buddhism whereas
the Sivaga Sindamani (Jivaka Chintamani), written by Jain Tiruttakradevas, is tinged with Jainism. Sivaga Sindamani shows
the dominance of Sanskrit style over the indigenous style of the previous epics. Bharatam, a Tamil epic, was composed of
Perudevanar. It also has great importance in Tamil literature.
5CPICO.KVGTCVWTGCPFVJGKTCWVJQTU Authors Subject/nature/Hint
Agattiyam Agastya A work on grammar of letters
Tolkappiyam (Tamil grammar) Tolakapiyyar A treatise on grammar & poetry
Ettutogai (8 anthologies) Melkannakku combined form.
Pattu Pattu (10 idyls) Melkannakku combined form.
Patinenkilakanakku (18 minor works) A didactic work.
Kural (Muppal) Tiruvalluvar A treatise on polity, ethics, social norms.
Silappadikaram Ilango Adigal A love story of Kovalan Smadhavi
Manimekalai Sittalai Sattanar The adventures of Manimekalai
H-6 Sources of Ancient Indian History

Sivaga Sindamani Tiruttakadevar A sanskrit treatise


Bharatam Perudevanar The last epic
Pannirupadalam (grammar) 12 disciples of Agastya A grammatical work on puram literature
Kakkipadiniyam (Prosody) A work on prosody

Assess Yourself

/CVEJVJG%QNWOP
A. The earliest tamil work 1. Kural or Muppal
B. The Bible of Tamil land 2. Agattiyam
C. The Illiyad of Tamil poetry 3. Silappadikaram
D. A book of Philosophy & Maxims 4. Tirukkural

-PQYOQTGCDQWV.KVGTCVWTG Kadambari Banbhatta


Ballal Charit Anand Bhatt
5QOGKORQTVCPV.KVGTCVWTG$QQMU Writer
Katha Sarit Sagar Somadeva
Anekant Vijay Haribhadra Suri
Kavya Darsha Dandin
Kuvalaymala Udyaodan Souri
Kirartarjuniyam Bharavi
Kalpasutra Bhadrabahu
Nitishatakma Bhartahari
Nyaya Bhasya Vatsyayana
Vikramovarshiyam Kalidas
Mudra Rakshas Vishakha Dutt
Charudatta Bhasa
Malvikagnimitram Kalidas
Pratigya Yaugan dharayana Bhasa
Raghuvamsam Kalidas
Prayag Prasasti Harisena
Meghdootam Kalidas
Sankhya Akarika Ishwar krishna
Ritusamahar Kalidas
Padartha Dharma Sangraha
Mrichcha katikam Shudrak
Vyasa Bhasya (A yogophi) Acharya Vyasa
Kam Sutra Vatsyayana

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOURCES
The systematic study of ancient buildings, monuments and the cities Harappa and Mohenjodara. Rakhal Das Banerji, in
work of art present evidences and knowledge about the ancient 1922, found seals at Mohenjodaro. It was the remains of pre-
world. Coins, Inscriptions, Monuments and Material from Aryan civilization. Later on the sites were excavated under the
excavations are the great sources through which we study
direction of Marshall from 1924 to 1931.
about the old civilization and culture of ancient time.
Sir R.E. Mortimer Wheeler made important discoveries at
Excavations Harappa after the Second World War. Indian epigraphists as
Bhanu Daji, Bhagavanlal Indraji, Rajendralal Mitra and R.G.
The credit for excavating the Pre-Aryan past goes to Sir
William Jones of Asiatic Bengal Society (established on 1st Bahndarkar contributed in the excavations of new sites.
Jan 1784). James Prinsep, the Secretary of ABS succeeded for 12 Angas (Acharang Sutta, Suyagandang Sutta, Thanang,
VJGTUVVKOGKPFGEKRJGTKPIVJG$TCJOKUETKRV5KT#NGZCPFGT Samvayang Sutta, Bhagvati Sutta, Nayadhammakaha Sutta,
Cunninghum, the father of Indian archaeology, arrived India Uvasagdasao Sutta,) etc. 11 Upangas - (Aupapatik, Rajprashniya,
in 1831. He judged out the ruins of ancient site of Pre-Aryan Jeevabhigam, Pushya Chulika, etc).  2TCMKTPCPCU(Bhati
Civilization. He judged out the ruins of ancient side of pre-
Pariksha, Sanstar, Tandul Vaitalik, etc.)  %JJGF 5WVTCU-
Aryan culture. He was appointed Archaeological surveyor by
the Indian Government. (Nisheeth, Mahanisheeth, Vyavahar, Panchkalpa, etc.) 04 Mula
Sutras Uttradhyayan, Khadavshyak, Dashvaikali, Pakshik, Sutta,
Later on, in 1901, Lord Curzon revived this work and John
etc.).
Marshall was appointed as its director general and he discovered
Sources of Ancient Indian History H-7

Coins (COQWU#PEKGPV/QPWOGPVU
+PFKCPCPF(QTGKIP
x The study of coins is called numismatics. Important /QPWOGPV Place
historical facts are obtained through it. Samudraguptas Sarnath Varanasi
#UYCOGFC EQKPU NKQP UNC[GT EQKPU TGGEV JKU CODKVKQPU Ajant-Alora Aurangabad
and love of hunting. He has been seen playing on a lyre
Dashavatar Mandir Devgarh, Lalitpur
in a coin that gives an idea of his love of music. The
Bhitargaons brick temple Kanpur
2WPEJ/CTM%QKPU (of silver and copper) are the earliest
Parvati Mandir Nachan Kuthar
coins of India. The Kushanas issued Gold coins depicting
many deities on their coins. The coins of Vima Kadphises Shiva Mandir Donda Platue, Java
DGCT VJG IWTG QH .QTF 5JKXC 6JWU EQKPU CTG JGNRHWN Angakorvat Mandir Cambodia
in discovering ideas about the complementary economic Borobudoor Java
EQPFKVKQPCPFRTQXKFGHCEVUYKVJFCVGVJCVJGNRWUKPZKPI Bogajkoi and Percipolus Turkey
chronology. In Paninis Astadhyayee, Brahmin literature Vaishnan Mandir Kano Mountain Malaya
CPF7RCPKUJCFCUYGPFVJGFGUETKRVKQPUQH8GFKEEQKPU
or currency named Nishka, Shatman, Suvarna, and 5QOGKORQTVCPVNKVGTCVWTG$QQMU Writer
Panishka. The Gold coins of Guptas period are quite Amarkosha Amarsimha
important in this context. Chandravyakarana Chandragomin
x Inscriptions: Inscriptions are the words cut on stone or Panchatantra Vishnu Sharma
metals. The study of inscriptions is called epigraphy. Hitopadesha Narayan Bhatta
Inscriptions are the most reliable evidence and are free Aryabhattiya Aryabhatta
from interpolations. Ashokass rock-cut edicts, pillar edicts, Dasajitika Sutra Aryabhatta
inscriptions of Kharvela and Allahabad Prasasti by Harisena Aryashtashata Varahmihira
and the inscriptions found at Khalimpur and Bhagalpur of Brihatsamhita Varahmihira
the Gupta Age are important evidences. Varahmihira
Panchasidhantika
+ORQTVCPV+PUETKRVKQPU Laghu and Brihat Jataka Varahmihira
Samundragupta Prayag Prasasti Kamandaka
Nitisastra
Eran Prasasti Natya Darpan Ramchandra
Nalanda Copper Plate. Kavyalankara Bhamaha
Dashpadarthashastra Dignaga
Chandragupta II Mehrauli Iron pillar
Brahma Sidhanta Brahmagupta
Skandagupta Junagarh Prasasti Charak Samhita Charak
    %KLWDUL3UDVDVWL Astanga hridaya Vagbhata
Shalya Shastra Sushruta
    ,QGRUH5R\DO&KDUWHU
Ashwashastra Shalihotra
Buddhagupta Paharpur Copper Plate (R.C.)
Nayayavatar Sudhasena
Bagaz Kui ins. Rigvedic Indian Gods, i.e. Indra, Varun, Visuddim agga Buddhaghosa
Mitra, etc. Praman samuchchay Ignaga
Nyayapranesh Dingnath
Monuments Bhattikavya Bhatti
/QPWOGPVU CPF DWKNFKPIU TGGEV VJG ITQYVJ QH OCVGTKCN Tatvarthadhigam sutra Umashwati
prosperity and the development of culture. The ancient Vigyaneshwar
Mitakshara
monuments of Taxshila provide information about the
Setubandh Pravarsen
Kushanas and its sculpture imparts the knowledge of Gandhar
Abhinav bharti Abhinv Gupt a
Kala. The Mauryan history is known by the Stupas, Chaityas
and Vihars. Shringar Prakash Bhoj
H-8 Sources of Ancient Indian History

ACCOUNTS OF FOREIGN TRAVELLERS AND WRITERS


Before the arrival of Alexander, some Greek authors like 6UWOCEJKP (100 B.C.) , the father of the history of China,
Herodotus, Ktesia, Hiketious and Skylaix wrote some scripts YCUVJGTUV%JKPGUGJKUVQTKCPFGUETKDKPICDQWV+PFKC6KDGVKCP
of information about India. With the expedition of Alexander writer .COC6CTCPCVJ wrote Kangyur and Tangyur through
the great some men of letters came to India and took interest which we know about Shaka, Kushan and Parthians. In
in Indian philosophy and culture. Among them Aristobulous, about 8th century A.D. close relationship sprouted between
Aunesicritous and Neorkous are very famous. Megasthenes, India and Arab countries. Arab writers and travellers started
the ambassador of Seleukos Nikator to Chandragupta Maurya, taking interest in writing about Indian society and its code
wrote a highly valuable account of India, in his book INDICA. and conducts which became a source of knowledge through
This book was translated by Maicrindal. which a datewise history could be constructed. Let us study
the following chart.
Books of Foreign Travellers
Author Book Subject
Mega sthenese . .. Indica  Information of Mauryan India.
Greek Ptolemy 2nd cent A. D. Geography 
Geographical treatise on India.
Ariens 2nd cent A.D.. .. Indica, Invasion of Alexander  Based on the contemporary
authors of Alexander
. ..  Trade relation between Rome and
Pliny 1st cent A.D. Natural historia
India, Indian animal and plants.
 Personal Voyage of Indian Coasts.
Anonymous (A.D. 80) . .. Per iplus of the Erythreans Sea
. ..
Tsumachi n 1st cent. B.C.  Personal opinion about India.
 The Gupta Emperor - the 5th
Chinese Fa-Hien (A.D. 399) . .. Recor do ft he Buddhist Countries cent .A.D.
Hieun-Tsang (A.D. 629) . .. Buddhi st record of the western  Condition of India in the period
world of Harshavardhan.
Itsing (A.D. 670) Ar ecord of Buddhistic religion  The Guptas under Sri Gupta in
Hwuili . .. Life of Hieun Tsang the 7th Cent .A.D.

Accounts of Hiuen Tsang's travel
in India.

Ibne Khurdadab . .. Kita bul Masalak wal Mamalik


 Indian society and trade ways.
9th Cent.A .D.  Indian sea coast, conventions,
Mohammadan . .. Silsija-ul -Tavarish
Suleiman culture.
Writer
Almasudi . .. Muruj-ul-Jahan  Indian society.
Albiruni . .. Tarikh-ul-Hind  Contemporary Indian history.
. ..  India under the Kingship of
Ibna-Batuta Rihla
Muhammad Tughlaq

Some Remarkable Facts


1. $GCN and waters translated the work of Hiuen-Tsang.
2. Herodotus is regarded as the father of History wrote *KUVQTKEC
3. Hieun-Tsang is called the King of travellers who YTQVG5K'W-K
4. Takkusu translated Si-Eu-Ki under the name of #TGEQTFQHVJG$WFFJKUVTGIKQP.
Sources of Ancient Indian History H-9

Exercise - 1
1. Who among the following is known to have regulated the 12. Which of the following does the Puranas contain?
course of Vitasta in Kashmir by his engineering operations? (a) Laws of Manu and the history on various dynasties
(a) Vajraditya (b) Damodargupta 
D  *[OPUKPHCXQWTQHVJG)QFU
(c) Sura (d) Suyya (c) Thoughts on the mystery of life and universe
2. The Sangam text Tolkappiyam is a work on (d) Mythology
(a) Astronomy (b) Grammar 13. Most of the Upanishads seem to have been composed by
(c) Music (d) Medicine whom?
3. The earliest evidence of Silk in India comes from the (a) Brahmins (b) Kshatriyas
archaeological site of (c) Buddhists (d) Non-aryans
(a) Bhagwanpura (b) Nevasa 14. Who wrote a book Return of the Aryans ?
(c) Rangpur (d) Ropar (a) Bhagvan Das Gidvani
4. An upper Palaeolithic Mother Goddess made of bone has (b) L.D. Kalla
been obtained from (c) Avinash Chandra Das
(a) Godavari valley (b) Narmada valley (d) D.S. Trivedi
(c) Son valley (d) Belan valley 15. Which of the following Brahmana texts belongs to
5. The Third Tamil Sangam was held at Atharvaveda?
(a) Tanjore (b) Madurai (a) Shatpatha (b) Aitareya
(c) Kanjeevaram (d) Mahabalipuram (c) Gopatha (d) Panchavinsh
6. The earliest inscriptions were written in which language? 16. The expounder of Yoga philosophy was :
(a) Pali (b) Prakrit (a) Patanjali (b) Shankaracharya
(c) Sanskrit (d) Tamil (c) Jaimini (d) Gautam
7. The ancient Indian play Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutt 17. The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and Yama is
has its subject on: mentioned in the :

C  CEQPKEVDGVYGGP)QFUCPF&GOQPUQHCPEKGPV*KPFW (a) Chhandogyopanishad
lore (b) Mundakopnishad
(b) a romantic story of an Aryan prince and a tribal (c) Kathopanishad
woman (d) Kenopanishad
(c) the story of the power struggle between two Aryan 18. Which of the following pairs indicating the contents of the
(d) the court intrigues at the time of Chandragupta sacred Buddhist Pitakas is not correctly matched?
8. From among the following, which pair is not matched? (a) Vinaya Pitaka rules of monalstic discipline
(a) Patanjali Mahabhashya (b) Abhidhamma Pitaka philosophical development of

D  *CNC)CVJC5CRVUJCVK the Buddhas teachings
(c) Bhadrabahu Brihat Katha Manjari (c) Suttra Pitaka Stories of the Buddhas previous

F  #UJXCIJQUC*CTUJ%JCTKV births (Jataka stories)
9. The objects like pottery, tools and ornaments that humans (d) Dhammapada The original sermon of the Buddha
made in the past are called of Sarnath
(a) Monuments (b) Coins  4QDGTV$TWEGHQQVGYJQFKUEQXGTGFTUVRCNCEQVJKEVQQN
(c) Inscriptions (d) Artifacls in India, was originally a
10. Which one of the following is not a part of early Jains (a) Palaeobotanist
literature? (b) Geologist
(a) Therigatha (b) Acaranga sutra
(c) Archaeologist
(c) Sutrakritanga (d) Brihat kalpasutra

F  *KUVQTKCP
11. The famous Vedic saying, War begins in the minds of 20. The earliest Buddhist literature which deal with the stories
men, is stated in the : of the various birth of Buddha are
(a) Upanishad (b) Atharvaveda (a) Vinaya pitakas (b) Sutta pitakas
(c) Samaveda (d) Yajurveda (c) Abhidamma pitakas (d) Jatakas
H-10 Sources of Ancient Indian History

1.
Exercise - 2
Consider the following statements : 7. List-I List-II
1. *KUVQTKCPU WUG VJG YQTF UQWTEG VQ TGHGT VQ VJG A. Abhidhamma 1. Matters of doctrine
information found from manuscripts, inscriptions Pitaka and ethics
and archaeology. B. Sutta Pitaka 2. Rules of monk order
2. Ramayana and Mahabharata are also important C. Vinaya Pitaka 3. Members of great
source of ancient Indian history. community
Which of the above is / are correct? D. Mahasanghika 4. Matters of
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only psychology and
metaphysics
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Codes:
2. Mrichchhakatikam, written by Shudraka deals with
A B C D
1. The love affair of a rich merchant with the daughter (a) 2 4 1 3
of a courtesan. (b) 3 1 4 2
2. The military expedition of Samudragupta. (c) 2 1 4 3
Which of the above is correct? (d) 4 1 2 3
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only 8. List-I List-II
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (Author) (Work)
3. Consider the following statements: Al-Berunis A. Sudraka 1. Mrichhakatikan
-KVCDWN*KPFKU B. Visakhadatta 2. Mudrarakshasa
1. A sympathic study of Indian civilization. C. Kalidasa 3. Vikramorvasiyam
2. Mainly a political history of India. D. Bhavabhuti 4. Uttara Ramacharita
3. Critical of Mahmud Ghaznavi s plundering raids of Codes:
India. A B C D
4. Mainly a study of Indias cultural, social and (a) 1 2 3 4
intellectual history. (b) 2 3 1 4
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct? (c) 4 2 3 1
(a) 1, 3 and 4 (b) 1 and 4 (d) 3 1 4 2
(c) 2 and 4 (d) Alone 9. List-I List-II
4. With reference to the Jambudvipa, consider the A. Time taken by the 1. Aryabhatta
statements Earth to orbit the sun
1. Bharatvarsha was also called Jambudvipa. B. Calculation of the 2. Bhaskaracharya
value of S (pi)
2. Early Buddhist evidence suggests that Jambudvipa
C. Invention of the digit 3. Budhayana
was a territorial designation from the third century
Zero
BC.
D. The game of snakes 4. Gyanadev
Which of the above is / are correct? & ladders
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only Codes:
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 A B C D
5. Who among the following teachers were visited by (a) 2 4 1 3
Siddhartha Gautama in the quest of knowledge before his (b) 1 3 2 4
enlightment? (c) 2 3 1 4
1. Alara Kalama 2. Udraka Ramaputra (d) 1 4 2 3
3. Makkhali Gosala 4. Nigantha Nataputta 10. Which of the following statements is/ are correct?
Indicate your answer from the codes given below: 1. Early Buddhist literature is generally composed of
Codes: the canonical text.
(a) 1 and 4 (b) 4 and 2 2. The Buddhist schools classify their canonical
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2 literature as only the Pitakas.
6. List-I List-II Select the correct answer using. the code given below:
A. Tirukkural 1. Ilangoadigal (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
B. Shilpadikaram 2. Sattanar (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
C. Manimakhlai 3. Tolkappiyar 11. Consider the following statements relating to Jain
literature :
D. Tolkappiyam 4. Tiruvalluvar
1. The sacred books of the Jainas are known as
Codes:
Siddhanta or Agama.
A B C D 2. The language of the earliest Jain texts is eastern
(a) 4 1 2 3 dialect of Pali known as Ardha Magadhi.
(b) 1 4 3 2 Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(c) 4 1 3 2 (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(d) 1 4 2 3 (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Sources of Ancient Indian History H-11

EXERCISE-1
1. (d) Suyya is known by his engineering operations absorption called the state of no-thingness, a state
regulated the course of the Vitasta in Kashmir, without moral or cognitive dimension. Gautama saw
VJGTGD[ CTTGUVKPI VJG FGXCUVCVKPI RGTKQFKECN QQFU this was not going to solve suffering, and continued
and consequent famine and promoted irrigation and his search.
agricultural operations over an extensive area. The next teacher was Udraka Ramaputra who taught
2. (b) The Tolkappiyam is a work on the grammar of the him meditative absorption leading to the state of
Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil neither perception nor non-perception. Again,
literature written by Tholkappiyar. Gautama realised this was not the state he was
3. (b) looking for. (Both Alara and Udraka are by some
4. (d) Mother goddess of bone has been obtained from the scholars considered to be Jain followers.)
upper Palaeolithic level of the Belan valley. 6. (a) Correctly matched pairs are:
5. (b) 6. (b) Tirukkural Tiruvalluvar
7. (d) The Mudrarakshasa (The Signet of the Minister), Shilpadikaram Ilangoadigal
a historical play in Sanskrit by Vishakhadatta
Manimekhalai Sattanar
(4th century CE) narrates the ascent of the king
Chandragupta Maurya to power in Northern India. Tolkappiyam Tolkappiyar
7. (d) The Abhidhamma Pitaka is the last of the three Pitakas
8. (c) 9. (d)
constituting the Pali Canon, the scriptures of Theravada
10. (a) Therigatha was a part of the Buddhist literature.
Buddhism. Abhidhamma has been variously described
11. (d) 12. (d) 13. (b)
as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics, etc.
14. (a) The book Return of the Aryans was written by
Sutta Pitaka matches with matters of doctrine and
Bhagvan S. Gidvani. This book tells the epic story ethics.
of the Aryans a gripping tale of kings and poets, The Vinaya Pitaka is a Buddhist scripture, one of the
seers and gods, battles and romance and the rise and three parts that make up the Tripitaka. Its primary
fall of civilizations. subject matter is the monastic rules for monks and
15. (c) The Gopatha Brahmana is the only Brahmana, a nuns.
genre of the prose texts describing the Vedic rituals, Mahasanghika matches with members of great
associated with the Atharvaveda. community.
16. (a) The ancient Sage Patanjali was an expounder of the 8. (a) The Correct match list of author and their works is :
Yoga Sutras one of the most important text of yoga Author Work
covering all aspects of life. Patanjalis Yoga Sutras Sudraka Mrichhakatikam
describe the working of the mind and emotions. Visakhadatta Mudrarakshasa
17. (c) The famous dialogue between Nachiketa and Yama Kalidasa Vikramorvasiyam
about transmigration of soul is mentioned in the Bhavabhuti Uttara Ramacharita
Kathopanishad. Sudrakas Mrichhakatikam (The little clay Cart) is
18. (d) 19. (b) unquestionably a master piece in the realm of ancient
20. (d) Jatakas are the stories that tell about the previous Sanskrit drama. If we expect literature of the time
to faithfully represent the age then the little clay cart
lives of the Buddha, in both human and animal form.
has achieved this criterion more than any other plays
of ancient Sanskrit tradition. The Mudrarakshasa
EXERCISE-2 (Signet Ring of the Rakshasa, the Chief Minister of
the last Nanda King), a historical play in sanskrit by
1. (c)
visakhadatta (4th century CE) narrates the ascent of
2. (a) Mrichchhakatikam is attributed to Sudraka it is a
the king Chandragupta Maurya to power in Northern
ten act drama. It deals with the love story of a rich
India with the aid of Chanakya, his Guru and Chief
merchant with the daughter of a courtesan. Minister. Vikramorvasiyam (Urvasi won Through
3. (a) 4. (c) valor) is based on the old legend of the love of the
5. (d) Gautama studied under various teachers and mortal Pururavaas for the heavenly damse Urvasi.
followed their practices until he mastered them all. Uttara Ramacharita ( The story of Ramas later life),
*KU TUV VGCEJGT YCU #NCTC -CNCOC YJQ VCWIJV C depicts Ramas coronation, the abandonment of Sita,
form of meditation leading to an exalted form of and their reunion.
H-12 Sources of Ancient Indian History

9. (c) The correct match list is: popular in almost all houses and across all countries
Aryabhatta Invention of the digit zero. of the world. The credit for the game should go to the
Bhaskaracharya Time taken by the earth to orbit 13th century Marathi saint poet composer Gyanadev,
the sun. Jnanadeva , also known as Jnanashwar. When the
Budhayana Calculation of the value of S (Pi) saint invented the game it was called Mokshapat.
Gyandeva The game of snakes and ladders 10. (c) Canonical texts are those that are linked to Gautama
Zero was invented in India by Indian mathematicians Buddha in one way or another. Canonical texts
dating as early as 5th century. They widely used it comprise three different kind of texts - the sutras
in calculations, astronomy and astrology. Zero was (discourses), vinaya (discipline) and abhidharma
spread by Arabians to the Europe and thereon it was (analytical texts),together they are called the Three
URTGCFCNNQXGT6JGHCOQWU*KPFWOCVJGOCVKEKCP Baskets or Tipitaka (in Pali language) and Tripitaka
Bhaskaracharya, in his treatise Surya Siddhanta, (in Sanskrit).
calculated the time taken for the earth to orbit the 11. (a) Agam Literature-This consists of original scriptures
sun to nine decimal places (365.258756484 days). complied by Gandharas and Srut-kevalis. They are
Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken written in the Prakrit language.
by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years Non-agam Literature-This consists of commentary
DGHQTG VJG CUVTQPQOGT 5OCTV *KU ECNEWNCVKQPU and explanation of Agam literature and independent
was Time taken by earth to orbit the sun (5th works, complied by elder monks, nuns, and scholars.
century): 365.258756484 days. The value of Pi was They are written in many languages such as Prakrit,
TUV ECNEWNCVGF D[ $WFJC[CPC CPF JG GZRNCKPGF 5CPUMTKV 1NF /CTCVJK )WLCTCVK *KPFK -CPPCF
the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Tamil, German, and English.
Theorem. The game of snakes and ladders is most
   
2
Chapter

Introduction
The credit for the rediscovery of Indian pre-history goes to Dr. PrimroseCP'PINKUJOCPYJQYCUVJGTUV
person to discover pre-historic implements (stone knives and arrow-heads) in 1842 at Lingsugur (Karnataka).
However John Evans YCUTUVVQRWDNKUJFKUEQXGT[QHKPVUQPVJGDGFQHVJG0CTOCFCTKXGTPGCT,CDCNRWTKP
1853.
+P/%$WTMKVVRWDNKUJGFCPCEEQWPVQHEQNNGEVKQPHTQOVJGKrishna basin and in 1935 H.de Terra of T.T. Paterson
UVWFKGFVJGINCEKCNUGSWGPEGQHKashmir and Punjab6JGGHHQTVUQHVJGUTGUWNVGFKPVJGRWDNKECVKQPQHStuart
Piggotts Prehistoric India in 1950.
Historians divide the Pre - historic period into three sections-
1. Stone age 2. Bronze age 3. Iron age
(QTVJGUVWF[QHVJGUGCIGUYGJCXGPQVJKPIGZEGRVHQUUKNUCPFUQOGVQQNUCPFRCKPVKPIUNGHVD[VJGO9Gdo
not have any written recordCUVJGRTKOKVKXGRGQRNGYGTGWPCYCTGQHRGPCPFRCRGTU6JGRTKOKVKXGRGQRNGYGTG
UJQTVGTKPJGKIJVCPFJCFCUOCNNGTDTCKP6JG[FKFPQVJCXGCUQEKCNNKHGNKMGWU6JGearliest human fossils has
DGGPHQWPFKPAfrica FCVKPICDQWV4.2 million [GCTU0QGCUKN[human fossilsJCXGDGGPHQWPFKP+PFKCGZEGRVC
hominid fossil from HathnawiaKPVJG0CTOCFCXCNNG[FCVKPIDCEMVQOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ6JGUVQPGCIGKU
FKXKFGFKPVQVJTGGRCTVUKG2CNCGQNKVJKE/GUQNKVJKECPF0GQNKVJKECIGU.GVWUUVWF[VJKUEJCTV

Pre-History

Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age

A. B. C.
Palaeolithic Age Mesolithic Age Neolithic Age
(Old stoneage) (Late stoneage) (New stone age)
5,00,000 - 10,000 B.C. (10,000 - 4,000 B.C.) (6,000 - 1,000 B.C.)

1. 2. 3.
Lower Palaeolithic Culture Middle Palaeolithic Culture Upper Palaeolithic Culture
50,000 - 1,00,000 B.C. (1,00,000 - 40,000 B.C.) (40,000 - 10,000 B.C.)
H-14 Pre-Historic Period

STONE AGE
A. Palaeolithic (Old Stone) Age depicted in theUG CTG OQUVN[ DKUQPU GNGRJCPVU VKIGTU
DQCTU TJKPQEGTQU GVE 6JG WRRGT 2CNCGQNKVJKE CTV KU
In 1930, Gabriel de montillet, a french investigator, EJCTCEVGTKUGFD[TGFCPFITGGPEQNQWTU
started naming the cultural divisions in the manner of
compartments or stages. In this context the Palaeolithic 
CIG
QNFUVQPGCIG EQOGUTUV+VYCUCPCIGQHJWPVKPI
 #PFJTC 2TCFGUJ -CTPCVCMC /CJCTCUVTC $JQRCN
and food gathering culture. Palaeo means old and

$JKODGVMC CPF%JJQVCPCIRWT
,JCTMJCPF 
lithic means stone. For this it is called palaeolithic
YJKEJ KU FKXKFGF KPVQ VJTGG RJCUGU .QYGT /KFFNG CPF Points to Remember
upper Palaeolithic culture. x 2( 5JWO &GUKIPCVGF VJG EWNVWTCN RCUV QH OCP KP CU
  GCTN[CU
 x +P%,6JQOUQPCTTCPIGFVJGGZJKDKVUKP&CPKUJ
It covers the greater part of the Ice Age. The people museums.
YGTGYCPFGTGTU6JG[FKFPQVMPQYJQYVQITQYHQQF x .WDDQEM QH (TCPEG FKXKFGF VJG UVQPG CIG KPVQ
6JG[WUGFVQGCVHTWKVUDKTFUCPFTCYCPKOCNGUJGVE 2CNCGQNKVJKE0GQNKVJKEKP
6JGVQQNUYGTGWUWCNN[OCFGQHJCTFTQEMQuartzite and
x The Palaeolithic culture of India developed in
therefore the man of Palaeolithic age is called Quartzite
Man (QT JWPVKPI VJG[ WUGF JCPFCZG ENGCXGTU CZGU Pleistocene period.
and chopper of irregular shapes. Fossil of Homo x (KTUV QH CNN 4QDGTV $TWEG FKUEQXGTGF C 2CNCGQNKVJKE
'TGEVWU HTQO *CVJPCWTC
0CTOCFC DCUKP  QH VJKU CIG UVQPGVQQNKP+PFKCKP
JCUDGGPHQWPF6JKUCIGKUTGRTGUGPVGFD[Sohan culture x 9KVJ VJG EQOKPI QH ;CNG %CODTKFIG 'ZRGFKVKQP KP

0QYKP2CMKUVCP 
NGFD[&GVGTTCCPF2CVGTUQPVJGTGUGCTEJHQTVJG
 2CNCGQNKVJKEIQVCPGYJGKIJVKP+PFKC
 5QJCP8CNNG[
2WPLCD $GNCP8CNNG[
/KT\CRWT 0CTOCFC
8CNNG[
/CFJ[C 2TCFGUJ  &KFYCPK
4CLCUVJCP  CPF B. Mesolithic Age (10,000 - 4,000 B.C.)
$JKODGVMC
/2 5KPITCWNKDCUKP
72 %JJQVCPCIRWT
+V YCU CP KPVGTOGFKCVG UVCIG KPVJG UVQPG CIG GPFGF YKVJ VJG

,JCTMJCPF #UUCO#PFJTC2TCFGUJ-CTPCVCMCCPFKP
YJQNG+PFKCGZEGRV5KPF-GTCNC KPVTQFWEVKQPQHCITKEWNVWTG+VKUCNUQMPQYPCUNCVGUVQPGCIG
QT /KETQNKVJKE CIG 6JG FQOGUVKECVKQP QH CPKOCNU JCXG DGGP
  YKVPGUUGF HTQO /2 CPF 4CLCUVJCP /GP YGTG UVKNN UCXCIG
 DWV RQVVGT[ OCMKPI
6KNYCTC  CPF RGTOCPGPV JCDKVCVKQP YGTG
 +V YCU CP CIG QH CMGU # DKV EJCPIG KP VJG UJCRG QH in existence.
VQQNU OCFG QH UVQPGU QT DQPGU KU TGOCTMGF 0QY VJG[ Tools: /KETQNKVJU
VQQNU  YGTG XGT[ UOCNN KP UK\G CPF NGPIVJ
UVCTVGFWUKPIDNCFGURQKPVUCPFUETCRRGTUOCFGQHCMGU XCTKGU HTQO  VQ  EO $CEMGF DNCFG EQTG RQKPV VTKCPING
5VKNNVJG[JCFPQJQWUGVQNKXGKP6JG[NKXGF WPFGT VJG NWPCVGCPFVTCRG\GYGTGVJGOCKPVQQNU5QOGQHGCTNKGTWUGF
TQEMU KP ECXGU CPF JQNNQY VTGG VTWPMU 6JG[ YGTG CHTCKF YGTGEQPVKPWGFNKMGUETCRGTDWTKPEJQRRGTUGVE
QHYKNFETGCVWTGUNeanderthal man dominated this stage
of human evolution. 
$CIQT 6KNYCTC
4CLCUVJCP  #MJCL 8CNCUCPC .CPIJPCL
 *KTRWT
)WLCTCV  GVE 6JG GCTNKGUV GXKFGPEG HQT VJG
 $CPMWTC CPF 2WTWNKC
9GUV $GPICN  0GXCUC 0QFWT FQOGUVKECVKQP QH CPKOCNU JCU DGGP HQWPFGF KP $CIQT +V
/CFJOGUJYCT 5WTGICQP CPF 0GXCUC
/CJCTCUVTC  JCU RTQXKFGF UVQPG RCXGF JCDKVCVKQPCN QQTU JWOCP DWTKCNU
/CNRTCDJCCPF)JCVRTCDJCDCUKP
-CTPCVCMC 0CTOCFC DGUKFGU UQOG VKP[ RKGEGU QH JCPFOCFG RQVUJGTFU .CPIJPCL
XCNNG[GVE+P$JKODGVMC
/2 TQEMUJGNVGTUECXGU JCU VJTGG EWNVWTCN RJCUGU 6JG TUV RTQFWEGF OKETQNKVJU
CPFVJQWUCPFUQHRCKPVKPIUJCXGDGGPVTCEGFYJKEJCTGQH DWTKCNU CPF CPKOCN DQPGU VJG UGEQPF RJCUG JCU VYQ ITQWPF
middle Palaeolithic age, i.e scraRRGTCPFDQTGTEWNVWTG. CZGU CPF C TKPI UVQPG CPF VJG VJKTF RJCUG KU TGOCTMCDNG HQT
potsherds.
      
+P EGPVTCN CPF 0QTVJ +PFKC YG JCXG $JKODGVMC
/2  YJGTG
 OCP[TQEMUJGNVGTUYKVJOKETQNKVJUQPQQTCPFRCKPVKPIUQP
In this period, human lived as nomadic JWPVGTICVJGTGTU YCNNUJCXGHQWPF+P#FCOICTJYGJCXGIQVUKIPUQHCPKOCNU
The traces of Homo sapiensJCXGDGGPFKUEQXGTGF4QEM FQOGUVKECVKQP 5CTCK 0CJCT 4CK /QTJCPC 2CJCT CPF .GMJCPK
RCKPVKPIU CPF ECTXKPIU JCXG DGGP HQWPF KP $JKODGVMC are some important sitGU $WTPV ENC[ NWORU CPF TG JGCTVJU
VJCV TGGEV CTV CPF TKVWCNU QH VJKU RGTKQF 6JG CPKOCNU JCXGDGGPFKUEQXGTGFHTQOVJGUGUKVGU
Pre-Historic Period H-15

%QOKPIVQYCTFUVJGGCUVGTPRCTVQH+PFKCYGJCXGUQOCP[ 
RNCEGU HTQO YJGTG OKETQNKVJU
HCKTN[ NCTIG CPF RTGRCTGF QP
Sites State
DNQEMEJNQTKVGUVQPG JCXGDGGPFKUEQXGTGF$WTFYCP2WTWNKC
$CPMWTC
9GUV $GPICN  /C[WTDJCPL -GQPLJCT 5WPFGTICTJ x %JKTCPF%JGEJCT  $KJCT
CPF -WEJCK KP 1TKUUC CPF %JJQVC 0CIRWT KP ,JCTMJCPF CPF x -WEJCK  /C[WTDJCPL
1TKUUC
5GJCTIKIKKP/GIJCNC[CCTGVJGKORQTVCPVUKVGUQHVJKUNQECVKQP x 6CTCFKJ5KPIJDJWOK  9GUV$GPICN
+P5QWVJUKVGU QHOKETQNKVJKE ENWUVGTU JCXGDGGPHQWPFKP x 7VJWT0CICTLWPCMQPFC  #PFJTG2TCFGUJ
6KPPGXGNN[ FKUVTKEV QH 6COKN 0CFW  OKETQNKVJKE UKVGU CTG x /CUMK$TCJOCIKTK*CNNWT  -CTPCVCMC
TGRQTVGF KP VJG CTGC DGVYGGP -TKUJPC CPF $JKOC TKXGTU KP x 6GMMCNCMQVC5CPICPCMCNNW
5JQTCRWTFQCD x 2CK[CORCNNK  6COKN0CFW
x $WT\CJQO)WHMTCN  -CUJOKT
C. Neolithic Age (6,000 - 1,000 B.C.) x $GNNCP%JQRCPK/CPFQ  7VVCT2TCFGUJ
+V YCU CP CIG QH RQNKUJGF VQQN EWNVWTG /GP UVCTVGF NKXKPI C /* -TKUJPCP JCU HQWPF UQOG RQNKUJGF VQQNU KP /[UQTG
UGVVNGF NKHG #ITKEWNVWTG CPF FQOGUVKECVKQP QH CPKOCNU YGTG $WT\CJQOKUTGOCTMCDNGHQTRKVLGYGNNKPIJQWUGU
UVCTVGF 6JG[ FKUEQXGTGF VJG CTV QH  RTQFWEKPI TG D[ VJG
Points to Remember
HTKEVKQP QH UVQPGU CPF IQV VJG VCUVG QH EQQMGF GUJ (QT
JWPVKPI DQYU CPF CTTQYU YGTG KPXGPVGF 6JG[ NGCTPV VJG CTV x 6JG YQTF PGQNKVJKE YCU EQKPGF D[ ,QJP .WDDQEM KP
QH RQVVGT[ 6JGKT RQVU YGTG YGNN OCFG CPF FGEQTCVGF YKVJ 
RCKPVKPIU 6JG[  JCF VJG MPQYNGFIG QH DQCV OCMKPI HQT x +P  .G /GUWTKGT OCFG VJG FKUEQXGT[ QH PGQNKVJKE
LQWTPG[ 6JG[ CNUQ NGCTPV VJG CTV QH URKPPKPI CPF YGCXKPI tools.
ENQVJGU 6QQN OCMKPI DGECOG CP KORQTVCPV RTQHGUUKQP CPF C x In South India, Fresher discovered neolithic tools in
XCTKGV[QHRQNKUJGFVQQNUYGTGOCPWHCEVWTGF2KEMUUETCRGTU $GNNCT[
DQFMKPU EJKUGNU OQTVCTU G[GF PGGFNGU CPF RKGTEGF DCVQPU
x 6JG OKUQNKVJU YGTG FKUEQXGTGF D[ %CTN[NG KP 
YGTGVJGKORQTVCPVVQQNU0GQNKVJKEOGPUVCTVGFTGURGEVKPIVJGKT
HTQO8KPFJ[C4QEMUJGNVGTU
CPEGUVQTU 6JG[ QHHGTGF JQPQWTCDNG DWTKCN HQT VJG FGCF CPF
EQPUVTWEVGFVQODUHQTVJGO6JGUGVQODUYGTGECNNGF&QNOGPU x 5WDDCTCQ GZECXCVGF KP  CV 5CPICPMCNNW KP
+VYCUCPCIGQHTGXQNution, i.e neolitithic revolution of stone age. $GNNCT[
6JGYJGGNYCUCPKORQTVCPVFKUEQXGT[QHVJKUCIG x 2CNCGQNKVJKEOCPKP+PFKCKUCNUQECNNGF3WCTV\KVGOCP

CHALCOLITHIC (BRONZE) AGE


6JKU CIG KU OCTMGF D[ VJG WUG QH EQRRGT CU EQRRGT YCU VJG were supplemented by stone tools that paved the way of a settled
TUV OGVCN WUGF D[ VJG OCP QH VJKU CIG 6JG GEQPQO[ YCU life in a good portion of the Ganga - Yamuna doab. Besides
DCUGF QP UWDUKUVGPEG CITKEWNVWTG UVQEMTCKUKPI JWPVKPI CPF these, the two types of pottery, i.e. O.C.P. (Ochre Coloured
UJKPI 6JG FGCF YGTG DWTKGF KP 0QTVJ5QWVJ RQUKVKQP KP Pottery) and B.R.W. (Black and Red Ware), showing Harappan
/CJCTCUJVTCDWVKP5QWVJ+PFKCKVYCUKP'CUV9GUVFKTGEVKQP influence, have been excavated from various sites.
The chalcolithic people slaughtered animals for food. Some O.C.P. (2000 BC - 1500 B.C) : It is essentially a red-slipped
RGTHQTCVGF UVQPG FKUE CTG HQWPF YJKEJ YGTG WUGF HQT jhum- ware. From a trial excavation carried out in Bisauli (Badaun) and
cultivation 6JG UWRRN[ QH EQRRGT YCU NKOKVGF 2GQRNG FKF Rajpur Parsu (Bihar). It was revealed that the ochre coloured
PQV MPQY VJG CTV QH OKZKPI VKP YKVJ EQRRGT 6JG FGENKPG KP pottery wares occurred below the early Iron Age levels. The
TCKPHCNNHTQOCDQWV$%NGFVQVJGFGEC[QHVJKUEWNVWTG copper hoard culture represents one of the transitional phases
&WG VQ VJG CIKVCVKQP QH GRKFGOKEU VJG EWNVWTG QH EJCNEQNKVJKE of the Harappan intrusion into the Gangetic Valley.
RGQRNGECOGVQCPGPF6TCPUKVKQPCNUVCIGDGVYGGPUVQPGCIG B.R.W. (1000 B.C) : 6JG 1%2 EWNVWTG YCU UWEEGGFGF D[
and humans started living settled life. $49YJKEJYCUCPCVVTCEVKXGXCTKGV[QHEGTCOKEURTGRCTGF
D[CHTKPIKPIVGEJPKque. From the inside and around the rim

QP VJG QWVUKFG VJGUG CTG EQORNGVGN[ DNCEM CPF VJG TGUV QH
2TQDCDN[ VJKU EWNVWTG YCU GZVGPFGF HTQO VJG %JJQVCPCIRWT VJG QWVGT UWTHCEG KU DTKEM TGF %JGOKECN UVWFKGU UJQY VJCV
RNCVGCWVQVJGWRRGT)CPIGVKEDCUKP5QOGUKVGUCTGHQWPFCV VJG DNCEM EQNQWT KU ECWUGF D[ ECTDQP +V KU EQPENWFGF VJCV
$TCJOCIKTKPGCT/[UQTGCPF0CXCFC6QNKQPVJG0CTOCFC VJG UQOG FTKGF RQV OWUV JCXG DGGP IKXGP C EQCVKPI QH UQOG
%QRRGT JQCTFU JCXGDGGP HQWPF KP C YKFG CTGC HTQO 9GUV QTICPKETGUKPQKNQTUQOGQVJGTOCVVGTDGHQTGTKPI&WTKPI
$GPICN1TKUUC*CT[CPC#PFJTC2TCFGUJCPF7VVCT2TCFGUJ TKPI VJG QTICPKE OCVGTKCN QP VJG UWTHCEG KU DWTPV NGCXKPI
(TQO )WPIGTKC
/2  YG JCXG HQWPF  EQRRGT VQQNU CPF VJG ECTDQP HTGG $NCEM CPF 4GF YCTGU CTG WUWCNN[ OGFKWO
YGCRQPU CPF  VJKP UJGGVU QH UKNXGT QDLGEVU 5VQPG VQQNU VQ UOCNN KP UK\G YJKEJ ECP DG ECNNGF 6CDNG YCTGU WUWCNN[
have also been found in excavations. Mostly the copper hoards NKOKVGFVQDQYNUand dishes.
H-16 Pre-Historic Period

   x %QVVQPYCURTQFWEGFTUVVKOGKPVJKURGTKQF
x (KTUVXKNNCIGEQOOWPKVKGUKP2GPKPUWNCT+PFKCYCUHQWPF
x $QVJ-JCTKHCPF4CDKETQRUYGTGEWNVKXCVGF
x ,JWOEWNVKXCVKQPYCURTCEVKUGF
x $CTNG[YCUVJGOCKPETQR
x First VKOG HQTVKGF UGVVNGOGPVU YGTG DWKNV GI UKVGU QH
x # JKIJN[ URGEKCNKUGF UVQTG DNCFG KPFWUVT[ QH UKNKEGQWU &CKOCDCF+PCOICQ0CICFCGVE
store is found.

Chalcolithic Culture at a Glance


Culture Period Ware-features Grown crops Sites

Ahar Culture $% 9JKVG FGUIKPGF DNCEM CPF TKEG TCIK ITCO LYCT #JCT$CNCJCN)KNWPF
TGFYCTG DCLTCMWNVJKNGPVKN
4CLCUVJCP

Kayatha culture $% %JQNEQNCVG EQNQWTGF UNKRRGF TKEG TCIK ITCO LYCT %JCODCNCPFKVUVTKDWVCTKGU
YCTGTGFRCKPVGFDWHHYCTG DCLTCMWNVJKNGPVKN
/CFJ[C2TCFGUJ
EQODGFYCTG

Malwa Culture $% 6JG YCNYCU YCTG KU EQCTUG 9JGCVDCTNG[ 0CTOCFCCPFKVUVTKDWVCTKGU
KP HCDTKE YKVJ VJKEM DWHH Navada toli, Eran, Nagada.
surface. (The largest chalcolithic
UGVVNGOGPV KP/2

Savalda Culture $%   &JWTKC


/CJCTCUJVTC

Jorwe Culture $% RCKPVGF DNCEM QP TGF YKVJ TKEG TCIK ITCO LYCT /CJCTCUJVTC 2TCMCUJ
matt surface dishes on stand, DCLTCMWNVJKNGPVKN &CKOCDCFCPF+PCOICQP
sprouted vases, stemmed
EWRULCTUDCUKPUGVE

Prabhas Culture $% .WUVTQWU 4GF 9CTG  


(Harappan/(Indus
EKXKNUVCVKQP  DGNQPIGF VQ VJKU
culture)

Rangpur Culture $% .WUVTQWU4GF9CTG


*CTCRRC  )JGQNCPF-CNNWDJCTTKXGTU
+PFWU DGNQPI VQ VJKU EWNVWTG KP)WLCTCV
civilisation)

IRON AGE
6JG+TQP#IGKPVJGworld context DGICPCDQWV1300 B.C.+VUWUGKP+PFKCCNUQDGICPCTQWPFVJKURGTKQF$WVGordon could
PF PQ GXKFGPEG HQT VJG WUG QH KTQP KP +PFKC DGHQTG  $% CPF Wheeler VJQWIJV VJCV VJG MPQYNGFIG YCU KPVTQFWEGF D[
Achaemenids KP  $% *QYGXGT $CPGTLGG QRKPGF VJCV +TQP YQTMKPI DGICP CU GCTN[ CU  $% CPF DGECOG EQOOQP
CTQWPF$%
9GJCXGGXKFGPEGQH+TQPCV2KTCM
$% CV/WPFKICMCPFKPVJGITCXGUQH)CPFJCTC
$% +P5QWVJ+PFKCCNUQ
+TQPCRRGCTGFCTQWPF$%KP&JCTYCT
-CTPCVCMC 
+TQPCIGKUWUWCNN[CUUQEKCVGFYKVJVJGRCKPVGFITG[YCTG
2)9 VJGEGTCOKEUYJKEJJCXGDGGPTGFITG[CPFVJGPRCKPVGF
YKVJDNCEMFGUKIPU6JWUVJGITG[EQNQWTYCUQDVCKPGFD[TKPIVJKPENC[RQVUVQCUJKIJCVGORGTCVWTGCUu%(QTVJGUG
YCTGUPQITG[EQNQWTYCUWUGFHQTOCMKPIVJGOCVVTCEVive.
Pre-Historic Period H-17

2TG*KUVQTKEPFKPIU
#VTCPLKMJGTC Textile printing.
$WT\CJQO 2KVFYGNNKPI
%JKTCPF Serpant cult.
$JKODGVMC %CXGUQH*QOQ5CRKGPRCKPVGFTQEMUJGNVGT
Nevasa Evidence of cotton.
Hastinapur 9KNFUWICTECPG
Inamgaon Statue of mother goddess.
-QNFKJXC Earliest evidence of rice.
$CIQTCPF#LCOICTJ Evidences of domestication of animal.
/GJCTICTJ Earliest evidence of agriculture.
$JKODGVMC#LCOICTJ /GUQNKVJKETQEMCPFECXGRCKPVKPIU
7VJWT Hoof impression from cattle pen ash mound.
8KPFJ[CTQEMUJGNVGT First discovered microliths.
+PUJQTVYGECPUC[VJCVEQRRGTYCUVJGTUVOGVCNWUGFD[VJGRTKOKVKXGRGQRNGDWVVJGWUGQHKTQPICXGVJGOCEQORNGVGPGY
VWTPKPVJGKTFGXGNQROGPV6JGCFQRVKQPQH+TQPDTQWIJVXCTKQWUEJCPIGUKPUQEKGV[KPENWFKPICITKEWNVWTCNRTCEVKEGUTGNKIKQWU
DGNKGHU CPFCVVTCEVKXG CTVKUVKE UV[NGU5CPUMTKVCPF%JKPGUG NKVGTCVWTGUCKFVQJCXGDGGPQWTKUJGFKPVJKUCIG Hittatiets or the
Hittomus FKUEQXGTGFVJGOGVCN+TQPVJTQWIJYJKEJRTKOKVKXGRGQRNGRGGRGFKPVQCPGYYQTNFKGVJGCITCTKCPYQTNF

Some Pre-historic sites & their nature

Sites Phase Location & Excavator Finds


1. #FCOICUT /GUQNKVJKE
$% 0CTOCFCXCNNG[*QUJCPICDCF/2 4QEMUJGNVGTUCPKOCNDQPGURQVVGT[
 #PLKTC Neolithic 5WTCD8CNNG[%GPVTCN$CNWEJKUVCP %JGTVDNCFGKPFWUVT[DQPGCYNU
3. #VTCPLKMJGFC +TQP#IG 7VVCT2TCFGUJ +TQPQDLGEVUDWTPVDTKEMU
 $KTDJCPRWT /GUQNKVJKE &COQFCTTKXGT
9$ 2QUVJQNGUEQODKPGFHCEVQT[
 $TCJOCIKTK 0GQNKVJKE/GICNKVJKE -CTPCVCMCS.M. Wheeler South Indian Neolithic sites
 $WT\CJQO Neolithic -CUJOKTYale 6YQQEEWRCVKQPNGXGNU

$%
 %JCPFQNK %JCNEQNKVJKE /CJCTCUJVTC 'XKFGPEGQHVKPCPFNGCFCNNQ[KPI

$%
8. %JGEJCT Neolithic $KFFWRWTQPVJGDCPMQH)CPIC 4GFITG[URQWVGFCPFDNCEMYCTGU
-WVWDRWT
9. %JKTCPF Neolithic and #NNCJCDCF
72 #NNCJCDCF7PKXGTUKV[ %TWFGJCTFOCFGRQVVGT[
%JCNEQNKVJKE

$%
10. &KCOCDCF %JCNEQNKVJKE 2CTXCTXCNNG[
/CJCTCUJVTC ,QTYGEWNVWTGUKVG

$%
11. )WONC 0GQNKVJKE$TQP\G#IG +PFWU  )QOCN TKXGTU D[ 2GUJCYCT #EGTCOKEOKETQNKVJUECVVNGDQPGU
7PKXGTUKV[
 Hastinapur 1%22)9 7VVCT2TCFGUJ 6YQ INCUU DCPINGU EWNVKXCVGF ETQRU
DQPGFKEGINCUUDGCFU
13. .GMJCPKC /GUQNKVJKE
$% /KT\CRWT
72 #NNCJCDCF7PKXGTUKV[ 4QEMUJGNVGTU

 /QTJCPC /GUQNKVJKE 0CTOCFC8CNNG[72#%%CTNNG[NG 4QEMRCKPVKPIUUJGNVGTU


Pahar
 9CNVICN Southern Neolithic 4CKEJWT&QCD /KETQNKVJKE +PFWUVT[ JCPFOCFG

$% RQVVGT[
H-18 Pre-Historic Period

Keep in Memory
x (KTUVOGVCNWUGFD[OCP %QRRGT
x +TQPYCUDTQWIJV
FKUEQXGTGF D[ Hittites
x +TQPCIGDGICP $%
x 'ZEGNNGPV/GUQNKVJKEECXGRCKPVKPI $JKODGVMC
x 'XKFGPEGQHFQIDWTKCNCNQPIYKVJJWOCPDGKPIU $WT\CJQO
x +PCOICQPKUDGNQPIKPIVQ ,QTYGEWNVWTG
x 'TCPKUDGNQPIKPIVQ /CNYCEWNVWTG
x /CPCRRGCTGFQPVJGGCTVJKP 3WCTVGTPCT[RGTKQF
x 6JGNCTIGUV/GUQNKVJKEUKVG -QVJCTKTKXGT
x 6JG)QFFGUUQHXGIGVCVKXGHGTVKNKV[QH,QTYGEWNVWTG 5CMCODJCTK
x /CKPHQQFETQRQH%JKPGUGEKXKNK\CVKQP /KNNGV
x 2TGJKUVQTKE+PFKCUIKHV &QOGUVKEHQYN
x 'CTNKGUVITQYPWREGTGCNU 9JGCVCPF4CIK
x (KTUVVJKPINGCTPVD[RTKOKVKXGOCP /CMKPITG
x 2QVVGT[TUVCRRGCTGFKP Neolithic age
x (KTUVCPKOCNVCOGFD[0GQNKVJKEOCP &QI
x 6QQNUOCFGQHCMGUCRRGCTGFKP /KFFNGUVQPGCIG
x The Palaeolithic men 3WCTV\KVGOGP
x /GUQNKVJKERGTKQF /KETQNKVJKEKPFWUVT[
x Palaeolithic period Nomadic culture
x Neolithic period Settled life
x Homo sapiens appeared in 7RRGT2CNCGQNKVJKERGTKQF
x %JCNEQNKVJKECIG Stone copper tools
x Neolithic age Polished stone tools
Pre-Historic Period H-19

Exercise - 1
 9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUKVGUKUHCOQWUHQTRTGJKUVQTKE  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIURGEKGUQHHCWPCJCUDGGP
paintings? YKFGN[ CRRTGEKCVGF CU RTGJKUVQTKE +PFKCU IKHV VQ VJG
YQTNF!

C  $CIJ
D  #LCPVC

C  2GCEQEM
D  &QOGUVKEHQYN

E  $JKODGVMC
F  #OTCYCVK

E  9CVGTDWHHCNQ
F  *WORGFDWNN
 6JGTUVOGVCNVQDGWUGFD[OCPYCU
 &QQLCNK*WFK\IKUCPKORQTVCPV0GQNKVJKEUKVGKP

C  DTQP\G
D  KTQP 
C  6TKRWTC
D  /CPKRWT
(c) copper (d) stone 
E  0CICNCPF
F  #UUCO
 +TQPYCUDTQWIJVVQOCP[EKXKNK\CVKQPD[VJG  5VQPGCPFEQRRGTYGTGWUGFKP

C  6WTMU
D  )TGGMU 
C  %JCNEQNKVJKECIG
D  0GQNKVJKECIG
(c) Hittites (d) Huns 
E  /GUQNKVJKECIG
F  2CNGQNKVJKECIG
 6JG/GICNKVJUQH5QWVJ+PFKCCTGOCKPN[CUUQEKCVGFYKVJ  6JG GCTNKGUV OCP NKMG ETGCVWTG YJKEJ TCEKCNN[ FKHHGTGF

C  /GUQNKVJKECIG
D  0GQNKVJKECIG HTQO*QOQUCRKGPUKUIGPGTCNN[MPQYPCU

E  %JCNEQNKVJKECIG
F  +TQPCIG 
C  *QOKPKF
D  2KVJGECPIVJTQRWU
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI KU PQV C HGCVWTG QH 0GQNKVJKE (c) Sinanthropus (d) Eoanthropus
cultures?  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUKUPQVEQTTGEV!

C  6JGRCNCGQNKVJKEOCPKP+PFKCMPQYVJGWUGQHTG

C  %WNVKXCVKQPQH2NCPVU

D  2CNCGQNKVJKEITCPGUJCXGDGGPHQWPFKP)WPVWTCPF

D  &QOGUVKECVKQPQHCPKOCNU
-WTPQQN&KUVTKEVUKP5QWVJ+PFKC

E  7UGQH+TQPHQTCITKEWNVWTG

E  2TGJKUVQTKE RCKPVKPIU JCXG DGGP HQWPF KP -CKOWT

F  5GFGPVCT[HCTOKPI TCPIGUCPF/KT\CRWT&KUVTKEV
 #TEJCGQNQIKECN GXKFGPEG HTQO YJKEJ %JCNEQNKVJKE UKVG 
F  6JG %QRRGT #IG CPF VJG 'CTN[ +TQP #IG ECP DG
UJQYUGXKFGPEGQHEQTRQTCVKQPJCTXGUVKPICPFKTTKICVKQP! FKUVKPIWKUJGFKP0QTVJ+PFKC*QYGXGTVJG+TQP#IG

C  &CKOCDCF
D  +PCOICQP KOOGFKCVGN[UWEEGGFUVJG5VQPG#IGKP5QWVJ+PFKC

E  0CXFCVQNK
F  4CPIRWT  +PRCNCGQNKVJKEUQEKGV[CNNOGPCPFYQOGPYGTG
 +PCOICQP KU C EJCNEQNKVJKE UKVG DGNQPIKPI VQ YJKEJ (a) treated as of equal importance
culture? 
D  OGPYGTGJKIJGTUVCVWUVJCPYQOGP

C  ,QTYGEWNVWTG
D  /CNYCEWNVWTG 
E  YQOGPYGTGJKIJGTUVCVWUVJCPOGP

E  #JCTEWNVWTG
F  -C[CVJCEWNVWTG (d) none
 'TCPKUC%JCNEQNKVJKEUKVGDGNQPIKPIVQYJKEJEWNWVWTG!  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPICIGUVJG*QOQ5CRKGPUVJGJWOCP
DGKPIHQTVJGTUVVKOGCRRGCTGF!

C  ,QTYGEWNVWTG
D  /CJYCEWNVWTG

C  +PVJG/GUQNKVJKECIG

E  #JCTEWNVWTG
F  )CPGUJYCTEWNVWTG

D  +PVJGWRRGT2CNCGQNKVJKECIG
 2KEMQWVVJGYTQPIUVCVGOGPVYKVJTGURGEVVQVJG0GQNKVJKE
(c) In the middle Palaeolithic age
UKVGUQH$WT\CJQOCPF)WHMTCN 
F  +PVJGNQYGT2CNCGQNKVJKECIG

C  6JGGZECXCVKQPU[KGNFNQVUQHDQPGVQQNU  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUKUCTGEQTTGEVCDQWVVJG

D  $QPGUQHCPKOCNUUWEJCUIQCVUJGGRECVVNGCTGUGGP Neolithic culture?

E  2KVFYGNNKPIUYGTGUGGPKPDQVJVJGUKVGU 
C  6JG0GQNKVJKECIGOCTMUVJGEQPENWFKPIRJCUGQHVJG

F  6JGUKVGUYGTGRTGFQOKPCPVN[RCUVQTCNGEQPQOKEU stone tools culture
 (TQOYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIJQCTFUYGTGHQWTOCUUKXG 
D  6JG GXKFGPEG QH RTQFWEVKXG GEQPQO[ QT HQQF
EQRRGTTGRNKECUQHCTJKPQEGTQUCPGNGRJCPVCEJCTKQV producing culture is an essential prerequisite for the
CPFCDWHHCNQV[RKECNQTC%JCNEQNKVJKEEWNVWTGQDVCKPGF! attestation of this age

C  2TCMCUJ
D  &CKOCDCF 
E  6JGRTGUGPEGQHRQVVGT[KUVCMGPVQDGOQTGEQPENWUKXG
(c) Inamgaon (d) Navdatoli FKCIPQUVKEURGEKCNKV[QHVJKUCIG
 6JGIQFFGUUQHXGIGVCVKXGHGTVKNKV[YQTUJKRRGFFWTKPI 
F  #NNQHVJGCDQXG
VJG%JCNEQNKVJKERGTKQFQH,QTYGEWNVWTGYCU  9JQKUMPQYPCUVJGHCVJGTQH+PFKCPRTGJKUVQT[!

C  5CMCRWTPK
D  5CVCMCTCPK 
C  .G/GUWTKGT
D  /KNGU$WTMKV

E  5CODJWVK
F  5CMCODJCTK 
E  5WDDC4CQ
F  4QDGTV$TWEG(QQVG
H-20 Pre-Historic Period

 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUKUCTGEQTTGEVCDQWVVJG 
E  6JGRTG*CTCRRCPRJCUGCV-CNKDCPICPKP4CLCUVJCP
people of stone age? CPF$CPCYCNKKP*CT[CPCKUFKUVKPEVN[EJCNEQNKVJKE

C  6JG[JCFVQFGRGPFGPVKTGN[QPVQQNUCPFYGCRQPU 
F  #NNQHVJGCDQXG
made of stone  6JGRGQRNGQHVJGEJCNEQNKVJKERJCUGWUGFFKHHGTGPVV[RG

D  6JG[UGVVNGFFQYPQPN[QPVJGUNQRGUQHVJGJKNNUKP QHRQVVGT[QPGQHYJKEJKUECNNGFDNCEMCPFTGFUGGOUVQ
TQEMUJGNVGTUCPFVJGJKNN[TKXGTXCNNG[ JCXGDGGPYKFGN[RTGXCNGPVHTQOPGCTN[

E  6JG[EQWNFPQVRTQFWEGOQTGVJCPYJCVVJG[PGGFGF 
C  $%QPYCTFU
HQTVJKUDCTGUWDUKUVGPEG 
D  $%QPYCTFU

F  #NNQHVJGCDQXG 
E  $%QPYCTFU
 6JGETGFKVQHVJGFKUEQXGT[QHVJGTUV2CNCGQNKEKP+PFKC 
F  $%QPYCTFU
YJKEJQRGPGFVJGGNFQHRTGJKUVQTKEUVWFKGUKPVJGEQWPVT[  6JGYKFGURTGCFWUKPIQH$NCEMCPF4GFYCTG
$49 CPF
goes to 2CKPVGF)TG[9CTG
2)9 OCTMVJG

C  $WTMKVV 
C  EQOKPIQH+TQP6GEJPQNQI[KP+PFKC

D  &G6GTTCCPF2CVGTUQP 
D  EQOKPIQH%QRRGT6GEJPQNQI[KP+PFKC

E  4QDGTV$TWEG(QQVG 
E  GPFQHWUKPIDTQP\G

F  *&5CPMCNKC 
F  PQPGQHVJGCDQXG
 :KRDPRQJWKHIROORZLQJFXOWXUHVZHUHWKHUVWWRSDLQW  6JGEQRRGTDQCTFUCTGCUUQEKCVGFYKVJVJG
WKHLUSRWWHU\"   
C  .WUVTQWUTGFYCTG
(a) Mesolithic 
D  1EJTGEQNQWTGFYCTG
(b) Chalcolithic 
E  $NCEMCPFTGFYCTG
(c) Neolithic 
F  2CKPVGFITG[YCTG
(d) Iron age  6JG0CICTCVJG&TCXKFCCPFVJG8GUCTCCTGVJG
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUKUCTGEQTTGEVCDQWVVJG 
C  VJTGGOCKPTCEKCNITQWRUQHVJG+PFKCPUWDEQPVKPGPV
chalcolithic settlement? 
D  VJTGG OCKP NKPIWKUVKE FKXKUKQPU KPVQ YJKEJ VJG

C  6JG[FQOGUVKECVGFECVVNGOQUVRTQDCDN[HQTHQQFCPF NCPIWCIGUQH+PFKCECPDGENCUUKGF
PQVOKNMGFHQTFTKPMCPFFCKT[RTQFWEVU (c) three mCKPUV[NGUQH+PFKCPVGORNGCTEJKVGEVWTG

D  6JG[FKFRTCEVKEGEWNVKXCVKQPDWVPQVQPNCTIGUECNG 
F  VJTGGOCKPOWUKECN)JCTCPCURTGXCNGPVKP+PFKC
Pre-Historic Period H-21

Exercise - 2
 %QPUKFGT VJG HQNNQYKPI TGRTGUGPVCVKXGU QH FKHHGTGPV
Statement Based MCQ
EWNVWTGU
  #TTGVKPGYCTG
 9JKEJYGTGVJGGCTNKGUVEGTGCNUITQYPD[JWOCP!
  0QTVJGTPDNCEMRQNKUJGFYCre
  9JGCV  $CTNG[   2CKPVGFITG[YCTG
  /CK\G  /KNNGVU   1EJTGEQNQWTGFRQVVGT[

C  QPN[
D  CPF Their correct chronological sequence is

C  
D 

E  CPF
F  0GKVJGTQHVJGO

E  
F 
 %QPUKFGT VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU QP 0GQNKVJKE
settlements in South India. Matching Based MCQ
  .CRKFCT[ CTV CPF FQOGUVKECVKQP QH CPKOCNU CTG VJG
 List-I List-II
TGOCTMCDNGHGCVWTGUQHVJGTUVRJCUGQHVJG5QWVJ
 # $KTDJCPRWT  $CPCUEWNVWTG
Indian Neolithic settlements.  $ 7LLCKP  %QRRGTJQCTF
  6JG TGF EQNQWTGF RQVVGT[ YGTG FKUEQXGTGF KP VJG  % -C[CVJC  1EJTGEQNQWTGFRQVVGT[
Neolithic settlements.  & #JCT  /KETQNKVJU
  /KNNGV YCU VJG OCKP ETQR JCTXGUVGF D[ 0GQNKVJKE  %QFGU
farmers of south India.   # $ % &

C     
  %TQR TQVCVKQP VGEJPKSWG YCU UVCTVGF KP VJG GNF QH 
D     
agriculture. 
E     
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGPQVEQTTGEV! 
F     

C  CPF
D  CPF 8. List-I List-II
 # /CPFQ  ,COOWCPF-CUJOKT

E  CPF
F  CPF
 $ 5WVMCPIGPFQT  $CNWEJKUVCP
 %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPI  % &CKOCDCF  /CJCTCUJVTC
 #V YJKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI RNCEGU JCU VJG NCTIGUV DGNV  & #NCOIKTRWT  7VVCT2TCFGUJ
QH RCKPVGF TQEM  UJGNVGTU QH RTG  JKUVQTKE RGTKQF DGGP  %JQQUGVJGCPUYGTHTQOVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY
discovered?  %QFGU
  $JCLC  $JKODGVMC 
C  CPF
D  CPF
(c) all of these (d) none of these
  ,CQTC  #LCPVC 9. List - I List - II
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTWUKPIVJGEQFGIKXGPDGNQY  # 2CNCGQNKVJKE  )TQWPFUVQPGVQQNU

C  CPF
D  CPF  $ /GUQNKVJKE  4QEMRCKPVKPI

E  CPF
F  CPF  % 0GQNKVJKE  (NCMGFUVQPGVQQNU
 & 7RRGT2CNCGQNKVJKE  /KETQNKVJKEVQQNU
 9KVJTGHGTGPEGVQ0GQNKVJKEEWNVWTGEQPUKFGTVJGUVCVGOGPV
 %QFGU
  6JG GCTNKGUV 0GQNKVJKE UGVVNGOGPV KU CV /GJTICTJ   # $ % &
$CNWEJKUVCPCTQWPF$% 
C     
  8)QTFQP%JKNFGFGPGFVJG0GQNKVJKEEJCNEQNKVJKE 
D     
EWNVWTGCUCUGNHUWHEKGPVHQQFGEQPQO[ 
E     
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV! 
F     
10. List I List II

C  QPN[
D  QPN[
 # 0CICTC  (QTVKGF UGVVNGOGPVU KP 8GFKE

E  $QVJCPF
F  0GKVJGTPQT literature
 9JKEJ QH VJG CTVKHCEVU IKXGP DGNQY EQWNF DG WUGF CU  $ 2WTC  6QYPKP2CNKNKVGTCVWTG
source material for the prehistoric period in India?  % 0KICOC  (QTVKGFECRKVCNQHCMKPI
  (QUUKNU  *CPFCZGU  & &WTIC  %KV[VQYP TUV OGPVKQPGF KP
  2QVVGT[  4GOCKPUQHDQPGU 6CKVVKTK[C

C  #$%&
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTWUKPIVJGIKXGPDGNQY

D  #$%&

C  CPF
D CPF 
E  #$%&

E  CPF
F CPF 
F  #$%&
H-22 Pre-Historic Period

EXERCISE-1 
F  
D  
C  
D 

E  0CICTC&TCXKFCCPF8GUCTCCTGVJTGGOCKPUV[NGUQH

E  6JG TQEM UJGNVGTU QH $JKODGVMC CTG C TGRQUKVQT[ Indian temple architecture.
QH TQEM RCKPVKPIU YKVJKP PCVWTCN TQEM UJGNVGTU YKVJ
archaeological evidences from the Palaeolithic and
/GUQNKVJKE RGTKQFU VJTQWIJ VJG %JCNEQNKVJKE VQ VJG EXERCISE-2
/GFKGXCNRGTKQF 
D   
E  
D  
E  
C

E  
E  
F  
E  
D  
C   
F

D  
F  
D  
F  
D   
D  6JG EQTTGEV OCVEJKPI RCKTU CTG $KTDJCPRWT CPF

F  
C  
C  
C  
C  
C  OKETQNKVJU 7LLCKP CPF QEJTGEQNQWTGF RQVVGT[

F  
F -C[CVJC CPF EQRRGT JQCTF CPF #JCT CPF $CPCU

F culture.

E  4QDGTV $TWEG (QQVG YCU C $TKVKUJ IGQNQIKUV CPF

E  #NN VJG OCVEJGU CTG EQTTGEV YJKEJ CTG RCKTGF 
CTEJCGQNQIKUV YJQ EQPFWEVGF IGQNQIKECN UWTXG[U
/CPFQ CPF ,COOW CPF -CUJOKT 5WVMCPIGFQT
QHRTGJKUVQTKENQECVKQPUKP+PFKCHQTVJG)GQNQIKECN
CPF $CNWEJKUVCP &CKOCDCF CPF /CJCTCUJVTC
5WTXG[QH+PFKC
#NCOIKTRWTCPF7VVCT2TCFGUJ

D  %JCNEQNKVJKE %WNVWTGU YGTG VJG TUV VQ RCKPV VJGKT
RQVVGT[ 9. (c) 10. (d)
 3
     Chapter

Introduction
'ZECXCVKQP QH *CTCRRC CPF /QJGPLQFCTQ KP 2WPLCD CPF 5KPF PQY KP 2CMKUVCP CYCTGF VJG YQTNF CDQWV CP
ancient most advanced civilization contemporary to Egypt, Mesopotamia and Sham civilisation of China.
Indus Valley Civilization

Discovery Nomenclature Controversial Link with other Survival


Period Civilizations and
Geographical Extent Centres Features Decline Continuity

Town Planning Economic Lite Language Social Political Lite


Religious Life and Life
Script
Worship Funerary Agriculture
Customs Social Hierarchy
Animal Husbandry
Mythical animals Food Habits
Complete burials
Trade & Commerce
Ambiguous animals Entertainment
Fractional burials
Crafts & Industries
Actual animals Costumes, Ornaments
Past-cremation burials
Trade Mechanism & Jewellery

DGECOGHTKIJVGPGFCPFVJGYQTMYCURQUVRQPGF
DISCOVERY
+V YCU KP 1921 Daya Ram Sahni got the site excavated at
5EJQNCT DGNKGXGF VJCV Vhe histQT[ QH +PFKC DGICP YKVJ VJG HarappaKPVJG/QPVIQOGT[FKUVTKEVQHVJGPunjab
PQYKP
EQOKPI QH VJG #T[CPU 9Jen Sir John Marshal announced 2CMKUVCP QPVJGNGHVDCPMQHRavi,WUVCHVGTQPG[GCTKP
VJG FKUEQXGT[ QH C PGY EKXKNK\CVKQP PCOGF +PFWU 8CNNG[ Rakhal Das BanerjeeFKUEQXGTGFVJGTGOCKPU QHEKXKNK\CVKQP
EKXKNK\CVKQPKPC.QPFQPYGGMN[KPCITGCVUGPUCVKQPYCU at Mohenjodaro in the .CTMCPC district of Sindh PQY KP
ETGCVGFCOQPIVJGYQTNFCTEJCGQNQIKUVU6JQWIJKP1826 an
2CMKUVCP6JGUGVYQGZECXCVKQPURTGRCTGFVJGHQWPFCVKQPQH
English man named Charles Masson JCF IQV NCTIG PWODGT
QH DTKEMU HTQO C RNCEG PCOGF *CTCRRC .CVGT QP KP  CPGYEJCRVGTKPJKUVQT[YJKEJKUUVWFKGFWPFGTVJGPCOGQH
YJGP %QNQPGN $WTPGU YCU IQKPI VQ OGGV /CJCTCLC 4CPLGGV Indus Valley Civilization.0QY.GVWUUVWF[OQTGCDQWVKV
5KPIJ JG XKUKVGF VJG 9TGEMCIG QH *CTCRRCP 5KOKNCTN[ KP
 CPF  #NGZCPFGT %WPPKPIJCO UWRGTXKUGF VJG TWKPU GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT
QH *CTCRRC +P  VJG 'PINKUJ IQXGTPOGPV UVCTVGF OCMKPI
TCKNYC[ VTCEM HTQO -CTCEJK VQ .CJCWT (QT VJKU VJG YQTM QH &KUEQXGTKGU JCXG GZVGPFGF VJG CTGC QH VJG +PFWU 8CNNG[
GZECXCVKQP YCU UVCTVGF CPF OCP[ O[UVGTKQWU QDLGEVU YGTG 6JG  UGVVNGOGPVU FKUEQXGTGF UQ HCT CTG FKUVTKDWVGF QXGT
QDVCKPGF DWV QP UGGKPI VJQUG QDLGEVU HTQO TWKPU VJG YQTMGTU C XGT[ YKFG IGQITCRJKECN CTGC +V KU MPQYP GZVGPV KP VJG
H-24 Indus Valley Civilization

9GUV WRVQ 5WVMCIGPFQT KP $CNWEJKUVCP #NCOIKTRWT


/GGTWV -CNKDCPICP 4CLCUVJCP
72  KP VJG 'CUV &CKOCDCF
#JOCFPCICT /CJCTCUJVTC 
KP 5QWVJ CPF /CPFC
#MJQQV ,  -  KP VJG 0QTVJ 6JWU $CPYCNK *CT[CPC
(TQO 9GUV VQ 'CUV VJG Indus Civilization covered an area 4CPIRWTC4QLFK )WLCTCV
of 1600 km and from North to South of 1100 km #NN VJG &JQNCXKTC -WVEJ
)WLCTCV
UGVVNGOGPVUCTGOQUVN[NQECVGFQPVJGTKXGTDCPMUQHIndus and
Saraswati +P  CHVGT VJG RCTVKVKQP QH +PFKC CNN VJG YGNN
MPQYP *CTCRRCP UKVGU /QJGPLQFCTQ *CTCRRC %JCJWPFCTQ NOMENCLATURE
CPF ,JWMCT
PGCT .CTMCPC  YGPV VQ 2CMKUVCP 6JG UJCRG
QH VJG EKXKNK\CVKQP YCU VTKCPIWNCT EQXGTKPI CP CTGC QH CDQWV 6JG VYQ PCOGU *CTCRRCP EKXKNK\CVKQP QT +PFWU EKXKNK\CVKQP
USMO.GVUUGGVJGCTGCUKP/CRUCPFEJCTV CTG WUGF KPVGTEJCPIGCDN[ 6JG TUV QPG KU FGTKXGF HTQO CP
academic tradition used in CTEJCGQNQI[. Thus, Harappan
 
civilization DCUGF QP C PQVKQP VJCV KV DGICP CV C UKVG YJKEJ
Sites Regions
DGUVTGRTGUGPVUVJGCPEKGPVWTDCPU[UVGOQH5QWVJ#UKC
Harappa 2WPLCD
2CMKUVCP 9JGTGCUVJGIndus civilizationDGICPHTQOVJGTKXGTXCNNG[QH
/QJGPLQFCTQ 5KPFJ
2CMKUVCP VJG+PFWUTKXGTYKVJVJGNCTIGUVEQPEGPVTCVKQPQHUGVVNGOGPVUKVGU
%JCPJWFCTQ 5KPFJ
2CMKUVCP along the course of this river. John Marshall YCUTUVUEJQNCT
.QVJCN )WLCTCV to use this term.

CENTRES OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION


All the sites were situated on the banks of rivers:
Year of
Name of sites Excavator River/Region Archaeological Findings
excavation
I. Harappa  &C[C4CO5CJPK 4CXK x 5KZ)TCPCTKGUKPTQY
 /CFJQ /QPVIQOGT[QH x )TKFRNCPPGFEKV[
 5YCTQQR8CVUC 2WPLCD x %QHPDWTKCN
 5/9JGGNGT (Pakistan) x %GOGVGT[*QHCNKGPRGQRNG
 #%WPPKPIJCO (Sahiwal) x 8KTIKP)QFFGUU
4*/GCFQY DGVYGGP.CJCWT x 5VQPGU[ODQNUQH.KPICOCPF;QPK
CPF/WNVCP x %NC[IWTGUQHOQVJGT)QFFGUU9JGCVCPF
$CTNG[ KP YQQFGP OQTVCT %QRRGT UECNG
&KEG 8CPKV[ DQZ %QRRGT OCFG OKTTQT
YQTMOGns quarter
II. /QJGPLQFCTQ  4&$CPGTLGG Indus x %KV[HQNNQYGFD[ITKFRNCPPKPI

0CMJNKUVCP  /CEMC[',* .CTMCPC x )TGCV)TCPCT[)TGCV$CVJ
VJGNCTIGUVDWKNFKPI
KG1CUKUQH  9JGGNGT5/ district in Sindh. x #UUGODN[JCNNUJGNNUVTKRU2CUJWRCVK/CJCFGX
Sindh)  5,/CTUJCNN
2CMKUVCP $TQP\GKOCIGQHCPWFGYQOCPFCPEGTUVGCVKVG
 )(&CNGU KOCIG QH DGCTFGF OCP JWOCP UMGNGVQPU
UJQYKPI KPXCUKQP CPF OCUUCETG 2CKPVGF UGCN

&GOK)QF %NC[IWTGQHOQVJGTIQFFGUU

III. %JCPJWFCTQ  /CEM[ Indus %KV[ YKVJQWV C EKVCFGN +PMRQV .KRUVKEM /GVCN
 0)QRCN 0CYCDUJCJ YQTMU 5JGNNQTPCOGPV OCMGTU DGCF OCMGTU
/CLWOFCT &KUVTKEVKP UJQRU FQIU RCY KORTKPV QP C DTKEM 6GTTCEQVVC
 ',*/CEMC[ 5KPFJ
2CMKUVCP
DWNNQEMECTV $TQP\GVQ[ECTVYKVJETGCVGFFTKXGTU

IV. -CNKDCPIC | #OCNCPCPFC Ghaggar-river x 5JQYU DQVJ 2TGJCTCRRCP  *CTCRRCP


6JG)JCIICT )JQUJ 4CLCUVJCP phase.
KUMPQYPCU $$.CNCPF (India) x (WTTQYGFNCPF
RTGJCTCRRCP
 $-6JCRCT Hanumangarh x TGCNVCTUECOGNDQPGUYGNNYJGGNUQH
5CTCUYCVK KP)&CNGU &KUVTKEV C VQ[ ECTV /GUQRQVCOKCP E[NKPFTKECN UGCN
4CLCUVJCP 5/9JGGNGT ITCOVKIGTOCTMGFEQKP
Indus Valley Civilization H-25

V. .QVJCN  544CQ Between Bhogava First manmade port in the world FQEM[CTF

+VYCU & Sabarmati OCFGD[DWTPVDTKEMURCKPVGFLCT
DKTFHQZ $GCF
surrounded rivers OCMGTUHCEVQT[TKEGJWUMTGCNVCTUCOGCUWTKPI
D[CYCNN #JOGFCDCF UECNGEJGUURNC[KPIVGTTCEQVVCIWTKPGUQHCJQTUG
FKUVTKEV
)WLCTCV CPFCUJKRGVE&QWDNGDWTKCN
/CNG(GOCNG 
&[KPI8CV2GTUKCP+TCPKCPUGCN$JCTCKPGCPUGCN
VI. $CPYCNK  40$KUJV Ghaggar 5JQYU DQVJ RTG *CTCRRCP  *CTCRRCP RJCUG

4CXKPFTC0CVJ Hisar district 6Q[ RNQWIJ %NC[ IWTGU QH OQVJGT )QFFGUU
$KUJV *CT[CPC )QQFSWCPVKV[QHDCTNG[CPFTKEG.CEMU[UVGOCVKE
(India) FTCKPCIGU[UVGO

VII. 5WTMQVCFC  J. P. Josi Luni $QPGUQHJQTUGU$GCFOCMKPIUJQRUQXCNITCXG


(Jagpati) -WVEJJ RQVDWTKCNU
Josi )WLTCV
+PFKC

VIII. 5WVMCIGPFQT  4.5VGKP Dasht river 2QTV EKV[ 6TCFG RQKPV DGVYGGP *CTCRRC CPF
 )GQTIG&CNGU $CNWEJKUVCP $CD[NQP

2CMKUVCP *WOCPDQPGUEQRRGTCZGCPCUJHWNNRQV

IX. #OTK  0)/CLWOFCT Indus river 'XKFGPEGQH#PVGNQRG


 ,/%CUCN 5KPFJ
2CMKUVCP

X. &JQNCXKTC
 J.P. Joshi Luni x 7PKSWGYCVGTOCPCIGOGPV
 40$KUJV 4CPP
-WVEJJ x .CTIGUVUKVGQHNCTIGYGNNCPFCDCVJ
)WLCTCV x 6JTGGRCTVUQHEKV[
(India) x Seven cultural stages.
x .CTIGUV*CTTCRRCPKPUETKRVKQPWUGFHQTEKXKN
RWTRQUGU#UVCFKWO
XI. 4CPIRWT  /58CVU Mahar %WNVKXCVKQPQHTKEG
$$.CN )WLCTCV
544CQ (India)
XII. -QV&KLK  (CK\CN#JOGF Indus x 9JGGN OCFG RCKPVGF RQVVGT[  NC[GTU QH
-JCP 5KPFJ
2CMKUVCP culture.
x FGHGPUKXGYCNNCPFCNKIPGFUVTGGVU
x /GVCNNWTI[CPFCTVKUVKEVQ[U
x IWTKPGUQH/QVJGT)QFFGUU

XIII. 4QRCT  ;&5JCTOC Sutlej $WT[KPI C FQI YKVJ OCUVGT TGEVCPIWNCT OWFDTKEM
 556CNYCT 2WPLCD EJCODGT 5EGPVGF UQKN XG HQNF EWNVWTGU
*CTCRRC
40$KUJV India -WUJCP)WRVCCPF/GFKGXCN

XIV. $CNCMQV  J.P. Joshi VJG#TCDKCPUGC x 4GOCKP QH 2TG*CTCRRCP  *CTCRRCP
 )(&CNGU .CU$GNC8CNNG[ %KXKNK\CVKQP
x 6JGOQWPFU
OVU
* USJGEVCTGQHCTGC

XV. #NCOIKTRWT  ;&5JCTOC Hindon 'CUVGTPUKFGQH%KXKNK\CVKQP



;CI[C&WVVC /GGTWV
72 Impression of cloth on a trough.

XVI. /CPFC  J.P.Joshi & Chenab river 0QTVJGTPUKVGQHEKXKNK\CVKQP


/CFJW$CNC #MJPQQT
,COOW %QRRGTRKP5CFFNGSWGTPU

XVII )CPYGTKYCNC 4CHGGS/WICN 2CMKUVCP

XVIII 4CMJK)CTJK 4CHGGS/WICN ,KPF


*CT[CPC
H-26 Indus Valley Civilization

x /QUVQHVJGJQWUGUJCFYGNNUYKVJKPVJGOCPFCdrainage
CONTROVERSIAL PERIOD systemECTTKGFVJGYCUVGYCVGTVQVJGOCKPWPFGTITQWPF
6Q OCMG C RTGEKUG FCVG HQT VJG DGIKPPKPI QH +PFWU 8CNNG[ drain of the street. The covered drains had soak-pits and
%KXKNK\CVKQPUEJQNCTUFKHHGTKPQRKPKQPU manholes for clearing.
x 6JG CTTCPIGOGPVU HQT UVTGGV NKIJVKPI YGTG CXCKNCDNG HQT
Scholars Period
the people.
/CTUJCNN $% x The main streets ran from North to South varied from 9
/CEMC[ $% HVVQHVKPYKFVJ
x /WPKEKRCN CWVJQTKV[ EQPVTQNNGF VJG FGXGNQROGPV QH VJG
/58CVU $%
EKV[
%,)CFFU $% x The streets ran in straight lines crossing one another at
TKIJV CPINGU *QWUGU UVQQF QP DQVJ UKFGU QH VJG UVTGGVU
52KIIQVV5/9JGGNGT $%
6JGUVTGGVCPFNCPGUYGTGPQVRCXGFDWVCHCOQWUUVTGGV
#NNDTKIJV CTQWPF$% called 6JG TUV UVTGGV  QH /QJGPLQFCTQ YCU UWTHCEGF
&2#ICTYCN $% YKVJDTQMGPDTKEMUCPFRQVUJGTFU
x *CTCRRC CPF /QJGPLQFCTQ YGTG DWKNV GPVKTGN[ QH DWTPV
&CNGU $% DTKEMU#NNVJGDTKEMUYGTGYGNNRTQRQTVKQPGFOGCUWTKPI
4*$TWPUYKI $%      EO .CTIG DTKEMU
 EO  YGTG WUGF
VQ EQXGT FTCKPU 6JG DTKEMU YGTG OCFG QH Alluvial
J.P. Joshi $% soil. 9GFIGUJCRGF DTKEMU YGTG WUGF KP VJG NKPKPI QH
)2QUUGJN $% YGNNU5OCNNDTKEMUYGTGWUGFHQTOCMKPIVJGDCVJTQQO
RCXGOGPVU YCVGTVKIJV .UJCRGF DTKEMU YGTG RTGHGTTGF
4CS/WIJCN $%
for corners.
    x 6JG DWKNFKPIU
FYGNNKPI JQWUG NCTIGT DWKNFKPIU CPF
 RWDNKE DCVJU ITCPCTKGU GVE  YGTG OQUVN[ RNCKP YKVJQWV
RNCUVGTU #V -CNKDCPIC QTPCOGPVCN DTKEMU YGTG WUGF KP
#NNVJGEWNVWTGUGZKUVKPIDGHQTGVJG*CTCRRCEWNVWTGCTGECNNGF
RTGJCTCRRC EWNVWTG YJGTGCU RTQVQ*CTCRRC EWNVWTGU CTG VJG QQT QH C JQWUG 6JG ITQWPF QQT QH C UOCNN JQWUG
VJQUGRTGJCTCRRCEWNVWTGUYJKEJVCMGUQOGENQUGUKOKNCTKVKGU OGCUWTGFOGVTGUCPFVJGNCTIGQPGYCUFQWDNGQH
YKVJ VJG *CTCRRCEWNVWTG *GTG KV YQWNF DG RGTVKPGPV VQ KVUUK\G
KPFKECVG VJCV VJG *CTCRRC EKXKNK\CVKQP DGNQPIU VQ VJG $TQP\G x 5QOGQHVJGJQWUGUYGTGFQWDNGUVQTG[GF9QQFGPDGCOU
#IG
FWTKPI VJG [GCT  VQ  $%  GZVGPFKPI HTQO YGTG WUGF KP OCMKPI VJG TQQHU 6JG TQQHU YGTG OCFG
$CNWEJKUVCP
2CMKUVCP VQ)WLCTCVKP+PFKC
QH TGGF OCVVKPI EQXGTGF YKVJ VJKEM EQCVKPI OWF # HGY
Comparison with others: #EEQTFKPI VQ 5KT ,QJP /CTUJCNN
UVCKTECUGU JCXG DGGP FKUEQXGTGF 9QQFGP UVCKTECUG YKVJ
EJCV VJG UVCPFCTF QH EKXKNK\GF NKHG TGCEJGF D[ VJG RGQRNG QH
*CTCRRCCPF/QJGPLQFCTQYCUJKIJGTVJCPVJCVQHVJGCPEKGPV JKIJPCTTQYUVGRU
EOJKIJUEOYKFG YGTGWUGF
$CD[NQPKCPUCPFEgyptians and equal to that of Sumerians. KPIGPGTCN6JGTQQHUYGTGCVCPFGPENQUGFD[CRCTCRGV
x )WVVGTU QH RQVVGT[
HQWPF CV %JCJWPFCTQ  YGTG OCFG HQT
BASIC FEATURES OF INDUS VALLEY FTCKPKPI VJG TCKPYCVGT 6JG GPVTCPEG VQ VJG JQWUG YCU
CIVILIZATION made from the street side.
x 6JG QRGP EQWTV YCU VJG DCUKE HGCVWTG QH JQWUG RNCPPKPI
 6JG EQWTV[CTF
RCXGF YKVJ DTKEMU  YCU NCKF CV CPF
x 6JG OQUV UVTKMKPI HGCVWTG QH *CTCRRCP EKXKNKUCVKQP KU KVU UWTTQWPFGF D[ EJCODGTU &QQTU CPF YKPFQYU QRGPGF
VQYPRNCPPKPICPFUCPKVCVKQP KPVQ KV &QQTU YGTG RNCEGF CV VJG GPFU QH VJG YCNNU PQV
x *CTCRRCP EKVKGU UWEJ CU /QJGPLQFCTQ *CTCRRC KP VJG OKFFNG CPF QWVGT YCNNU HTQO VJG TQCFUKFG JCF PQ
-CNKDCPICP &JQNCXKTC  5WTMQVCFC YGTG FKXKFGF KPVQ YKPFQYU
two parts  C HQTVKGF UGVVNGOGPV on the high mounds
x 2GTHQTCVGF NCVVKEGU YGTG WUGF CU YKPFQYU QT XGPVKNCVQTU
called citadels and the main residential areas called
lower town %KVCFGN YCU UOCNNGT KP CTGa than the Houses had UVCKTYC[U OCFG QH UQNKF OCUQPT[ +P UQOG
NQYGTVQYPCPFNQECVGFVQVJGYGUVQHVJGEKVKGU DWKNFKPIU VJG UVCKTYC[U NGF VQ VJG WRRGT UVQTG[U YJKEJ
x *QWUGU YGTG DWKNV QH -KNPDWTPV DTKEMU #V .QVJCN CPF EQPVCKPGFVJGDCVJCPFVJGNKXKPICPFUNGGRKPICRCTVOGPVU
-CNKDCPIC TGUKFGPVKCN JQWUGU YGTG OCFG QH UWPFTKGF x #PCXGTCIGJQWUGJCFDGUKFGUMKVEJGPCPFDCVJHQWTVQ
DTKEMU UKZNKXKPITQQOU5QOGNCTIGJQWUGUJCFPGCTCDQWVVJKTV[
x 6JGFTCKPUYGNNUDCVJKPIRNCVHQTOUYGTGOCFGQH-KNP TQQOU 6JG MKVEJGP YCU UOCNN CPF HWGN YCU RNCEGF QP C
DWTPVDTKEMU high platform.
Indus Valley Civilization H-27

x %QQMKPIYCUFQPGKPVJGEQWTV[CTFUKPVJGQRGP5QOGVimes
Do you know ?
CPCRGTVWTGKPVJGYCNNYCUOCFGDGVYGGPVJGMKVEJGPCPF
the larger roQOHQTOCMKPICserving hatch6JGYCUVG x 6YQKORQTVCPV*CTCRRCPETQRU o 9JGCV
   DCTNG[
YCVGT TCP KPVQ VJG GCTVJ VJTQWIJ C RQVVGT[ XGUUGN YKVJ C
x 6JGOQUVYKFGN[WUGFOGVCND[ o $TQP\G
JQNGUWPMGFKPVJGMKVEJGP
 VJG+PFWU8CNNG[RGQRNG
x 'XGT[JQWUGJCFKVUDCVJTQQOQPVJGUKFGQHVJGUVTGGV
x Harappan trading station o .QVJCN
x .CVTKPG HQWPF DGVYGGP VJG DCVJTQQO CPF VJG UVTGGV
x 6JGOQUVKORQTVCPVKPFWUVT[ o $GCFCV
6JG DCVJTQQO JCF DTKEM RCXGOGPV UNQRKPI VQYCTFU QPG .QVJCNCPF%JCPJWFCTQ  OCMKPI
EQTPGT 2QVVGT[ TCURU YGTG WUGF VQ TGOQXG VJKEMGPGF x Station of Harappan cattle o Nesadi
cuticle. DTGGFGTU
x (TQO/QJGPLQFCTQNCTIGkhans (inns), stone houses and x The largest Harappan settlement o-WPVCUK
YCVEJVQYGTUJCXGDGGPWPGCTVJGF6JKUKUCPGZVGPUKXG in India
DWKNFKPIQPVJG9GUVQHVJGUVWRCOGCUWTKPI x Traces of rice cultivation o .QVJCNCPF
OGVTGU +V YCU C RTKGUVN[ EQTRQTCVKQP EQPVCKPKPI VJG  JCXGDGGPHQWPFCV  4CPIRWT
Great Bath 6JG YJQNG EQORNGZ KU C UKPING WPKV YJKEJ
is named the Collegiate Building#VVJCVVKOGDCVJKPI Religious life
YCU C TKVWCN CPF VJG )TGCV $CVJ
   OGVTGU  OCFG
x Harappan people had features of Hinduism, such as
QH DWTPV DTKEM YCU WUGF QPN[ QP EGTGOQPKCN QEECUKQPU YQTUJKR QH VJG OQVJGT )QFFGUU 2CUJWRCVK 5JKXC
It has staircases QPDQVJUKFGU$GNQYVJGUVCKTECUGUKUC Scared animals, trees, etc.
DTQCF RNCVHQTO
 O YKFG  EO JKIJ  +V YCU C UCHG x %NC[ IWTGU QH VJG OQVJGT IQFFGUU CU VJG U[ODQN QH
DCVJKPI RNCEG HQT EJKNFTGP 6JGTG CTG GKIJV DCVJTQQOU HGTVKNKV[JCXGDGGPHQWPF
QP VJG 0QTVJ QH VJG )TGCV $CVJ 6JKU DWKNFKPI YCU HQT
x 6JGVJTGGHCEGFFGKV[YGCTKPICJQTPGFJGCFFTGUUUGCVGF
priests. ETQUUNGIIGF QP C VJTQPG CPF UWTTQWPFGF D[ GNGRJCPV
x 6JGTGYCUCNCTIGQXCNYGNNYJKEJUWRRNKGFYCVGT#JCNN VKIGTDWHHCNQCPFTJKPQEGTQUYKVJFGGTCRRGCTKPIWPFGT

 OGVTGU USWCTG  JCU DGGP FKUEQXGTGF QP VJG 5QWVJ QH VJGUGCVKUVJGTGRTGUGPVCVKQPQH.QTF5JKXC
VJGUVWRC+VYCUWUGFHQTUQOGTGNKIKQWUCUUGODN[,QJP x /CTUJCNN JCU FKUEQXGTGF UQOG EQPKECN CPF E[NKPFTKECN
/CTUJCNN EQORCTGU KV YKVJ C $WFFJKUV TQEMEWVVGORNG UVQPGU YJKEJ KPFKECVG VJG phallic worship, i.e. lingam
YJKNG /CEMC[ ECNNU KV C NCTIG OCTMGV JCNN YKVJ NKPGU QH worship 5KOKNCTN[ QP VJG DCUKU QH UOCNN TKPI UVQPGU
RGTOCPGPV UVCNNU CNQPI VJG CKUNGU 6JGTG CTG HQWT YGNN /CTUJCNN UWIIGUVGF VJGO VJG HGOCNG IGPGTCVKXG QTICP
RCXGFCKUNGUYJKEJCTGUGRCTCVGFD[TQYUQHRKNNCTU#V
[QPK  YJKEJ KPFKECVG VJG YQTUJKRRKPI QH VJG /QVJGT
*CTCRRCCDWKNFKPIJCUDGGPFKUEQXGTGFOGCUWTKPI )QFFGUU
 OGVTGU YKVJ C EGPVTCN RCUUCIG QH  OGVTGU YKFG +V x #V-CNKDCPICPTGCNVCTUJCXGDGGPFKUEQXGTGF
YCUCUVQTGJQWUGHQTITCKP x 9GFQPQVPFCP[VTCEGTQHVGORNGQTRNCEGUHQTYQTUJKR
x 0GCTVJG(KTUVUVTGGVVJGTGYCUCRCNCVKCNDWKNFKPIYKVJ CVCP[QHVJG*CTCRRCPUKVGU
VYQ URCEKQWU EQWTV[CTFU, servant quarters and store
Worship
rooms +V YCU GKVJGT C VGORNG QT VJG TGUKFGPEG QH VJG
)QXGTPQT x *CTCRRCPUDGNKGXGFKPCPKOCNYQTUJKR6JGCPKOCNUHCNN
KPVQVJTGGITQWRU
x 6JG GPVKTG EKV[ YCU RTQVGEVGF D[ C EKV[ YCNN # UOCNN
(1) Mythical animals or complex animals, e.g. a semi
HQTVJCUDGGPNCKFDCTGKPOQUVQHVJGKORQTVCPVEKVKGU
JWOCPUGOKDQXKPGETGCVWTG
x .KMG $CD[NQPKC CPF 'I[RV *CTCRRCPU FKF PQV WUG CP[
(2) Ambiguous creature, e.g. the strand unicorn
HQWPFCVKQPFGRQUKVU(QTVJKUPQVJKPIKUMPQYPCDQWVVJG
CEEQORCPKGFYKVJOCPCIGTQTKPEGPUGDWTPGTCPF
EGTGOQPKGU CUUQEKCVGF YKVJ VJG N[KPI QH HQWPFCVKQP VJCV
(3) Actual animalKPENWFKPIVJGTJKPQEGTQUVJGDKUQP
ECPJGNRVJGGZECXCVQTVQMPQYCDQWVVJGJKUVQT[QHVJG
VJGVKIGTVJGJWORGFDWNNGVE
DWKNFKPI
x The most common animal found on the Harappan seals
x The Harappan HQTVKECVKQPU YGTG PQV OGCPV VQ FGHGPF
is the bull YJKEJJCUDGGPTGHGTTGFVQCUa unicorn.
VJG VQYPUJKR HTQO UVTQPI CVVCEMU D[ GPGOKGU +V YCU
x 6JGEQYKUPQVFKRKEVGFQTKPVTQFWEGFCP[YJGTG
constructed for the protection against QQFU, robbers
x 6TGGYQTUJKRRKPIYCUCEWNVWTGKPVJKUEKXKNK\CVKQPPipal
and cattle raiders +V YCU CNUQ C JCNNOCTM QH UQEKCN
tree YCUVJGOQUVYQTUJKRRGFVTGG
CWVJQTKV[QXGTVJGCTGCVJG[EQOOCPFGF
x +PFWU RGQRNG DGNKGXGF KP CTONGVU CPF 6CNKUOCP 1P C
x 6JG *CTCRRCP VQYPU YGTG GPEQORCUUGF D[ YCNNU YKVJ
UGCN C UKZTC[GF OQVKH KU FGRKEVGF UKIPKH[KPI VJG UWP
ICVGYC[U VJGUiORNGGPVT[RQKPVUVQVJGVQYP5QOGQH %NC[ OQFGNU QH QZGP YGTG WUGF CU OQVKXG QHHGTKPIU
VJGICVGYC[UJCFCVVCEJGFIWCTFTQQOU 6CDNGVUQHENC[CPFEQRRGTYGTGWUGFCUCTONGVU
H-28 Indus Valley Civilization

x 5YCUVKMCPFETQUUUKIPUYGTGharbingers QHIQQFNWEM 4CPIRWTTKEGJWUMUCPFURKMGNGVUYGTGHQWPFGODGFFGF


x &C[C 4CO Shahni has discovered the famous dancing in cla[CPFRQVVGT[
girl called DevadasiYJKEJKUFGRKEVGFQPCUGCN x # HTCIOGPV QH YQXGP EQVVQP ENQVJ JCU DGGP HQWPF CV
x The offering of animals in UCETKEG YCU C *CTCRRCP /QJGPLodaro. The Indus people were the earliest people
RTCEVKEG YJKEJ JCXG DGGP FKUEQXGTGF HTQO /QJGPLQFCTQ to produce cotton.
CPF -CKNDCPICP +P C TGCNVCT DQXKPG DQPGU CPF x 6JG*CTCRRCPUWUGFVJGYQQFGPRNQWIJYKVJYQQFGPQT
QWVNKGTU YGTG FKUEQXGTGF YJKEJ TGRTGUGPV UQOG MKPF QH copper plough share.
CPKOCNUCETKEG x 5VQPG CPF %QRRGT UKEMNGU OC[ JCXG DGGP WUGF HQT
harvesting the crops.

x )CDCT DCPFU QT PCNCU GPENQUGF D[ FCOU YGTG WUGF HQT
6JTGGHQTOUQHDWTKCNUJCXGDGGPHQWPFCV/QJGPLQFCTQXK\
UVQTKPI VJG YCVGT YJKEJ CTG HQWPF CV $CNWEJKUVCP CPF
complete burials, Fractional burials
QPN[ C EQNNGEVKQP QH
#HIJCPKUVCPNo evidences of channel or canal irrigation
DQPGUCTGDWTKGFCHVGTVJGGZRQUWTGQHVJGDQF[QHYKNFDGCUVU
has been discovered from the sites of this civilization.
CPFDKTFU CPFpart - cremation burials.
At Kalibangan VJTGGV[RGUQHDWTKCNRTCEVKEGUCTGPQVKEGF 
1. Extended inhumanion in rectangular or oval graves, x #PKOCNU YGTGMGRVQPCNCTIGUECNGCPFoxen, buffaloes
 2QVDWTKCN KP VJG EKTEWNCT RKV EQPVCKPKPI RQVU CPF ITCXG
$WDCNWUDWDCNKU goats (Sus cristatus), sheep, and pigs
IQQFUNKMGDGCFUCPF YGTGFQOGUVKECVGF
 2QVVGT[FGRQUKVKPTGEVCPIWNCTQTQXCNITCXGU x Dogs and cats YGTGCNUQFQOGUVKECVGF6JGhumped bulls
#V Lothal VYQ V[RGU QH DWTKCN RTCEVKEGU YGTG HQNNQYGF VJG YGTGHCXQWTGFD[VJG*CTCRRCPU
TUVV[RGEQPVCKPGFVJGITCXGIQQFUCPFCUKPINGUMGNGVQPVJG x Asses and Camels YGTGWUGFCUbeasts of burden%COGN
QVJGTEQPVCKPGFVYQUMGNGVQPUDWTKGFVQIGVJGT DQPGUCTGTGRQTVGFCV-CNKDCPICP
x 6JG QPN[ RNCWUKDNG GXKFGPEG QH VJG JQTUG EQOGU HTQO
Economic Life 5WTMQVCFCDGNQPIKPIVQCTQWPF$%
*CTCRRCP RGQRNG YGTG EQOHQTV NKXKPI CPF RTQURGTQWU 6JGKT x Elephants YGTG YGNN MPQYP VQ VJG *CTCRRCPU 6JG[
TKEJPGUU YCU FWG VQ UWTRNWU CITKEWNVWTG ECVVNG TGCTKPI YGTG CNUQ CESWCKPVGF YKVJ VJG TJKPQEGTQU URQVVGF FGCT
RTQEKGPE[KPXCTKQWUETCHVUCPFVTCFG JQIFGGTYKNFRKIGVE

 
x #ITKEWNVWTG YCU VJG backbone of the Harappan people. x 6JG EKVKGU NKMG /QJGPLQFCTQ *CTCRRC CPF .QVJCN YGTG
5KPFJYCUCHGTVKNGRCTVQHEQWPVT[ the important centres for metallurgy, producing tools
x 6JG +PFWU RGQRNG UQYGF UGGFU KP VJG QQF RNCKPU KP and weaponsCUYGNNCUkitchenware.
0QXGODGT YJGP VJG QQF YCVGT TGEGFGF CPF TGCRGF x Rice UGGOU VQ JCXG DGGP KORQTVGF VQ 2WPLCD HTQO
VJGKT JCTXGUVU QH YJGCV CPF DCTNG[ KP #RTKN DGHQTG VJG )WLCTCV
CFXGPVQHVJGPGZVQQF
x .QVJCN CPF 5WTMQVCFC NNGF C NCTIG ICR KP VJG ITQYKPI
x 6JG[ RTQFWEGF YJGCV DCTNG[ RGCU MQFQP UCPYC demands for cotton.
LQYCTTCIKGVE
x 5GCUJGNNU YGTG GZRQTVGF HTQO $CNCMQV CPF .QVJCN VQ
x 6YQV[RGUQHYJGCVVJGENWDYJGCVECORCEVWOCPFVJG $CNWEJKUVCPCUYGNNCUVJG+PFWU
Indian dwarf wheat (Ttriticum sphaerococcum  YGTG
x Dates, ShilajeetYGTGHQWPFCV/QJGPLQFCTQ
ITQYP
x The Harappans imported metals and semi precious
x $CTNG[
JQTFGWO XWNICTG RTQDCDN[ QH C UOCNNUGGFGF
stones, ornaments of gold and silver from the
UKZTQYGFXCTKGV[YCUCNUQUQWPFCV-CNKDCPICP$CTNG[
UWDEQPVKPGPVCNCTGCUNKMG.CRKU.C\WNKHTQO-CUJOKTCPF
CPF YJGCV JCXG DGGP VJG OQUV KORQTVCPV ETQRU CV CNN
#HIJCPKUVCP
Harappan sites.
x Turquoise and jadeHTQO%GPVTCN#UKCQTITCPCOGVJ[UV
x 1VJGT ETQRU KPENWFG dates, seasam and mustard YGTG
HTQO/CJCTCUJVTCCPFCICVG%JCNEGFQP[CPF%CTPGNKCP
CNUQITQYP
from Saurashtra.
x +V UGGOU VJCV CU GCTN[ CU  $% VJG RGQRNG QH .QVJCN
used riceYJQUGTGOCKPUJCXGDGGPHQWPF x Gold, silver, Tin and Lead were imported from Iran
and Afghanistan 2TGEKQWU UVQPGU YGTG KORQTVGF HTQO
x The evidence of the sWICTECPG JCU PQV DGGP HQWPF [GV
6JQWIJ KVU RTGUGPEG KU VQ DG GZRGEVGF #V .QVJCN CPF $CFCMJCPUJCPCPFcopper from Khetri (Rajasthan).
Indus Valley Civilization H-29

x The ProductsQH+PFWUJCXGDGGPHQWPFKP/GUQRQVCOKC to different archaeologists. For exampleU )4 *WPVGT


+VUUGCNUCPFRTQFWEVUYGTGCNUQFKUEQXGTGFCV5WOGT (1 UKIPU#*&CPK
 #UMQ2CTRQNC
x The chief merchandise cotton YCUexported from Lothal
  GVE 6JQUG U[ODQNU YGTG PQV CNRJCDGVKE KP
Harbour 6JG *CTCRRCP JCF VTCFKPI TGNCVKQPU YKVJ VJG their order.
9GUVCPF%GPVTCN#UKCPUKVGU
x Their language is closer to DravidianVJCPVQCP[QVJGT
 MPQYPNCPIWCIGU
x #EQRRGTUECNGJCUDGGPHQWPFHTQO*CTCRRC6JKUUECNG x 6JGKTUETKRVUYGTGRKEVQITCRJKE
is divided into OCP[RCTVU#NNVJGRCTVUCTGUCOGKPUK\G x The script YCU YTKVVGP from right to left NKMG OQFGTP
OGCUWTKPI  KPEJ #V VJCV VKOG QPG HQQV CTG GSWCN urdu 6JGUG UETKRVU CTG HQWPF QP XCTKQWU UGCNU RQVVGT[
VQKPEJ EQRRGTVCDNGVUVQQNUGVE
x TJGUGZCIGUKOCNCPFFGEKOCNU[UVGOYGTGMPQYPVQVJG x 6JG UETKRV KU PQV TGNCVGF VQ CP[ QH VJG EQPVGORQTCT[
Harappans. 'I[RVKQP5WOGTKCPQT$CD[NQPKCPUETKRV5QOGUEJQNCTU
x 6JG YGKIJVU YGTG OCFG QH UVQPG CPF VJG[ YGTG QH ECNNKVVJGRCTGPVQHVJG$TCJOK5ETKRV
EWDKECNCPFURJGTKECNKPUJCRG6JG[HQNNQYGFVJGUGTKGU
x #NNVJGKPUETKRVKQPUFKUEQXGTGFVKNNPQYCTGUJQTVYKVJCP
KP FQWDNKPI HTQO        CPF VJGP 
CXGTCIGQHJCNHCFQ\GPNGVVGTUVJGNQPIGUVJCUUGXGPVGGP
  CPF UQ HQTVJ 6JG UOCNNGUV YGKIJVU CTG HQWPF
QHITCOU +VYKNNDGCVWTPKPIRQKPVKPVJGJKUVQT[QH+PFKCYJGPVJKU
Indus script is deciphered.
x 6JGWPKVQHTCVKQYCUGSWKXCNGPVVQITCOU 16
EJJCVCPMOCFGCUGTCPFCPPCUOCFGQPGTWRGG.
Social Life


x WeavingYCUVJGEJKGHKPFWUVT[CV/QJGPLQFCTQ
x Pottery YCU CP KORQTVCPV KPFWUVT[ 6JG[ YGTG CNUQ x +PFWURGQRNGDGNKGXGFKPUKORNGNKXKPICPFJKIJVJKPMKPI
CESWCKPVGFYKVJVJGart of dying and the art of smelting x 6TCFKVKQPCNHCOKN[YCUVJGWPKVQHVJGUQEKGV[
metals. x 9QOGPYGTGIKXGPJKIJJQPQWTKPUQEKGV[(COKN[YCU
x $CNCMQV CPF %JCPJWFCTQ YGTG HQT UJGNN YQTMKPI regulated in the name of mother.
and Bangle OCMKPI %JCTPPWFCTQ YCU EGPVTG HQT VJG x 6JG +PFWU %KXKNK\CVKQP JCF HQWT FKHHGTGPV ENCUUGU KP
manufacture of beads of carnelian. YJKEJ VJG UQEKGV[ YCU FKXKFGF  Scholars, warriors,
x Bronze Smiths produced images, utensils, tools and businessman and labourers.
YGCRQPU x 0QGXKFGPEGQHECUVGU[UVGOJCUDGGPHQWPF[GV
x Brick-layingYCUCPKORQTVCPVETCHVQHVJCVVKOG
x 6JG*CTCRRCPUJCFVJGMPQYNGFIGQHboat-making, seal- 
making and terracotta manufacturing. x 6JG*CTCRRCPUYGTGnon-vegetarians9JGCVDCTNG[CPF
x 6JG*CTCRRCPUJCFGZRGTVUDGCFOCMGTUCPF)QNFUOKVJU DTGCFYGTGEQOOQPN[WUGF6JG[WUGFVQGCVUJ, beef,
mutton, RQWNVT[QEECUKQPCNN[

x %QEQPWVFCVGURQOGITCPCVGNGOQPCPFYCVGTOGNQPYGTG
x *CTCRRCPUJCFIQQFVTCPURQTVKPIU[UVGOHQTVTCFG
VJGEJKGHHTWKVUVJG[CVG
x 6JG[ WUGF bullock carts CPF TCTGN[ JQTUG ECTVU HQT
QPNCPFLQWTPG[ 
x 6JG[ RTCEVKUGF navigation QP VJG EQCUV QH VJG #TCDKCP
x 6JG[RTGHGTTGFKPFQQTJQDDKGUVQQWVFQQTCOWUGOGPVU
UGC 4GRTGUGPVCVKQP QH ships and boats are found on
x Dance and musicYGTGVJGKTRQRWNCTCOWUGOGPVU
UGCNU QT ITCHVK CV *CTCRRC /QJGPLQFCTQ GVE CPF C
VGTTCEQVVCOQFGNQHCUJKREQOGUHTQO.QVJCN x &KEGU EJGUU UJKPI JWPVKPI CPF UYKOOKPI YGTG VJG
x %CTCXCPUQHRCEMQZen were the chief means of transport sources of entertainment.
HQTNQPIGTLQWTPG[UVJTQWIJTQWIJGTCPFYQQFGFEQWPVT[ x )CODNKPIYCUCNUQKPXQIWG
x 1P UQOG QEECUKQPU VJG[ OCFG CPKOCNU QT DKTFU IJV
Language and Script together for their entertainment.
x 6JG NCPIWCIG QH VJG *CTCRRCP KU UVKNN WPMPQYP 6JG x /CTDNG FQNNU CPF CPKOCNU VQ[U UJQY VJCV VJG EJKNFTGP QH
PWODGT QH pictoral signs KP VJG UETKRV XCT[ according /QJGPLQFCTQYGTGYGNNUWRRNKGFYKVJRNC[VJKPIU
H-30 Indus Valley Civilization

 LINKS WITH OTHER CIVILIZATIONS


x The ladies YGTGUECPVKN[FTGUUGF6JG[YQTGCUJQTVUMKTV
VJCVTGCEJGFWRVQVJGMPGGCPFKVYCUJGNFD[CIKTFNG
x HaraRRCPU JCF ENQUG VTCFG TGNCVKQPU YKVJ UWDOCTKPe.
CUVTKPIQHDGCFU
x The male used a robe YKVJ QT YKVJQWV GODTQKFGT[ +V 6JG 5WOGTKCP %KXKNK\CVKQP YCU C RCTV QH /GUQRQVCOKCP
YCUYQTPQXGTVJGNGHVUJQWNFGTCPFWPFGTVJGTKIJVCTO
x Dhoti YGCTKPIYCUCNUQKPRTCEVKEG2GTJCRUVJG[FKFPQV %KXKNK\CVKQP /CPIQN CPF &TCXKF YGTG VJG RTQIGPKCT
WUGHQQVYCTG%QVVQPYCUWUGF6JGTGKUPQGXKFGPEGQH of Sumer. The presence of a cuneiform inscription at
NKPGPQTYQol.
x &KHHGTGPV V[RGU QH hair styles YGTG WUGF DWV XGT[ NQPI /QJGPLQFCTQYKVPGUUGUVJGNKPMUYKVJVJG/GUQRQVCOKCPU
DGCTFU YGTG PQV RTGHGTTGF 6JG FCPEKPI IKTN HTQO
CTGCDGVYGGP&CLNCCPF(WTCV 
/QJGPLQFCTQJCUCRQP[VCKN5QOGHGOCNGUJCXGCRNCKV
VKGFYKVJCDQYCVVJGGPF DECLINE OF INDUS CIVILIZATION
x /GPU JCKT YCU RCTVGF KP VJG OKFFNG CPF VKGF YKVJ C
x 6JG*CTCRRCP%WNVWTGNCUVGFHQTCTQWPF[GCTU
NNGV 5QOGVKOGU VJG JCKT YCU ICVJGTGF WR KP C DWP QT
coiled in a ring on top of the head. x +PXCUKQP QH VJG #T[CPU /QTVKOGT 9JGGNGT UC[U
FGUVTQ[GFVJG+PFWUUGVVNGOGPVU
x $GCTFU YGTG VTKOOGF CPF WRRGT NKRU YGTG UJCXGP
%QORNGVGN[UJCXGPHCEGUYKVJCUOCNNDGCTFQPVJGEJKP x /GP CPF YQOGP YGTG OCUUCETGF KP VJG UVTGGVU CPF
are also noticed. houses.
x /KTTQTUQHDTQP\GYGTGXGT[EQOOQP x 6JG[YGTGNGHVN[KPIEQXGTGFYKVJQWVNCUVTKVGU
x 6JG RGQRNG HQNNQYGF VJG veil system KP VJG UQEKGV[ x ',*/CEMC[.CODTKECPF,QJP/CTUJCNNCTGQHVJG
9QOGP WUGF C URGEKCN ENQVJG QXGT VJGKT JGCFU YJKEJ XKGY VJCV VJG FGENKPG QH VJG *CTCRRCP %KXKNK\CVKQP YCU
YGTG[KPIHTQOVJGDCEMUKFGQHVJGKTJGCFU OCKPN[FWGVQVJGXCICTKGUQHVJG+PFWUTKXGT
x /CPCPFYQOCPDQVJYGTGHQPFQHornaments9QOGP x 5QOGGXKFGPEGQHFGXCUVCVKQPD[QQFUKUVQDGHQWPFCV
YQTG C HCPUJCRGF JGCFFTGUU 5OCNN EQPGU QH )QNF /QJGPLQFCTQCPF.QVJCN
5KNXGT %QRRGT CPF (CKGPEG YGTG YQTP QP VJG UKFGU QH x #EEQTFKPIVQ6JWUPWOGTQWUECWUGUPCVWTCNCPFJWOCP
the head. as the invasion of nomadicQWVUKFGTU
$% QQF
x 6JG(QTGJGCFYCUFGEQTCVGFYKVJCNNGV or a headband. UQEKCN DTGCMWR QH *CTCRRCPU VJG FGENKPG KP VTCFG CPF
Ear-ringsYGTGOCFGQHEQKNUQHIQNFUKNXGTEQRRGTQT EQOOGTEGYGTGVJGOCLQTECWUGUQHKVUFGENKPG
HCKGPEG2TQDCDN[PQPQUGQTPCOGPVUYGTGWUGF
x 0GEMNCEGUNNGVUCTONGVUPIGTTKPIUCPFDCPINGUYGTG SURVIVAL AND CONTINUITY OF THE
WUGFD[DQVJVJGUGZGU INDUS CIVILIZATION
x )KTFNGU PQUG UVWFU GCTUVWFU CPMNGV GVE OC[ JCXG
DGGPYQTPD[YQOCPQPN[CUCTGRTQXGFD[VJGUVCVWGU The decline does not mean the total eclipse of all. For this,
x 6JG[ WUGF UQOG UQTVU QH EQNN[TKWO HCEGRQYFGTU YGECPPFVJGJKUVQTKECNEQPVKPWKV[HTQOVJG*CTCRRCPRGTKQF
NKRUVKEMU HCEG RCKPVU CPF RGTHWOCT[ YJKEJ YGTG CNUQ VQVJGNCVGTRGTKQFUQH+PFKCPJKUVQT[
exported. x The worship of Pashupati Shiva and Lingam is
UWTXKXGFKPVJGUGFC[U
Political life x 5KOKNCTN[/QVJGT)QFFGUUUCETGFVTGGCPKOCNUUGTRGPV
FKHHGTGPV TGNKIKQWU U[ODQNU UWEJ CU 5YCUVKM GVE YJKEJ
x 7TDCPK\CVKQPTGRTGUGPVUTCFKECNUQEKQRQNKVKECNEJCPIG
YGTGRTGXCNGPVKPVJG*CTCRRCPTGNKIKQPYGTGCFQRVGFKP
x *CTCRRCP RQNKVKECN U[UVGO YCU QTICPKUGF QP VJG RCVVGTP later Hinduism and are in Vogue in present time.
of EKV[UVCVGUYJKEJYGTGJKIJN[FKUEKRNKPGFQPCEEQWPV
x +P VJG GNF QH Science and Technology, the Indus
of dominant social controls.
%KXKNK\CVKQP ITGCVN[ EQPVTKDWVGF VQ VJG UKOKNCT HWVWTG
x *CTCRRCP TWNGTU YGTG OQTG EQPEGTPGF YKVJ EQOOGTEG
developments.
VJCPYKVJEQPSWGUVUCPF*CTCRRCYCURQUUKDN[TWNGFD[
x *CTCRRCPEKXKNK\CVKQPYCUVJGwomb of mathematics.
a class of merchants.
x The numerical and decimal system YGTG GXQNXGF VJGTG
x *CTCRRCYCUTWNGFD[VJGVYQECRKVCNEKVKGU6JGFKUVCPEG
HTQOYJKEJVJGXGFKEOCVJGOCVKEUKUDCUGF
DGVYGGPVJGVYQECRKVCNUYCUOKNG
x Punch marked coins is an important survival of the
x 5KT /QTVKOGT 9JGGNGT YTKVGU VJG NQTFU QH *CTCRRC
+PFWU8CNNG[
CFOKPKUVGTGF VJGKT EKV[ KP VJG HCUJKQP PQV TGOQVG HTQO
x 6JG CTV QH OCMKPI RQVVGT[ DCMGF DTKEMU DGCFU
that of thG RTKGUVMKPIU QT IQXGTPQTU QH 5WOGT CPF LGYGNNGT[ FKHHGTGPV WVGPUKNU YCU CFQRVGF KP VJG XGFKE
#MMCF EKXKNK\CVKQP
Indus Valley Civilization H-31

Indus Civilization at a Glance (2500 B.C. - 1750 B.C.)


x (KTUVFKUEQXGTGFUKVGQHVJGEKXKNK\CVKQP*CTCRRC
 D[&5CJCPK
x 6JGQNFGUVPCOGQHVJGEKXKNK\CVKQP+PFWUEKXKNK\CVKQP
x 6JGOQUVUWKVCDNGPCOG
)GQITCRJKECN +PFWUUCTCUYCVEKXKNK\CVKQP
x ,QJP/CTUJCNNYCUVJGTUVVQWUGVJGVGTO+PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQP

x Different sites :

(I) 4QRCT 5WVNGL  2WPLCD


6JG 0QTVJGTP  OQUV UKVG
/CPFC %JGPCD  ,-
(II) $JCICVTCX -KO  )WLCTCV
6JG 5QWVJGTP  OQUV UKVG
&CKOCDCF 2TCXCT  /CJCTCUJVTC

+++ =#KKOIKTRWT?
*KPFQP72 6JGGCUVGTPOQUVUKVG

+8 5WVMCIGPFCT
&CUJM /CMTCP%QCUV 6JG9GUVGTPOQUVUKVG
Other important sites : *CTCRRC /QJGPLQFCTQ CPF &JQNCXKTC
6JG PWENGWU EKVKGU  5WMVCIGPFQT $CNCMQV #NNCJFKPQ

PGCT MCTCEJK  .QVJCN
6JG EQCUVCN VQYPU CPF RQTVU  %JCPJWFCTQ -QVFKLK 5WTMQVCFC &GUCNRWT 4QLFK /CPFC 4QRCT
-CNKDCPICP$CPYCNK$CNWCPF4CMJK5JCJRWT
QVJGTEKVKGUCPFVQYPUJKR *CTCRRC
0QTVJ CPF/QJGPLQFCTQ
5QWVJ 
6JG
VYQECRKVCNEKVKGU
x .CVGUV*CTCRRCPUKVGFKUEQXGTGF&JQNCXKTC
x 6JGNCTIGUVUKVG/CJGPLQFCTQ
x 6JGNCTIGUV+PFKCPUKVG4CMJKICTJK
x +PFWUUKVGUHQWPFKP#HIJCPKUVCP5JCVWIJCKCPF/WPFKICS
x 6JGOCMGTUQHVJG+PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQP&TCXKFKCP
x %QPVGORQTCT[%KXKNK\CVKQPU/GUQRQVCOKC
&CLNC(WTCV CV0KNGCPF%JKPCCV9JCPI*Q;CPIUK
x 6JGGPVT[RQTVHQTVTCFGDGVYGGP+PFWUCPF/GUQRQVCOKC$CJTCKP
x %NQUGEQOOGTEKCNCPFEWNVWTCNEQPVCEVUYKVJ5WOGT'NCO/GUQRQVCOKC+TCP$CJTCKPCPF%GPVTCN#UKC
x 6JGVYQOQUVVJKEMN[RQRWNCVGFEKVKGU/QJGPLQFCTQCPF*CTCRRC
x 6JGVYQOCKPVTCFGTQWVGU
+ 6JGPQTVJGTPTQWVGNKPMGF0QTVJ+TCPCPFQZWUTGIKQPYKVJ-CDWNCPFVJGEGPVTCNTGCEJGUQHVJG+PFWU
++ 6JGUQWVJGTPTQWVGNKPMGFEGPVTCNCPFUQWVJ+TCPYKVJ-CPFJCTPQTVJ$CNWEJKUVCPCPFVJGOQTGUQWVJGTN[TGIKQPUQHVJG
Indus.
x 6JG+PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQPUDGNQPIUVQ%JCNEQNKVJKEQT$TQP\G#IG
%JCNEQOGCPUEQRRGTCPFNKVJKEOGCPUUVQPG 
x 6JGJGCTVNCPFQHVJG+PFWUEKXKNK\CVKQP*CTCRRC)JCIICT/QJGPLQFCTQCZKU
x Common features of major cities :)TKFU[UVGOKPVQYPRNCPPKPIUCPKVCVKQP
WPFGTITQWPFFTCKPCIGU[UVGO (QTVKGF
%KVCFGN
'ZEGRVKQP%JCPJWFCTQ WUGQHDWTPVDTKEMUFYGNNKPIJQWUGU
MKVEJGPDCVJTQQOCPFVQKNGV NCTIGTDWKNFKPIU
RWDNKEDCVJUCPFITCKPCTKGUGVE#UUGODN[JCNNRCNCEGQHVJG)QXGTPQT%QNNGIKCVGDWKNFKPIICVGYC[U
x Main crops :9JGCVCPFDCTNG['XKFGPEGQHTKEGKP.QVJCNCPF4CPIRWTQPN[/CKPHTWKVU%QEQPWV&CVGU2QOGITCPCVG
9CVGTOGNQP.GOQPGVE1VJGTETQRUOWUVCTFUGUCOGEQVVQPGVE+PFWURGQRNGYGTGVJGTUVVQRTQFWEGEQVVQP in
VJGYQTNF
x Animals (Domestic and wild) : 5JGGRDWHHCNQIQCVFQIECVRKIHQYNFGGTVQTVQKUGDWNN
JWORGFCPFJWORNGUU 
ECOGN GNGRJCPV VKIGT TJKPQEGTQU GVE 6JG[ YGTG PQV CESWCKPVGF YKVJ .KQP VTCEG QH JQTUG KU TCTGN[ FKUEQXGTGF
5WTMQVCFC
-WVEJJ)WLCTCV KUVJGQPN[UKVGYJGTGVJGTGOCKPUQHCJQTUGJCXGDGGPHQWPF%COGNDQPGUCTGTGRQTVGF
CV-CNKDCPICP(TQO#OCTKCUKPINGKPUVCPEGQHVJG+PFKCPTJKPQEGTQUJCUDGGPTGRQTVGFCPFQHGNGRJCPVHTQO4QLCFK
(Saurashtra).
x Trade : Foreign traFGYKVJ/GUQRQVCOKCQT5WOGTKC
0QYITCC $CJTCKP
H-32 Indus Valley Civilization

Major Imports x <KIIWTCV6JGVGORNGUQH5WOGTKC


Material Source x The traces of Sati system KU HQWPF KP .QVJCN
,QKPV
)QNF -QNCT
-CTPCVCMC #HIJCPKUVCP 2GTUKC DWTKC 
(Iran)
5KNXGT #HIJCPKUVCP2GTUKC
+TCP x First of all Sweden tries to read the script of Harappan
%QRRGT -JGVTK
4CLCUVJCP $CNWEJKUVCP#TCDKC %KXKNK\CVKQP
6KP  #HIJCPKUVCP%GPVTCN#UKC$KJCT x Lipistic JCU DGGP FKUEQXGTGF HTQO %JCJWPFCTQ CPF
#ICVGU 9GUVGTP+PFKC
$NCEM GCUVGTP DCPINGU HTQO -CNKDCPICP Pastry rollar
%JCNEGFQP[ 5CWTCUJVTC
.GCF 4CLCUVJCP 5QWVJ +PFKC #HIJCPKUVCP CPF DQCTF CPF DQYNU JCXG DGGP FKUEQXGTGF HTQO
Iran #NCOIKTRWT/GGTWV
.CRKU.C\WTK $CFCMUJCP
#HIJCPKUVCP x The evidence of coins is not found. Barter is assumed
& Sapphire
6QTSWKUG %GPVTCN#UKC+TCP VQJCXGDGGPVJGOGVJQFQHGZEJCPIGQHIQQFU
#OGVJ[UV /CJCTCUJVTC x /GTEJCPVUYGTGVJGTWNKPIENCUUQH+PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQP
,CFG %GPVTCN#UKC x 6JG *CTCRRCP FKF PQV YQTUJKR VJGKT IQFU KP VGORNG
%CTPGNKCP 5CWTCUJVTC
6JG[ FKF PQV YQTUJKR VJG EQY CU YG FQ VQFC[ 6JG[
Some Important names/facts of I.V. Civilisation YQTUJKRRGF/CVTKFGX5JCMVK;QPK2CUJWRCVK.KPICO
x 6JG5WOGTKCPVGZVUTGHGTVQVYQKPVGTOGFKCVGUVCVKQP Naga (Serpent), trees (Peepal and acacia), humped
&KNOWP 
$CJTCKP  CPF /CMCP +V CNUQ TGHGTU VQ VTCFG DWNN VJG UWP YCVGT GVE 6JG[ DGNKGXGF KP RCICPKUO
TGNCVKQP YKVJ /GNWJC  VJG PCOG IKXGP VQ VJG +PFWU
CPFUCETKGFCPKOCNUKPTGNKIKQWUEGTGOQPKGU
region.
x *CTCRRCPEQVVQPYCUECNNGFSindonD[VJG)TGGMU x SteatiteYCUWUGFKPUGCNUOCPWHCEVWTKPI
x # EQOOWPKV[ YJQ YQTUJKRGF TKXGTU YCU ECNNGF x The origin of swastika is discovered from the Indus
&CTK[CRCPVJKKP+PFWUEKXKNK\CVKQP %KXKNK\CVKQP
x BoustrophendonKUPCOGQH+PFWUUETKRV+VKUYTKVVGP x IndraVJGEQOOCPFGTQH#T[CPKUCEEWUGFQHECWUKPI
from right to left and then left to right. VJGFGENKPGQHVJGKTEKXKNK\CVKQP
x 'PINKUJ$QWPF5[UVGO6JGYC[QHVVKPIVJGDTKEMU
x 6JG DCVVNG QH Hariyumpia
KP 4KIXGFC  JCU DGGP
KPOCMKPIYCNNU+PVJKUU[UVGOQPGNCTIGQHDTKEMUKU
KFGPVKGFYKVJ*CTCRRC
/9JGGNGT
RNCEGFKPNGPIVJCPFVJGQVJGTNC[GTKUOCFGD[RNCEKPI
VJGDTKEMUYKFVJYKUG x SusaCTG/GUQRQVCOKCPRNCEGUYJGTG*CTCRRCUGCNU
YGTGHQWPF.
Indus Valley Civilization H-33

1.
Exercise - 1
ThGGCTNKGUVGXKFGPEGQHUGVVNGFCITKEWNVWTGHTQOVJGUWD 10. 1PGQHVJG*CTCRRCPFGKVKGUPQVTGRTGUGPVGFKPNCVGT*KPFW
content comes from religion is

C  -CNKDCPICP
D  #OTK (a) Pashupati Siva

E  /GJTICTJ
F  +PCOICTJ 
D  5GXGPOQVJGTU
5CRVCOCTKMUC
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI XCNNG[U KU MPQYP HQT JCXKPI 
E  %QORQWPFETGCVWTGU
a continuous succession of palaeolithic paintings of 
F  7PKEQTP
different periods?  9JKEJ QPG QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UKVGU QH VJG +PFWU 8CNNG[

C  $WJCTDWNCPIXCNNG[ %KXKNK\CVKQPJCFCPCPEKGPVFQEM[CTF!

D  $JKODGVMC 
C  -CNKDCPICP
D  .QVJCN

E  5QJCPXCNNG[ 
E  4CPIRWT
F  *CTCRRC

F  $JCFGTXCNNG[  6JG RTKOCT[ RWTRQUG QH C UGCN KP VJG +PFWU 8CNNG[
%KXKNK\CVKQPYCURTQDCDN[
  +PFWUXCNNG[EKXKNK\CVKQPKUCPGZCORNGQH
(a) VQUKIPKH[TQ[CNN[
 
C  2TGJKUVQT[
D  2TQVQJKUVQT[

D  CUCOGFKWOQHGZEJCPIGKPVTCFG
 
E  %QPVKPWQWUUVQT[
F  *KUVQT[

E  VQUKIPKH[QYPGTUJKRQHRTQRGTV[
 6JGTUVEGTGCNUVJCVGCTN[OGPITQYPYGTG
(d) to indicate social status

C  YJGCVCPFTKEG
D  YJGCVCPFDCTNG[  /CPFC VJG PQTVJGTPOQUV UKVG QH +PFWU %KXKNK\CVKQP KP

E  DCTNG[CPFOCK\G
F  DCTNG[CPFTKEG ,COOW CPF -CUJOKT KU NQECVGF QP VJG DCPMU QH YJKEJ
 6YQOQUVKORQTVCPV*CTCRRCPETQRUYGTG river?

C  9JGCVCPFDCTNG[ 
C  ,JGNWO
D  5WVNGL

D  5GUCOWOCPFOWUVCTF 
E  %JGPCD
F  <CUMCT

E  4KEGCPFRGCU  2KEMQWVVJGKPEQTTGEVUVCVGOGPVCDQWV6QYPRNCPPKPIKP

F  %QVVQOCPF5WICTECPG +PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQP!
 9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVQPGQHVJG*CTCRCPUKVGU 
C  6JGTGYCUU[UVGOCVKEVQYPRNCPPKPIQPVJGNKPGUQH
related to the maritime activities of the Harappan people? ITKFU[UVGO

C  .QVJCN
D  $CNCMQV 
D  6JGTGYCUCHQTVKGFEKVCFGNQPVJGYGUVGTPUKVGCPF

E  5QMVC-QD
F  2CVNKRWVTC CNQYGTVQYPQPVJGGCUVGTPUKFG
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVVJGNKMGN[RWTRQUGQHVJG 
E  6JG YKPFQYU QH VJG JQWUGU QRGPGF QPVQ VJG OCKP
)TGCV$CVJKPVJGEKVCFGNCV/QJGPLQFCT! streets.

C  %QOOWPKV[DCVJKPI 
F  6JGTGYCUTGOCTMCDNGCPFYGNNFGXGNQRGFWPFGTITQWPF

D  5YKOOKPIGZGTEKUGUCPFYCVGTURQTVU FTCKPCIGU[UVGO

E  5QOGGNCDQTCVGTKVWCNQHXKVCNKORQTVCPEGKPENWFKPI  'XKFGPEGQHOKZGFETQRRKPIKUUGGPHTQOYJKEJUKVGQH
a corporate social life +PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQP!

F  5VQTCIGQHYCVGTVQDGWUGFFWTKPIFTQWIJVQTGOGT 
C  .QVJCN
D  &JQNCXKTC
IGPE[ 
E  %JCPJWFCTQ
F  -CNKDCPICP
 #EKTEWNCTDWVVQPUJCRGFUGCNECNNGFVJG2GTUKCPIWNHUGCN
 #NOQUVCNN*CTCRRCPVQYPUJCFNCTIGITCPCTKGUDGECWUG
JCUDGGPQDVCKPGFHTQOYJKEJ*CTCRRCPUKVG!

C  6CZGU YGTG RCKF KP MKPF CPF VJGTGHQTG ITCPCTKGU

C  .QVJCN
D  /QJGPLQFCTQ
CEVGFCUCUQTVQHRWDNKEVTGCUWTKGU 
E  $CPYCNK
F  -CNKDCPICP

D  5WTRNWURTQFWEGQHVJGEQWPVT[UKFGYCUUVQTGFKPVJG  %[NKPFTKECN UGCNU QH /GUQRQVCOKC JCXG DGGP TGEQXGTGF
VQYPU HTQOYJKEJVYQ*CTCRRCPUKVG!

E  (QQFITCKPUYGTGUVQTGFHQTVJGRWTRQUGQHVTCFG 
C  .QVJCNCPF-CNKDCPICP

F  #NNQHVJGCDQXG 
D  .QVJCNCPF4CPIRWT
 (TQOVJGUECVVGTGFUMGNGVCNTGOCKPUQHVJG*CTCRRCPUHQWPF 
E  /QJGPLQFCTQCPF-CNKDCPICP
CVFKHHGTGPVUKVGUVJGOQUVCRRTQRTKCVGEQPENWUKQPVQDG 
F  4QRCTCPF4QLFK
FTCYPYQWNFDGVJCVVJGTGYCU  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIV[RGUQHDWTKCNKUPQVQDUGTXGFCV

C  5QOGMKPFQHOKNKVCT[CUUCWNV /QJGPLQFCTQ!

D  /CUUGZGEWVKQPQTJWOCPUCETKEG 
C  %QORNGVGDWTKCN

E  %CUWCNDWTKCNQHJWOCPDQFKGU 
D  (TCEVKQPCNDWTKCN

F  /CNCTKCQTCP[QVJGr pathogenic condition 
E  2QUVETGOCVKQPDWTKCN

F  &QWDNGDWTKCN
H-34 Indus Valley Civilization

 6YQVGTTCEQVVCOQFGNUQH'I[RVKCPOWOOKGUJCXGDGGP (a) )TQYKPIYJGCVCPFEQVVQP


TGEQXGTGFHTQOYJKEJ*CTCRRCPUKVG! 
D  -PQYNGFIGQHOCVJGOCVKEUCPFFGEKOCNU[UVGO

C  &JQNCXKTC
D  .QVJCN 
E  %QRRGTCPFDTQP\GUOGNVKPIVGEJPQNQI[

E  -CNKDCPICP
F  %JCPJWFCTQ 
F  /CMKPIUQCMRKVUCPFGCTVJGPRKRGU
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UKVGU KU VJG NCTIGUV QH CNN +PFWU  6JG *CTCRRCP VQYPU CPF EKVKGU YGTG FKXKFGF KPVQ
settlements excavated? NCTIGAAAAAAAAAAAAAADNQEMU

C  &JQNCXKTC
D  /QJGPLQFCTQ 
C  5SWCTG
D  4GEVCPIWNCT

E  %KTEWNCT
F  5GOKEKTEWNCT

E  .QVJCN
F  -CNKDCPICP
33. 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIVQKNGVCPFEQUOGVKEQDLGEVUYGTG
 #NOQUVCNNVJGRGQRNGQH+PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQPYGTG PQVRGTJCRUMPQYPVQ+PFWU8CNNG[RGQRNG!

C  0KITQKF
D  2TQVQ#WUVTQNQKF 
C  %QRRGTOKTTQTU
D  +XQT[EQODU

E  /GFKVGTTCPGCP
F  0QTFKE 
E  #PVKOQP[TQFU
F  *CKTF[GU
 9JKEJOGVCNYCUWPMPQYPVQ+PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQP!  9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI YCU PQV QPG QH VJG VQQNU CPF

C  )QNF
D  5KNXGT KORNGOGPVUWUGFD[+PFWU8CNNG[RGQRNG!

E  %QRRGT
F  +TQP 
C  0GGFNGUCPFTC\QTU
 #UVCVWGQHDGCTFGFOCPYCUHQWPFCV 
D  5KEMNGUCPFRNQWIJ

C  *CTCRRC
D  /QJGPLQFCTQ 
E  (QTMUCPFURQQPU

E  %JCPJWFCTQ
F  &JQNCXKTC 
F  )TKPFKPIU UVQPGU HQT QWTKPI YJGCV RGUVNGU CPF
 +P+PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQPVJGUETKRVYCU querns

C  -JCTQUVJK
D  $TCJOK  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIHGCVWTGUQHOQFGTP*KPFWKUOKU
not derived from the Harappan cults?

E  $QWUVTQRJGFQP
F  0QPGQHVJGUG

C  5JCMVKYQTUJKR
 9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPI+PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQPUKVGU

D  9QTUJKRQH5KXCCU2CUJWRCVK
IKXGUGXKFGPEGQHCFQEM[CTF!

E  9QTUJKR QH 5KXCNKPIC KP VJG HQTO QH EQPKECN CPF

C  *CTCRRC
D  /QJGPLQFCTQ E[NKPFTKECNUVQPGU

E  .QVJCN
F  &JQNCXKTC 
F  &GFKECVKQPQHVGORNGUVQCRCTVKEWNCTFGKV[
 9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPI+PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQPUKVGU  +PVJG*CTCRRCPDWKNFKPIUOQUVN[DWTPVDTKEMUYGTGWUGF
gives evidence of a stadium? PQVUVQPGUDGECWUG

C  *CTCRRC
D  -CNKDCPICP 
C  9KVJQWVKTQPVQQNUUVQPGEWVVKPIYCUFKHEWNV

E  /QJGPLQFCTQ
F  &JQNCXKTC 
D  $TKEMURTQXKFGFDGVVGTQQFFGHGPEG
 #UGCNFGRKEVKPI/QVJGT)QFFGUUYKVJRNCPVITQYKPIHTQO 
E  $TKEMUYGTGKFGCNN[UWKVGFHQTVJGOQKUVENKOCVG
VJGYQODJCUDGGPHQWPFHTQO 
F  5VQPGYCUPQVTGCFKN[CXCKNCDNG

C  *CTCRRC
D  /QJGPLQFCTQ  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVCHGCVWTGQHVJGTGNKIKQWU

E  -CNKDCPICP
F  &JQNCXKTC NKHGQHVJG+PFWUEKXKNK\CVKQP!

C  2KRCN CPF #ECEKC VTGGU YGTG TGICTFGF CU EGNGUVKCN
 +PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQPYCUFKUEQXGTGFD[
plants

C  &C[CTCO5CJPK
D  4&$CPGTLK

D  6JGVTGGQHNKHGIWTGUYKVJITGCVHTGSWGPE[QPVJG

E  %WPPKPIJCO
F  9JGGNGT seals
 *CTCRRCPRGQRNGJCFCEQOOQPDWTKCNU[UVGOYJKEJKU 
E  6JG +PFWU FGKVKGU NKMG VJG 8GFKE FGKVKGU YGTG
RTQXGFD[ RTGFQOKPCPVN[OCNG

C  6JGGCTVJDWTKCNUYKVJVJGJGCFQHVJGFGCFPQTOCNN[ 
F  6JGRGQRNGJCFHCKVJKPCOWNGVUCPFEJCTOUYJKEJ
NCKFVQYCTFUVJGPQTVJ UJQYUVJCVVJG[YGTGCHTCKFQHFGOQPU

D  6JGDWTKCNQHEQOOQPN[WUGFKVGOUYKVJVJGFGCF 38. (TQO C NCTIG PWODGT QH UGCNU FKUEQXGTGF HTQO CNOQUV

E  $QVJ
C CPF
D CDQXG CNN VJG *CTCRRCP UKVGU KV CRRGCTU VJCV VJG[ YGTG WUGF

F  6JGDWTKCNQHVJGFGCFDQF[KPVJGUKVVKPIRQUVWTG for_____________ purposes.
30. 6JGWUGQHNKOGCPFEQUVN[DWTPVDTKEMUKPUVGCFQHUWPFTKGF (a) ritualistic and religious

D  %QOOGTEKCN
DTKEMU D[ VJG +PFWU 8CNNG[ RGQRNG HQT EQPUVTWEVKQP

E  $QVJ
C CPF
D CDQXG
purposes is a proof of

F  5[ODQNKE

C  #OQKUVENKOCVGQPCEEQWPVQHVJGENQUGRTQZKOKV[QH 39. 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVQPGQHVJGRTQQHUQHOCTKVKOG
VJGEKXKNK\CVKQPVQVJGTKXGTXCNNG[U CEVKXKVKGUQHVJG+PFWU8CNNG[RGQRNG!

D  #FXCPEGFVGEJPQNQI[ 
C  6JGFKUEQXGT[QHCFQEM[CTFCV.QVJCN

E  $GVVGTRNCPPKPI 
D  6JGFTCYKPIQHCUJKRQPCUGCN

F  -PQYNGFIGQHVJGOCPWHCEVWTGQHNKOG 
E  &KUEQXGT[ QH C PWODGT QH CTVKENGU YJKEJ YGTG PQV
31. 1P VJG DCUKU QH CXCKNCDNG GXKFGPEG VJG *CTCRRCP RTQFWEGFQTHQWPFKPVJGEQWPVT[
EKXKNK\CVKQPEQPVTKDWVGFVYQKORQTVCPVVJKPIUVQOCPMKPF 
F  %QOOGTEKCN NKPMU QH VJG *CTCRRCPU YKVJ VJG 9GUV
YJKEJYGTG #UKCPEQWntries
Indus Valley Civilization H-35

 1PYJCVGXKFGPEGKU5QWVJ4WUUKC%GPVTCN#UKCTGICTFGF  6JGIGQITCRJKECNMPQYNGFIGQHVJGGCTN[#T[CPUFKFPQV


CUVJGQTKIKPCNJQOGQHVJG#T[CPU! GZVGPFDG[QPF

C  #PVJTQRQNQIKECN
D  2JKNQNQIKECN 
C  +PFWU
D  )CPIC

E  4CEKCN
F  #TEJCGQNQIKECN 
E  ;COWPC
F  )JCIICT
 6JG#T[CPUECOGVQ+PFKCCU  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVCOCLQTKPFWUVTKCNVQYPQH

C  +PXCFGTU
D  +OOKITCPVU VJG*CTCRRCPEKXKNK\CVKQP!

E  4GHWIGGU
F  /GTEJCPVUCPFPQOCFU 
C  .QVJCN
D  %JCPJWFCTQ
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVEQPUKFGTGFCP+PFQ#T[CP 
E  *CTCRRC
F  -CNKDCPICP
language?  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUTGICTFKPI*CTCRRCP

C  #XGUVC
D  'PINKUJ civilisation is correct?

E  #TCDKE
F  2GTUKCP 
C  6JGUVCPFCTF*CTCRRCPUGCNUYGTGOCFGQHENC[
 #EEQTFKPI VQ VJG VJGQT[ QH FQWDNG KPXCUKQP QH +PFKC D[ 
D  6JGKPJCDKVCPVUQH*CTCRRCJCFPGKVJGTMPQYNGFIG
VJG#T[CPUVJGTUVITQWRKPJCDKVGFVJG2WPLCDCPFVJG QHEQRRGTPQTDTQP\G
UGEQPFITQWRRWUJGFKVUYC[VJTQWIJ)KNIKVCPF%JKVTCN 
E  6JG*CTTCRCPEKXKNKUCVKQPYCUTWTCNDCUGF
CPFUGVVNGFKPVJGOKFNCPFEQWPVT[9JQRWVHQTYCTFVJKU 
F  6JGKPJCDKVCPVUQH*CTCRRCPITGYCPFWUGFEQVVQP
VJGQT[!  6JGUKVGQH*CTCRRCKUNQECVGFQPVJGDCPMQHTKXGT

C  &T)KNGU 
C  5CTCUYCVK
D  +PFWU

D  &T*QGTPNG 
E  $GCU
F  4CXK

E  5KT)GQTIG)TKGTUQP  7KH SROLW\ RI WKH +DUDSSDQ SHRSOH DV GHULYHG IURP WKH

F  %88CKF[C PDWHULDOHYLGHQFHZDV 
 6JGEJKGHQRRQPGPVUQHVJG#T[CPUYGTGVJGKPFKIGPQWU (a) secular-federalist (b) theocratic-federalist
RGQRNGQHPQP#T[CPQTKIKPMPQYPCU2CPKUCPF&CUCUQT  F  ROLJDUFKLF G  WKHRFUDWLFXQLWDU\
&CU[WU6JGHCEVQTYJKEJGPCDNGFVJG#T[CPUVQGOGTIG 51. Which one among the following is not the characteristic
XKEVQTKQWUKPVJGUVTWIINGCICKPUVVJGKPFKIGPQWUVTKDGUYCU IHDWXUHRIWKH+DUDSSDQVHWWOHPHQW"  

C  .CEMQHWPKV[COQPIVJGKPFKIGPQWUVTKDGU  D  'RRUZD\VDQGZLQGRZVJHQHUDOO\IDFHGWKHVLGHODQHV

D  $GVVGTQTICPK\CVKQPCOQPIVJG#T[CPU DQGUDUHO\RSHQHGRQWRWKHPDLQVWUHHWV

E  5WRGTKQTOKNKVCT[GSWKROGPVQHVJG#T[CPU  E  +RXVHV JHQHUDOO\ KDG VHSDUDWH EDWKLQJ DUHDV DQG

F  %WNVWTCNUWRGTKQTKV[ toilets
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI EQTTGEVN[ FGUETKDGU VJG NCPF QH (c) The citadel was walled but the lower town was not
VJG5GXGP4KXGTU
5CRVC5KPFJW YJGTGVJGKPKVKCN#T[CP walled
UGVVNGOGPVUYGTGNQECVGF!  G  'UDLQVDQGZDWHUFKXWHVIURPWKHVHFRQGVWRUH\ZHUH

C  6JG+PFWU8CNNG[TGIKQP often built inside the wall

D  6JG2WPLCDCPF&GNJKTGIKQP  7KHWHUUDFRWWDSORXJKRIWKH+DUDSSDQFLYLOL]DWLRQZDV

E  6JG TGIKQP HTQO 'CUVGTP #HIJCPKUVCP VQ VJG WRRGT found at
XCNNG[QHVJG)CPIGU (a) Mohenjo-daro (b) Banawali

F  6JGNCPFQHVJG+PFWUCPFKVURTKPEKRCNVTKDWVCTKGU (c) Kalibangan (d) Lothal
H-36 Indus Valley Civilization

Exercise - 2
 9JCV CTG VJG GXKFGPEG HQWPF TGICTFKPI VJG FGENKPG QH
Statement Based MCQ *CTCRRCPEKXKNK\CVKQP!%QPUKFGTVJGUVCVGOGPVU
  5KNVKUVJGTGKU*CTCRRCDGECWUGQHYKPFUEVKQPYJKEJ
 6JG +PFWU XCNNG[ EKXKNK\CVKQP KU ECNNGF PQP  #T[CP DTQWIJV UCPF CPF UNKV *QWUGU CPF UVTGGVU EQXGTGF
DGECWUG D[UNKVFGRQUKVUWRVQHVCDQXGITQWPFNGXGN
  +PFWURGQRNGYQTUJKRRGFOQVJGT)QFFGUU   *WOCP UMGNGVQPU JCXG DGGP HQWPF N[KPI QP VJG
  +VKUCRKEVQITCRJKEUETKRV streets.
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGUVCVGOGPVKUCTGVTWG!  9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!

C  QPN[
D  QPN[ 
C  QPN[
D  QPN[

E  CPF
F  0QPGQHVJGUG 
E  $QVJCPF
F  0GKVJGTPQT
 %QPUKFGT VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU TGICTFKPI +PFWU  %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU
%WNVWTG   6JG *CTCRRCP GEQPQO[ YCU DCUGF QP CITKEWNVWTG
  +V CTQUG KP VJG PQTVJYGUVGTP RCTV QH VJG +PFKCP cattle rearing and crafts.
UWDEQPVKPGPV   6JG+PFWUXCNNG[RGQRNGJCFCPGNCDQTCVGFTCKPCIG
  +VKUQNFGTVJCPVJGEJCNEQVJKEEWNVWTGU U[UVGO
  0Q QVJGT EWNVWTCN \QPG KP VJG VJKTF CPF UGEQPF   +P MQV &KLK RTG*CTCRRCP UGVVNGOGPV JCU PQV DGGP
EGPVWT[$%YCUCUNCTIGCUVJG*CTCRRCP found.
  +VYCUPQVCUCFXCPEGFCUVJGEJCNEQVJKEEWNVWTGU   5WICTECPGYCUPQVITQYPKP+PFWUEKXKNK\CVKQP
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!  9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!

C  QPN[
D  CPF 
C  CPF
D  QPN[

E  CPF
F  QPN[ 
E  CPF
F  QPN[
 9KVJTGHGTGPEGVQ)TGCV$CVJQH/QJGPLQFCTQEQPUKFGT  %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU
VJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU   6JGKPJCDKVCPVUQH*CTCRRCITGYCPFWUGFEQVVQP
  6JG KPJCDKVCPVU QH *CTCRRC JCF PQ MPQYNGFIG QH
  +VYCUDWKNVD[DCMGFDTKEMU
EQRRGTCPFDTQP\G
  6JGNGPIVJQHVJG$CVJKUOGVTGUDTGCFVJOVTU
  6JGUVCPFCTF*CTCRRCPUGCNUYGTGOCFGQHENC[
CPFFGRVJKUCTQWPFOGVTGU
  9JKEJQHVJGUVCVGOGPVUIKXGPCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV
  6JGQWVGTYCNNUQHVJG$CVJCTGRNCUVGTGFD[QPKPEJ
?
VJKEMRNCUVGTQHRCTKU

C  QPN[
D  CPF
  $[ VJG UKFG QH VJG $CVJ VJGTG YGTG TGUKFGPEG QH 
E  CPF
F  CPF
RTKGUVU YJQ WUG VQ EQOG FQYP HQT DCVJ QP URGEKCN  9KVJTGHGTGPEGVQVJG*CTCRRCPEKXKNK\CVKQPEQPUKFGTVJG
occasions. HQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
  6JG EKV[ QH &JQNCXKTC YCU KP VJG HQTO QH C

C  CPF
D  CPF
RCTCNNGNQITCOIWCTFGFD[CHQTVKECVKQP

E  CPF
F  CPF
  # RNQWIJGF GNF UJQYKPI C ITKF QH HWTTQYU
 *QYVJG+PFWUXCNNG[EKXKNK\CVKQPFGENKPGF!)KXGEQTTGEV
NQECVGFQWVUKFGVJGVQYPYCNNJCUDGGPFKUEQXGTGFCV
TGCUQPUEQPVTKDWVGFVQVJGFGENKPGQHEKXKNK\CVKQP
-CNKDCPICP
  &WGVQHCNNKPHQTGKIPVTCFGEQPVKPWQWUN[
 9JKEJQHVJGUVCVGOGPVUIKXGPCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
  &WGVQEJCPIKPIOQPUQQPVJGUECTEKV[QHTCKPU

C  QPN[
D  QPN[
  &WGVQTWNKPIQHYGCMHQTGKIPRQYGTU
  &WGVQVJGCPKOCNUWUGFVJGRCUVWTUKPGZEGUU 
E  $QVJCPF
F  0GKVJGTPQT
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV  %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU

C  CPF
D  CPF   .KOGOQTVCTYCUPGXGTWUGFCV/QJGPLQFCTQKPVJG

E  CPF
F  CPF EQPUVTWEVKQPQHFYGNNKPIU
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI YGTG EQOOQP HGCVWTGU QH DQVJ   #V &JQNCXKTC UVQPG YCU PGXGT WUGF KP VJG
*CTCRRCPCPF/QJGPLQFCTQ! EQPUVTWEVKQPQHFYGNNKPIU
  %KVCFGNOQWPFUYKVJCTGVCKPKPIYCNN  9JKEJQHVJGUVCVGOGPVUIKXGPCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
  2WDNKE$CVJU 
C  QPN[
D  QPN[
  4QYUQHITCPCTKGU 
E  $QVJCPF
F  0GKVJGTPQT
  4QYUQHEKTEWNCTDNQEMUHQTRQWPFKPIITCKPU  %QPUKFGT VJG UVCVGOGPVU TGICTFKPI VJG GHHGEVU QH
 %JQQUGVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTHTQOVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY *CTCRRCPEKXKNK\CVKQPKPOQFGTPGTC

C  CPF
D  CPF   *QWUG RNCPU FKURQUKVKQP QH YCVGT UWRRN[ CPF

E  CPF
F  CPF CVVGPVKQPVQDCVJKPIJCXGUWTXKXGFVKNNVQFC[
Indus Valley Civilization H-37

  6JGVGEJPKSWGUQHOCMKPICRQVVGTUYJGGNKUUKOKNCT 
C  #$%&
to thoseWUGFD[VJG*CTCRRCPU 
D  #$%&
  6JG GNGEVKQP U[UVGO QH TGEGPV VKOG KU DQTTQYGF 
E  #$%&
HTQO*CTCRRCPRQNKVKECNU[UVGO 
F  #$%&
9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!

C  CPF
D  CPF  List-I List-II

E  QPN[
F  QPN[  # %GOGVTKGU*CPF4  &CKOCDCF
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU CTG EQTTGEV YKVJ  $ &QEM[CTF  /QJGPLQFCTQ
TGICTFVQVJG+PFWUXCNNG[EKXKNKUCVKQP!
 % 2CUJWRCVK/CJCFGX  *CTCRRC
  6JG RGQRNG QH VJKU EKXKNKUCVKQP YGTG VJG GCTNKGUV VQ
OCMGWUGQHEQVVQP Seal
  6JG[FKFPQVETGOCVGVJGKTFGCF  & %QRRGTEJCTKQV  .QVJCN
  #ITKFU[UVGOYCUHQNNQYGFKPEKV[RNCPPKPI  %QFGU
  5VQPGYCUVJGEJKGHDWKNFKPIOCVGTKCN   # $ % &

C  CPF
D  CPF 
C     

E  CPF
F  CPF 
D     
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPICPKOCNUCUIWTGUUWTTQWPFVJG 
E     
OCNGFGKV[KPVJG+PFWU8CNNG[%KXKNK\CVKQPU! 
F     
  'NGRJCPV  6KIGT 18. List-I List-II
  4JKPQEGTQU  $WHHCNQ
 # *CTCRRC  9QTMOGPUSWCTVGTU
  &GGT
 $ .QVJCN  &QEM[CTF
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTHTQOVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY
 % -CNKDCPICP  &CPEKPIIKTN
 %QFGU
 & /QJGPLQFCTQ  (WTTQYGFNCPF

C  CPF
D  CPF

E  CPF
F  CPF  %QFGU
 6JG VCPM QH )TGCV $CVJ EQORNGZ CV /QJGPLQFCTQ JCF   # $ % &
stairs on 
C     
  0QTVJGTPUKFG  5QWVJGTPUKFG 
D     
  'CUVGTPUKFG  9GUVGTPUKFG 
E     
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTHTQOVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY 
F     
 %QFGU 19. List-I List-II

C  QPN[
D  QPN[ (Harappan settlement) (River)

E  CPF
F  CPF  # .QVJCN  +PFWU
 $ -CNKDCPICP  5CVNGL
Matching Based MCQ
 % 4QRCT  4CXK
  List I List II  & *CTCRRC  )JCIICT
# .QVJCN 1. 2NQWIJGFGNF  ' /QJGPLQFCTQ  $JQICQ
$ -CNKDCPICP  &QEM[CTF  %QFGU
% &JQNCXKTC 3. Terracotta replica of a   # $ % & '
plough 
C      
& $CPCYCNK  #PKPUETKRVKQPEQORTKUKPI 
D      
ten large siged signs of the 
E      
Harappan script. 
F      

C  #$%&  List-I List-II

D  #$%&  # *CTCRRC  &C[C4CO5CJPK

E  #$%&  $ /QJGPLQFCTQ  4CMJCNFCU$CPGTLK

F  #$%&  % .QVJCN  #OCNCPCPF)JQUJ
  List I List II  & -CNKDCPICP  544CQ
(Place) (Ex cavators)  %QFGU
# Harappa 1. 4CMJCN&CU$CPGTLGG   # $ % &
$ %JCPJWFCTQ  &C[C4CO5CJPK 
C     
% -CNKDCPICP 3. 0)/CLWOFCT 
D     
& /QJGPLQFCTQ  $$.CNCPF-CONCPCPF (c) 1   
)JQUG 
F     
H-38 Indus Valley Civilization

EXERCISE-1 
D  *CTTCRC KU CP CTEJCGQNQIKECN UKVG KP 2WPLCD
2CMKUVCP +V KU TWKP QH DTQP\ CIG UCVKUGF EKV[ +V

E  
D  
D  
D  
C 
JCF  KPJCDKVCVGU YJKEJ YCU XGT[ NCTIG HQT

F  
F  
F  
C  
F

D  .QVJCNCUKVGKP)WLCTCVQH+PFWUXCNNG[EKXKNK\CVKQP KVUVKOGURGQRNGHTQOVJKUEKXKNK\CVKQPJCFEQOOQP
JCFCPCPEKGPVFQEM[CTF6JGNCTIGFQEM[CTFTGGEVU VQKNGVUCPFDCVJKPICTGCU
a high degree of sea trade in this period. 
D 

E  
E  
E  
F  
C  EXERCISE-2

E  
F  
D  
C 

E  +PFWU 8CNNG[ %KXKNK\CVKQP JCF DGGP C EQODKPCVKQP 
E  
F   
D  
D  
C 
E
QHFKXGTUGTCEKCNGNGOGPVU%GTVCKPCPVJTQRQNQIKECN 
D  
D   
E  
F  
C  
E
investigations and examinations of the human remains 
D  6JG 2CUJWRCVK KU VJG QPN[ RQUUKDN[ OCNG FGKV[ QH
UJQYVJCVHQWTTCEKCNV[RGUGZKUVGFKPVJKUEKXKNK\CVKQP +PFWU 8CNNG[ %KXKNK\CVKQP CU FGRKEVGF QP XCTKQWU
PCOGN[ 2TQVQ#WUVTCNKQF /GFKVGTTCPGCP #NRKPQKF UGCNU6JKUFGKV[KUUWTTQWPFGFD[YKNFCPKOCNUCPF
CPF VJG /QPIQNQKF /QUV QH VJG RGQRNG DGNQPI VQ this gives an indication that it is Pashupatinath or a
/GFKVGTTCPGCPTCEG RTQVQV[RG QH .QTF 5JKXC 6JG FGKV[ KU UWTTQWPFGF

F  +TQP YCU PQV MPQYP VQ +PFWU 8CNNG[ %KXKNK\CVKQP D[  CPKOCNU XK\ CP GNGRJCPV C VKIGT C DWHHCNQ
RGQRNG 6JG TUV GXKFGPEG QH +TQP KU HQWPF CDQWV CPFCTJKPQEGTQU#RCTVHTQOVJKUVJGTGCTGFGGTU
N$%HTQO#VCTCPLKMJGTCKP'VCJFKUVTKEV DGPGCVJVJGUGCVQHVJGFGKV[6JGJGCFFTGUUQHVJG
FGKV[JCUVYQJQTPU+VYGCTUCUPWODGTQHDCPINGU

D  #YGNNMPQYPRKGEGQHCTVQHVJG*CTCRRCPRGTKQF
CPFJCUCRGEVQTCNTQWPFVJGPGEMCPFCPKPUETKRVKQP
KUCUVQPGUEWNRVWTGQHCDGCTFGFOCPFKUEQXGTGFCV
of seven letters appears at the top.
/QJGPLQFCTQ*KUG[GUCTGJCNHENQUGFKPFKECVKPIC

E  6JG)TGCV$CVJKUQPGQHVJGDGUVMPQYPUVTWEVWTGU
RQUVWTGQHOGFKVCVKQP#ETQUUVJGNGHVUJQWNFGTKUCP
COQPI VJG TWKPU QH VJG CPEKGPV +PFWU 8CNNG[
GODTQKFGTGFENQCM+PVJGQRKPKQPQHUQOGUEJQNCTU
%KXKNK\CVKQP CV /QJGPLQFCTQ KP 5KPFJ 2CMKUVCP
KVEQWNFDGCDWUVQHCRTKGUV
#TEJCGQNQIKECN GXKFGPEG KPFKECVGU VJCV VJG )TGCV

E  +PFWU5ETKRVUCTGRQRWNCTN[MPQYPCU$QWUVTQRJGFQP
$CVJ YCU DWKNV KP VJG TF /KNNGPPKWO $%' LWUV
UETKRVU YJKEJ CTG  UVKNN PQV FGEKRJGTGF D[ VJG
sometime after raising of the citadel mound on
historians, researchers and scholars.
YJKEJKVKUNQECVGF6JG)TGCV$CVJQH/QJGPLQFCTQ

E  6JG +PFWU 8CNNG[ %KXKNK\CVKQP UKVG .QVJCN IKXGU KU ECNNGF VJG GCTNKGUV RWDNKE YCVGT VCPM QH VJG
GXKFGPEGQHCFQEM[CTF.QVJCNYCUFKUEQXGTGFD[ CPEKGPV YQTNF 6JG )TGCV $CVJ OGCUWTGU 
544CQKP#&6JGFQEM[CTFKUNQECVGFKP OGVTGU   OGVTGU CPF JCU C OCZKOWO FGRVJ
GCUVGTPUKFGQH.QVJCN QHOGVTGU6YQYKFGUVCKTECUGUQPGHTQOVJG

F  4GEGPV GZECXCVKQPU CV VJG UOCNN VQYPUJKR QH PQTVJ CPF QPG HTQO VJG UQWVJ UGTXGF CU VJG GPVT[
&JQNCXKTCKP-WVEJ)WLCTCV
+PFKC JCXGRTGUGPVGF VQVJGUVTWEVWTG#OGVTGYKFGCPFEGPVKOGVTGU
VQ VJG YQTNF UQOG QH VJG QNFGUV UVCFKWOU CPF UKIP mound is present at end of these stairs.
DQCTF DWKNV D[ VJG *CTCRRCP EKXKNK\CVKQP 1PG QH

D  
E   
VJG UVCFKWOU YKVJ VGTTCEGF UGCVU HQT URGEVCVQTU
CTQWPFHGGVKPNGPIVJ
CTQWPFOGVTGU ECP 
C  6JG EQTTGEV OCVEJKPI RCKTU CTGEGOGVGTKGU * CPF
CEEQOOQFCVGCUOCP[CURGTUQPU6JGQVJGT 4 YKVJ*CTCRRC&QEM[CTFCPF.QVJCN2CUJWRCVK
UVCFKWOKUOWEJUOCNNGTKPUK\G /CJCFGX 5GCN CPF /QJGPLQFCTQ &CKOCDCF YKVJ

C  2NCPVITQYKPIHTQOVJGYQODQHYQOGPJCUDGGP copper chariot.
found from Harappa on a seal. That represents Earth 
F  6JG EQTTGEV OCVEJKPI RCKTU CTG*CTCRRC CPF
)QFFGUU YQTMOGPU SWCTVGTU .QVJCN CPF &QEM[CTF

C  *CTCRRCP EKXKNK\CVKQP YCU FKUEQXGTGF KP  -CNKDCPICP CPF HWTTQYGF NCPF CPF /QJGPLQFCTQ
YJGPVYQQHKVUOQUVKORQTVCPVUKVGUYGTGGZECXCVGF and dancing girl.
6JGTUVYCUGZECXCVGFD[&C[CTCO5CJPKCPFVJG 
C  6JGEQTTGEVOCVEJKPIRCKTUCTG.QVJCNCPF$JQICQ
UGEQPFD[4&$CPGTLK -CNKDCPICPCPF)JCIICT4QRCTCPF5CVNWL*CTCRRC

E  
C  
C  
D  
F CPF4CXK/QJGPLQFCTQCPF+PFWU

E  
F  
F  
E  
E 
E  6JGEQTTGEVOCVEJKPIRCKTUCTG*CTCRRCCPF&C[C

D  
D  
E  
E  
D 4CO 5CJPK /QJGPLQFCTQ CPF 4CMJCNFCU $CPGTLK

E  
F  
E  
C .QVJCNCPF544CQ-CNKDCPICPCPF#OCNCPCPF

E  *CTTCRCPEKXKNK\CVKQPYCUTWTCNDCUGFEKXKNK\CVKQP )JQUJ

F  6JGUKVGQH*CTCRRCYCUNQECVGFQPVJGDCPMUQH
 TKXGT4CXK

F  6JGRQNKV[QHVJG*CTCRRCPRGQRNGCUFGTKXGFHTQO
VJGOCVGTKCNGXKFGPEGYCUCVJGQETCVKEWPKVCT[
  

4
Chapter

Introduction
#HVGTVJGFGENKPGQTFGUVTWEVKQPQHVJG+PFWU%KXKNK\CVKQPCPGYEKXKNK\CVKQPECOGKPVQGZKUVGPEGDWVDGVYGGPVJGUG
VYQOCLQTGXGPVUVJGTGOWUVJCXGDGGPCICRQHRGTKQFCPFCDQWVYJKEJYGMPQYPQVJKPI6JGKPFWUEKXKNK\CVKQP
YCUFGENKPGFDGVYGGP$%VQ$%CPFUQVJG#T[CPUCTGUWRRQUGFVQJCXGOKITCVGFHTQO%GPVTCN
#UKCKPVQVJG+PFKCP5WDEQPVKPGPVKPUGXGTCNUVCIGUFWTKPI$%$%/QTGQXGTVJG#T[CPUYGTGVJG
HQWPFGTQHXGFKEEWNVWTG

The Vedic Age

%QOKPIQH Various Theories 1TKIKPCN Important #FXGPVCPF Vedic 'CTN[ .CVGT8GFKE


VJG#T[CPU regarding the Home of Vedic Facts Expansion 4KXGTU 8GFKE#IG #IG
CPEGUVT[QH VJG#T[CPU QH#T[CPU
#T[CPU in India 8GFKE6TKDGU -KPIUJKR
8GFKE)QFU #UUGODNKGU
8GFKE2QNKV[ The gram
8GFKE-WNC The visha
.CYCPF,WUVKE The Jana
'EQPQO[ 6JG4CUJVTC
4Q[CN1HEGTU
CPF/KPKUVGTU
Pastoralism #ITKEWNVWTG %TCHV Trade 4CVPKP
+PFWUVT[ The Platoon

)GQITCRJKECN Political -KPIFQOU 'EQPQO[ Social 4GNKIKQWU


Expansion 1TICPKUCVKQP .KHG Scene

4KUGQH$KI5VCVGU 2CVTKCTEJCN5[UVGO
)TQYVJQH4Q[CN2QYGT 8CTPC%QPEGRV
1TKIKPQH-KPIUJKR /CTTKCIG5[UVGO
(KXGUVCVG5[UVGOU 5KZVGGPUCPU-CTCU
#FOKPKUVTCVKXG/CEJKPGT[ 9QOGPU2QUKVKQP
H-40 The Vedic Age

x However the region of Sapta-Sindhu (the land of


COMING OF THE ARYANS the seven rivers) witnessed the composition of the
Some scholarsDGNKGXGVJCVVJG#T[CPUYGTG native to the sacred hymnUYJKEJFGUETKDGVJe early growth and
5QKNQH+PFKCYJKNGQVJGTUDGNKGXGVJCVVJG#T[CPUYGTG FGXGNQROGPV QH VJG XGFKE EWNVWTG .GV WU UGG VJG
XCTKQWUKPVGTpretations in the chart.
OKITCVGF HTQO QWVUKFG KG Central Asia
/CZ /WNNGT 
Europe Arctic region
$)6KNCM CPFUQQP Original Home of the Aryans
x +PHCEVVJGITQWRVJCVECOGVQ+PFKCTUVUGVVNGFKP Asia Theorists
Sapta Sindhu. 6JG[NKXGFJGTGCPFITCFWCNN[RWUJGF %GPVTCN#UKC /CZ/WNNGT
KPVQVJGXCNNG[UQHVJG)CPIGUCPFVJG;COWPC 6KDGV Dayanand Saraswati
x 6JG GCTNKGUV YCXG QH #T[CPU KU ECNNGF VJG Rig vedic Pamirs Mayor
people YJQCRRGCTGFKPCDQWV$% Steppes Brandenstein
x +VKUDGNKGXGFVJCVDGHQTGVJGEQOKPIQHVJG#T[CPU 6WTMKUVCP *WT\(GNF
KP+PFKCVJGITGCVGTRCTVQHVJG0QTVJGTP9GUVGTP Bactria ,%4QCF
+PFKCYCUEQXGTGFD[Dravidians#HVGTVJGCTTKXCN Europe Theorists
QHVJG#T[CPUVJG[OQXGFUQWVJYCTFU )GTOCP[RNCKPU Prof. Penka Sheart
x Literally AryansOGCPUVJGDGUVQTeminent. *WPICT[ )KNGU
x +PQTFGTVQRTQXGVJGKTUWRTGOCE[VJG#T[CPUVQQM 5QWVJGTP4WUUKC 0GJTKPI
VJKU PCOG CPF ECNNGF VJGOUGNXGU VJG #T[CPU CPF 9GUV$CNVKE Mach
they called their opponents Anarya, Dasy or Das. #TEVKE4GIKQP $)6KNCM
x 6JG #T[CPU YGTG JCPFUQOG HCKT CPF UNKO UJCRG 4WUUKCP5VGRRGU Prof. Belfy
persons. India Theorists
x 6JGKTOKPFUYGTGNNGFYKVJPCVWTCNKOCIKPCVKQPU Central India 4CLDCNK2CPFG[
x 6JG[YGTGDTCXGCPFNCDQTKQWUYKVJJKIJN[FGXGNQRGF Kashmir L. D. Kala
CVVKVWFG 5CRVC5KPFJW #%&CU
x 6JG[YGTGHCTOGTURGCUCPVCPFNQXGFPCVWTGKPVJG  Himalayan 2V.CZOKFJCT
form of god. Foothills Shastri
x They linked milk and wheaVDTGCF
x 6JG #T[CP EJKGH YCU UQHV VQYCTFU VJG FCUCU DWV Important Vedic Facts
DKVVGTN[JQUVKNGVQVJGFCU[WU6JGVGTOFCU[WJCV[C x 8GFKENKVGTCVWTGJCFITQYPWRKPEQWTUGQHVKOGCPF
UNCWIJVGTQHVJGFCU[WUKUTGRGCVGFN[OGPVKQPGFKP YCURCUUGFHTQOIGPGTCVKQPVQIGPGTCVKQPD[YQTFQH
the Rig veda. Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anupuru, Panchala, OQWVJ*GPEGVJGUGCTGECNNGFShruti (to hear).
x Some historians regard the Later Vedic period as
Bharata and Tritsu YGTGVJGEJKGHVTKDGUQHVJGRGTKQF
the Period of epics (long poems).
x 6JG #T[CPU (KTUV QH CNN UGVVNGF KP 6JG 5CRVC
VARIOUS THEORIES REGARDING THE Saindhava (Jambuduipa).
ANCESTRY OF ARYANS x #EEQTFKPIVQVJG4KIXGFC6JGSaraswati was the
OQUVRKQWUTKXGT
6JG UWDLGEV OCVVGT QH VJG QTKIKPCN JQOG QH #T[CPU x 6JGOQUVOGPVKQPGFTKXGT5KPFJW
CVVTCEVGFOCP[UEJQNCTUVQRTGUGPVVJGKTXKGYUDWVCNNVJG x /GPVKQPQHVJG)CPIGUVKOG
QRKPKQPUIKXGPD[VJGODGECOGCOCVVGTQHFKUEWUUKQPU x /GPVKQPQHVJG;COWPCVKOGU
x Rigveda mentions 40 rivers.
x /CP[ UEJQNCTU UWEJ CU )CPICPCVJ ,JC & 5 x 5KPFJWCPFKVUUGXGPVTKDWVCTKGUCTGECNNGFSapta
Trivedi, L. D. Kalla, etc. tried to prove that the Vedic Sindhu.
#T[CPUYGTGPGKVJGTHQTGKIPGTUPQTFKFVJG[OKITCVG x 6JGCTEQH)CPIC;COWPCKUECNNGFBrahmarshi
KPVQ +PFKC 6JG[ YGTG VJG KPFKIGPQWU RGQRNG  YJQ Pradesh.
regarded Sapta-Sindu as their original home. x .CPF DGVYGGP VJG 5CTCUYCVK CPF &TKUJCFYCVK KU
x 5QOG 'WTQRGCP UEJQNCTU CUUKIPGF VJG Baltic sea called Brahmavarta.
TGIKQPCUVJGQTKIKPCNJQOGQHVJG#T[CPU x 6JG0CFKUWMVCJ[OPUOGPVKQPUTKXGTU
x (TQOVJG*KOCNC[CUVQVJG8KPFJ[COQWPVCKPUCPF
x B.G. TilakUWIIGUVGFVJGpolar region.
DGVYGGPVJG'CUVGTPUGCCPF9GUVGTPUGCVJGTGYCU
x Some inscriptions QH CDQWV  $% HQWPF CV a special part of land which was called Aryavarta.
$QIJC\ MQK KP %KNKEKC
#UKC OKPQT  VJG ECRKVCN QH x GandharYCUHCOQWUHQTYQQNGPCTVKENGU
the ancient Hittites OGPVKQP UQOG #T[CP FGKVKGU x BhujvantYCUHCOQWUHQT5QOCTCU
YKPG 
UWEJ CU +PFTC 8CTWPC /KVTC CPF VJG 0CUCV[CU x +P VJG &CUJTCLCP Vashistha JGNRGF 5WFCU CPF

#UYKPU YJKEJRTQXGUCentral Asian theory as their Viswamitra helped the Union of ten kings and
homeland. instigated them tQIJVYKVJ5WFCU
The Vedic Age H-41

ADVENT AND EXPANSION OF ARYANS #UKMCPK %JGPCD 2WPLCD


IN INDIA Vipasa Beas 2WPLCD
2CTWUJPK Ravi 2WPLCD
Rig Veda sa[UVJCVVJGTGYGTGXCTKQWUITQWRUQH#T[CPU
5WVWFTK 5WVNGL 2WPLCD
and they came to InFKCKPUGCTEJQHHQQFCPFJCDKVCVKQP
Saraswati 5CTUWVK 4CLCUVJCP
CPF NCVGT QP VJG[ UGVVNGF JGTG 5QOG HCOQWU ITQWRU
Drishadvati )JCIICT%JKVCPI 4CLCUVJCP
YGTG 2CPEJCLCP
VJG OQUV HCOQWU ITQWR  Bharat,
Trissu, Kriva, etc. -WDJC -CDWN #HIJCPKUVCP
6JG 2CPEJCLCP EQPUKUVGF QH #PW &TWJCNC[C ;CFW 5WXCUVW Swati #HIJCPKUVCP
6WTXCUCPF2WTW+PDGVYGGP$%CPF$%VJG -TWOW -WTTCO #HIJCPKUVCP
#T[CPUYQWNFJCXGCTTKXGFKP+PFKC+VKUUWRRQUGFUQ )QOCN )QOCVK #HIJCPKUVCP
x 6JG 'ZRCPUKQP QH VJG #T[CPU YCU UVCTVGF HTQO 2WPLCD
#HIJCPKUVCPCPFYGTGGZRCPFGFWRVQVJG9GUVGTP )CPIC )CPIC Uttar Pradesh
EQCUVQH)CPICTKXGT ;COWPC ;COWPC Uttar Pradesh
x 6JG #T[CPU YGTG CYCTG QH VJG *KOCNC[CU DWV
VJG[FKFPQVMPQY8KPFJ[CEJCN#TCXCNK5CVRWFC 6Q EQPENWFG YG ECP UC[ VJCV VJG #T[CPU YGTG NKXKPI
CPF 5QWVJGTP 2NCVGCWU 5Q YG ECP UC[ VJCV KP KP VJG GCUV QH %CURKCP UGC KP #WZWU TKXGTU TGKIP &T
4KI8GFKERGTKQFVJG#T[CPUYGTGGZRCPFGFHTQO *QTOGN[KUQHVJGQRKPKQPVJCVVJG#T[CPECOGVQ+PFKC
KPVQNGXQITQWRU6JGTUVYCUQHManav dynasty and
*KOCNC[CVQ/CNXCKP0QTVJ5QWVJFKTGEVKQPCPF
VJGQVJGTYCU.F[PCUV[&WTKPIVJKUXGFKERGTKQFVJG[
HTQOVJG9GUVGTPEQCUVQH)CPICVQ#HIJCPKUVCP
FKFPQVGPVGTCJGCFHTQO2WPLCD
KP'CUV9GUVFKTGEVKQP
x In Rig Veda period they had no approach in the RIGVEDIC/EARLY VEDIC AGE
5QWVJGTPCPF'CUVGTPRCTVUQH+PFKC
x They lived in Saptasindh area for a long period
(1500 B.C. - 1000 B.C.)
CPF NCVGT QP FWTKPI post-vedic era they started
TGCEJKPIVQYCTFUVJG'CUVCPF5QWVJ 
x )TCFWCNN[ VJG[ GUVCDNKUJGF VJGKT UQXGTGKIPV[ KP 6JG4KI8GFCKUVJGOCKPUQWTEGQHVJG#T[CP%KXKNK\CVKQP
-WTWMUJGVTC-CUJK-QUJCN8KFGJ2CPEJCNCPF KGVJGGCTN[XGFKEGTC#VVJCVVKOG#HIJCPKUVCPYCUC
VJGEQCUVCNCTGCQH)CPICCPF;COWPC
RCTVQH+PFKC+VKUMPQYPVJTQWIJVJG4KI8GFCCUVJG
x +P VJG DGIKPPKPI QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ $% VJG[
PCOGUQH#HICPKTKXGTUCTGKNNWUVTCVGFKP4KI8GFC6JGUG
QTICPKUGF /CICFJ #PIC 2CWPFTC -CNKPI
TKXGTUCTG-WDJC-TWOW)QOCVK5WXCTVWGVE
5JCDCTRWNKPFCPF5QWVJGTP+PFKC
x 5KPFJW 8KVCUVC #UMKPK 2CTWUJPK 8KRCUJC

VEDIC RIVERS 5JWVWFTK5CTCUYCVK;COWPCCPF)CPICCTGENGCTN[


KNNWUVTCVGF KP VJG 4KIXGFC YJKEJ EQPTOU VJG CTGC
#NVQIGVJGTTKXGTUCTGTGHGTTGFVQKPVJG4KI8GFCQH QH2WPLCDCPFUQOGRCTVUQHPQTVJGTP+PFKCVQDGVJG
OQUVN[ HTQO #HIJCPKUVCP 6JG  RTKPEKRCN TKXGTU CTG NKXKPIUQHVJG#T[CPU
IKXGPKPVJGVCDNG +P4KIXGFCYGPFVJGFGUETKRVKQPU
x 6JGKNNWUVTCVKQPQHENQWFNKIJVGPKPIVQTTGPVTCKPKPI
QHVJGXCTKQWUTKXGTUQH#HIJCPKUVCP6JG[CTGKubha,
Suvastu, Gomati and Kramu. The Saptasindhus CPF ITGCV OQWPVCKPU RTQXG VJCV VJG CTGCU QH
rivers, KG 5CTCUYCVK 5KPFJW XKUVCUJC #UKDKPK 2WPLCDCPF$TCJOCXCTVCYGTGHWTVKNGCPFXGTFCPV
RCTWUJKPK XCRCUC CPF UJCVWFTK CTG CNUQ GZRNCKPGF KP #EEording to the Rigveda this area was divided into
VJG4KIXGFC+PKV)CPICKUPCOGFQPN[QPEGYJGTGCU many parts called Vedic Jana)CPFJCTK$JWLXCPV
;COWPCKUTGRGCVGFVJTKEG+VTGGEVUVJCVGCTNKGTVJG[
#PW&TWJCNC[6WTXCU2WTWCPF$JCTCVYGTGUQOG
YGTGGZRCPFGFKPVJGCTGCQH5CRVCUKPFJWCPFVKNNVJGP
WPCYCTGQHVJG)CPIC;COWPCURNCKP HCOQWU,CPCU
5QOGQHVJGOKPQTTKXGTUYGTG4CUC#PWOCVK#UWPKVK x 6JG 4KI 8GFC GZRNCKPU VJCV VJG 2WTWXCPUJK #T[C
4CMC)WPIW5WUQOC/CTWF8TFJCUGVE NKXGFQPVJGDCPMUQHVhe river saraswati.
x 5KOKNCTN[ ;CFWXCPUJK QP VJG DCPM QH 5KPFJW CPF
Name of the rivers illustrated in the Rigveda
%JKPCDVJGSanjay VanshiKP2CPEJCN#PWXCPUJK
Rigveda Modern Name Region &TWJCNC[CPF6WTXCUKPVJGXCTKQWUCTGCUQH2WPLCD
5KPFJW +PFWU 2WPLCD  6JWU HTQO VJG PCOGU QH TKXGTU OQWPVCKPU
Vitasta ,JGNWO 2WPLCD =*KOXCPV KG *KOCNC[C /WPLCXCPV KG
H-42 The Vedic Age

*KPFWMWUJ? CPF QEGCP YG CTG KPHQTOGF CDQWV VJG )WCTFKPI TQCFU JGTFU OGP 
 2WUCP
geographical area in which Rigvedic people lived. stray-cattles, light
6JG 0CFKUWMVC QH VJG 4KIXGFC OGPVKQPU  TKXGTU  4WFTC Storm, epidemics, disasters
YJKEJKPENWFGVJG)CPIGUKPVJGGCUVCPFVJG-WDJC  ;COC Lord of the dead

-CDWN KPVJG9GUV  Soma &KXKPGFTKPM
OKNM EWTF DCTNG[
  8C[W 9KPF)QF
 8KUJPW #EVKXKVKGUQHVJG5WP
The Vedic territories mentioned in the Rig Veda was
 &[CWU )QFQHJGCXGP
FKXKFGFKPVQXCTKQWUVTKDCNRTKPEKRCNKVKGUTWNGFD[VTKDCN
MKPIU6JGUGCTGIKXGPKPVJGVCDNG  2WUJCP )QFQH/CTTKCIG
#EEQTFKPIVQ4KIXGFCVJGHCOQWU&CUTCLCP;QFFJCQT C. Female Divinities
VJG DCVVNG QH VGP MKPIU YCU HQWIJV DGVYGGP 5WFCU C  Ushas 6JG)QFFGUUQH&CYP
Bharat King of the TritUWHCOKN[CPFVJGEQPHGFGTCE[  Prithvi 6JG)QFFGUUQH'CTVJ
QH VGP YGNNMPQYP VTKDGU  Puru, Yadu, Turvasa,  #FKVK /QVJGTQH5WT[CQVJGTIQFU
Anu, Druhyu, Alina, Paktha, Bhalnas, Siva  Ratri The spirit of the night
and Vishanin +P VJG DNQQF[ CPF FGEKUKXG DCVVNG QP
 #TCP[CPK The goddese of the forest
VJG DCPMU QH TKXGT 2CTWUhni, the Bharatas emerged
XKEVQTKQWU  Ila 6JG)QFFGUUQHQHHGTKPIU
6JGUGCTGIKXGPKPVJGVCDNG  Dishana 6JG)QFFGUUQHPGIGVCVKQP
Vedic Aryan Tribes Region
The Vedic Polity
 The Bharatas $GVYGGP5CTCUYCVK;COWPC x 6JG NCPF QH VJG XGFKE #T[CPU YCU FKXKFGF KPVQ
 6JG2WTGGU Saraswati UGXGTCNUOCNNVTKDCNRTKPEKRCNKVKGU'CEJVTKDGJCF
 6JG;CFW6WTXCUC 5QWVJGTP2WPLCD its own monarch. There were constant wars among
VJGUGVTKDGU
 6JG)CPFJCTKU 0QTVJ9GUVQH+PFKC
x There were a few non-monarchial states as well.
 Matsyas & Chedis 4CLCUVJCP/CNYC These states were called gana.
 6JG5TKPLC[C 2WPLCD x The ganapati or tyestha (elder) was the head of a
 The Bhalanas Bolan Pass non-monarchial state.
x 6JG CTGC TWNGF D[ VJG #T[CPU YCU MPQYP CU
 The Paktha $CUKPQH-WTTCO
Aryavarta$JCTCVYCUVJGOQUVKORQTVCPVVTKDG
 The Vaikarnas Kashmir CHVGTYJQOVJKUEQWPVT[JCUDGGPPCOGF$JCTCV
 The Krivi 6JG5KPFJW#UKMPK x Divodas and SudasYGTGVJGVYQTGPQWPGFTWNGT
 The Sivas *[FKURGU#EGUKPG
%JCPCD of the Bharat race.
x &KXQFCU HQWIJV CICKPUV 6WTWXCUCU 2WTWU CPF
Non-Aryan Tribes

&CUCUQH&CU[WU
;CFWU
x 5WFCUJCFVQIJVVJGYCTQHVGPMKPIU
 5CODCTC
 Kikatas 5CTCUYCVK;COWPC Kingship
x 6JG -KPIUJKR KP VJG XGFKE RGTKQF UGGOU VQ DG
 The Panis Rase (Syr Dariya)
JGTGFKVCT[DWVMKPIFKFPQVGPLQ[WPNKOKVGFRQYGTU

x 6JG-KPIYCUTGURQPUKDNGHQTVJGRTQVGEVKQPQHVJG
Gods/Deities Association with VTKDGAitarey Brahman denotes that the Kingship
KP VJG XGFKE CIG QTKIKPCVGF CU C TGUWNV QH JWOCP
A. Highest Position
needs and military necessity.
(Male) x +P VKOGU QH RGCEG VJG MKPI FKURGPUGF LWUVKEG CPF
 Indra 9CT)QF RGTHQTOGFUCETKEG
(KTG )QF +PVGTOGFKCVG DGVYGGP x The ideal of Kingship was very high. He was called
 #IPK
)QFUOGP Mitra in Kindness, VarunaKPXKTVWGUCPFIndra
)QFQHYCVGTUENQWFU1EGCPU KP8CNQWT
 8CTWPC TKXGTUTGIWNCVGU5WP&CYPFC[ x *KUEQTQPCVKQPQCVJDGHQTGVJGRGQRNGYCU/C[O[
PKIJVTKVW
UGCUQPU NKHGCPFQHHURTKPIDGEWVQHHKH+YQTMCICKPUV[QWT
B. Others (Male) Gods KPVGTGUVU
x #EEQTFKPIVQ/CPW-KPIKUVJGIQFQHIQFU/C[
 5WP5WT[C )QFQH.KIJV
DG C EJKNF MKPI FQGUPV OCVVGT JG UJQWNF PQV DG
 Savitri )QFQH.KIJV
)C[CVTK/CPVTC disregarded.
The Vedic Age H-43

Popular Assemblies CHHCKTUCPFKPCNNTGNKIKQWUOCVVGTU*GCEEQORCPKGF


x Sabha and Smiti controlled the affairs of vedic VJG-KPIGXGPVQDCVVNG9GJCXGUGGPKVCNTGCF[
UVCVGU6JGUGVYQCUUGODNKGUYGTGECNNGFVJGVYQ JQY 8KUJYCOKVTC CPF 8CUJKUVJC JCF GZGTEKUGF
daughters of Prajapati. their powers in the Dasrajan war.
x The Sabha YCU VJG DQF[ QH VJG GNFGTU CPF YCU  6JG 5WRTGOG %QOOCPFGT QH VJG CTOGF HQTEGU
EQPUVKVWVGF OCKPN[ QH VJG $TCJOCPCU CPF TKEJ was called Senani. There were spies (spasas)
patrons who controlled the vagrancy of the King GORNQ[GFVQEQNNGEVKPHQTOCVKQPCDQWVVJG-KPIFQO
CPF WUGF VQ CFXKUG VJG -KPI +VU OCNG OGODGTU CPFVJGRGQRNG+P4KIXGFCYGJCXGCPWODGTQH
were called Sambhay and female Sambhavati. RGTUQPCNKVKGU YJQ YGTG NCDQTKQWU 8GTKFKECN
VTWG
x 5CDJC ECP DG EQORCTGF YKVJ VJG Council of States URGCMKPI  CPF GZRGTV 6JG[ YGTG /KVTC 8CTWPC

4CL[C5CDJC QHVJGUGFC[U #IPK#FKV[CGVE6JGUGYGTGECNNGFVJGFWVCUYJQ
x The Samiti was the House of common people and its CEVGFCUCODCUUCFQTUDGVYGGPVJGFKHHGTGPVUVCVGU
OGODGTU YGTG ECNNGF vishah. Its head was called Ratnin (the minsters and advisors)
Ishan or pati. x 5WVC 4CVJMCT 2WTCR 5RCUJ GVE YJKEJ CTG
x 6JG[YGTGTGURQPUKDNGVQVJGRGQRNGHQTVJGKTYQTM KORQTVCPV QHEKCNU %QNNGEVKXGN[ VJG[ CTG ECNNGF
CPFYGTGGNGEVGFD[VJGEQOOQPRGQRNG Ratnin. #NNVJGTQ[CNQHEKCNUYGTGTGURQPUKDNGVQ
x Samiti controlled the King and participated in the the King.
GNGEVKQPQHVJG-KPI+VECPDGEQORCTGFYKVJVQFC[U
.QM5CDJC
*QWUGQHEQOOQPU  The platoon (The sepoy organisation)
x 6JG5CDJCYCUCPQNFGTKPUVKVWVKQPCPFKVGZKUVGFKP x 6JG #T[CPU YGTG ITGCV YQTTKQTU 6JG -KPI JCF
VJGGCTN[XGFKECIG6JGUCOKVKYCUVJGRTQFWEVQH VTCKPGFCPTGIWNCTOKNKVCT[HQTEGU6JGECXCNT[YKVJ
FGXGNQROGPVCPFKVGOGTIGFFWTKPIVJGNCVGXGFKE chariot was called the Rathin CPFVJGHQTEGUHQWIJV
period. on foot were called The Padati. 6JG[WUGFUYQTF
DQYCPFCTTQYU,CXGNKP5JKGNFDWEMNGCPFJGNOGV
Atharvaveda +P4KIXGFCVJGKNNWUVTCVKQPQHUGEWTGFHQTVUQPVJG
x +P VJG #VJCTXCXGFJC VJGUG VYQ CUUGODNKGU CTG DQTFGTUKUCNUQHQWPF/QUVYCTUYGTGHQWIJVHTQO
FGUETKDGF CU VJG uterine sisters VJG FCWIJVGTU bullock-driven chariots.
QH 2TCLCRCVK .CVGT XGFCU TGEQTF VJCV VJG 5CDJC Law and order : The protection of the people was the
HWPEVKQPGFCUCEQWTVQHLWUVKEG UCETGFFWV[QHVJG-KPI+PTGVWTPVJGRGQRNGRCKFJKO
x $GUKFGUVJGUGVYQCUUGODNKGUVJGTGYGTGVidath DCNK
VTKDWVGUQTVCZ 6JG$CNKYCUCMKPFQHVCZRCKFKP
and GanaYJKEJCNUQCTGFGUETKDGFKPVJG4KIXGFC DQVJD[chash and kind.
The Gram (the village) 
x #ITQWRQH-WNCHQTOGFCITCO+VUEJKGHYCUECNNGF
x ,WUVKEG YCU DCUGF QP &JCTOC 6JG -KPI
)TCOKP QT )TCOKPK +P VJG 4KIXGFC VJG YQTF
CFOKPKUVGTGF,WUVKEGYKVJVJGCUUKUVCPEGQHNGICN
)TCOYCUWUGFHQTVJGXKNNCIGTU
CFXKUQTUKPENWFKPIJKU2WTQJKVC2WPKUJOGPVYCU
Gramini YCUVJGJGCFQHVJGXKNNCIG6JG)TCOKPK
not so heavy and the main emphasis was on the
was also called The vrajapati. He worked as an
UCVKUHCEVKQP QH VJG RGTUQP YTQPIGF 1PN[ *CTF
KORQTVCPVEJCKPDGVYGGPVJG-KPICPFVJGUWDLGEVU
EQTGETKOKPCNUYGTGIKXGPVJGECRKVCNRWPKUJOGPV
The Visha (the clan) )GPGTCNEQPKEVUYGTGUQNXGFD[VJG)TCOKPKCPF
x +VU HWPEVKQPU CTG PQV ENGCTN[ FGUETKDGF KP VJG CTDKVTCVQTUQHVJG)TCO2CPEJC[CV6JGETKOKPCNU
Rigveda. In fact, it was an organisation larger than YGTGUWDLGEVGFVQTG
#IPKRCTKMUJCQTCEKFVGUV 
VJG)TCO+VUJGCFYCUECNNGFVishpati. CPFYCVGT
LCNRCTKMUJC FGCNU
x #PWODGTQHETKOGUUWEJCUVJGHVDWTINCT[JKIJYC[
The Jana (the people) TQDDGT[EJGCVKPI
URGEKCNN[CVICODNKPI GVECTG
x +VYCUCNUQCEQORCP[QHRGQRNGDWVNCTIGTVJCPVJG mentioned. Cattle-lifting was the commonest of all.
8KUJC6JG4KIXGFCTGGEVUVJCVVJGCFOKPKUVTCVQT x 6JGTG YCU C U[UVGO QH DNQQFOQPG[
XCKTCFG[
QHVJG,CPCYCUECNNGFRajan and the commander VJTQWIJYJKEJGPOKV[ECPDGTGEQORGPUGF CPFVJG
QHVJG,CPCYCUECNNGFGopa or Gopta. RWPKUJOGPVHQTOWTFGTYCUUJCVCFC[C
GSWCNVQQPG
The Rashtra (the nation) JWPFTGFEQYUQTEQKPU 
x #EEQTFKPIVQVJG4KIXGFC4CUJVTCYCUCVGTOWUGF x #NNVJGCDQXGYQTFUKPFKECVGVJCVVJGNCYUQHLWUVKEG
for the whole nation or the state. Some scholars CPFVJGSWCNKV[QTOCIPKVWFGQHRWPKUJOGPVYGTG
have said that the Rashtra was the indication of ZGFCEEQTFKPIVQENCUUGU
x /QPG[YCUHTGSWGPN[DQTTQYGF
TKPC CPFNGPVCPF
confederate administration. The Rashtra consisted
QHVGPKVYCUPGXGTTGRCKF6JGFGDVGTJCFVQUGTXG
of several Janas.
CUCDQWPFGFUGTXCPVQHVJGETGFKVQTHQTCEGTVCKP
7KH5R\DORIFLDOVDQG0LQLVWHUV period. Interest was paid in kind.
x 2WTQJKV 5GPCPK )TCOKPK &QQV GVE YGTG UQOG x 2TQRGTV[ YCU KPJGTKVGF D[ UQPU +PFKXKFWCN
KORQTVCPV QHEKCNU 6JG -KPI JCF VQ OCKPVCKP C QYPGTUJKRQHNCPF
WTXCTCQTMUJGVTC JCFDGIWP
%QWPEKN QH /KPKUVGTU YJKEJ KPENWFGF C 2WTQJKV x The king was not the owner of all land - its
2WTQJKV
VJGRTKGUV CFXKUGFVJGMKPIKPVJGUVCVG ownership was with the people.
H-44 The Vedic Age

x Everything was fair in war - raid, night attacks x SimpNG CITKEWNVWTCN VQQNU PCOGN[ VJG NCPICNC QT
CPFMKFPCRRKPI6JGRCNCEGUYGTGUGVVQTGCPFVJG UKTC
VJGRNQWIJ VJGYQQFGPRJCNC
RNQWIJUJCTG 
YKPPKPIDQQV[YCUUJCTGFD[VJG-KPICPFVJGUQNFKGTU the Khanitra (hoe), the datra (sickle) and the
RCTCUWG
CZG YGTGOCFGWUGQHRTQDCDN[WUGFHQT
Some Words mentioned in Rigveda UJKHVKPIEWNVKXCVKQPU
Word Times mentioned Craft-Industry
1O 1028 x People were engaged in many other economic
Brahmana 14 CEVKXKVKGU *WPVKPI ECTRGPVT[ VCPPKPI YGCXKPI
chariot-making, metal smeltry, etc. were some
Kshatriya 09 UWEJCEVKXKVKGU
Vaishya 01 x 8GFKE#T[CPUWUGFVQYGCTEQNQTHWNENQVJUQHEQVVQP
5JWFTC 01 CPF YQQN 5WEJ EQNQTHWN ENQVJU YGTG GODTQKFGTGF
D[ YQOGP MPQYP CU 2GUJCUMCTK 6JG YGCXGT KU
#UJYC 315 called as Vaya, whereas the Charakha is called
)CW  as Tasar.
)CPIC 01 x 6JG)QNFUOKVJYCUECNNGFCU*KTCP[CMCTVJGWUGF
OCMGLGYGNNGT[QHIQNFDQVJHQTJWOCPCPFJQTUGU
5COWFTC 01
x The smity was related to copper only. Iron was not
;COWPC 03 GPVKTGN[ WPMPQYP
MTKUJPCC[CU  JQYGXGT VJG
-WNRC 01 OGVCNNWTI[YCUPQVMPQYP
4CL[C 01 Trade
Vis  x 6JGVTCFGYCUQPVJGNGXGNUQHGZEJCPIGUQPN[VJCV
,CPC  YCUQHDCTVGTU[UVGO
x The people involved in trade was called as Pani.
The Kula (the family) x %QYUYGTGVJGOQUVHCXQWTGFOGFKWOQHGZEJCPIG
x Social life YCUVJGDCUKUQHDQVJUQEKCNCPFRQNKVKECN The priests received cows, horses and gold
organisations. It was the smallest unit of the social ornaments as fees for performing sacTKEGU
and political organisations. Its head was called
Kulap or Grihapati.
LATER VEDIC AGE (1000 - 600 BC)

The periQF VJCV HQNNQYGF 4KI 8GFKE #IG KU MPQYP CU
6JG GCTN[ XGFKE GEQPQO[ YCU OQUVN[ DCUGF QP ECVVNG NCVGT8GFKE#IG6JKUCIGYKVPGUUGFVJGEQORQUKVKQPQH
DTGGFKPI CPF CITKEWNVWTG +P CFFKVKQP RGQRNG YGTG three Veda samhitas namely, the samveda samhita, the
engaged in crafted trade. ;WLWTXGFC UCOJKVC VJG #VJCTXCXGFC UCOJKVC CNQPI
Pastoralism YKVJVJG$TCJOCPCUCPFVJG7RCPKUJCFUQHCNNVJGHQWT
x 6JG GCTN[ 8GFKE #T[CPU YGTG RCUVQTCNKUVU (QT 8GFCU 6JKU RGTKQF KU CNUQ OCTMGF CU +TQP 2)9 #IG
OKNMRTQFWEVUYQQNUNGCVJGTCITKEWNVWTGFTCYKPI DGECWUG QH VJG WUG QH KTQP KP CITKEWNVWTG CPF RCKPVGF
chariots, the animals were raised. The Early Vedic ITG[YCTG
2)9 
RGQRNGU VQVCN EWNVWTG YCU TGXQNXGF CTQWPF VJG
YGCNVJ KP VJG HTQO QH ECVVNG *GPEG VJG WPKV QH

HCOKN[YCUECNNGFCU)QVTC #NNNCVGTXGFKEVGZVYGTGEQORKNGFKPVJGWRRGT)CPIGVKE
x %GTGOQPKGUYGTGRGTHQTOGFCVVJGVKOGQHTGVWTPKPI DCUKP FWTKPI  $% &WTKPI VJG NCVGT 8GFKE
QHECVVNGHTQORCUVWTGUECNNGFCU)QTCLC/WJTVC RGTKQFVJG#T[CPUOQXGFKPVQ'CUVYCTFCPFUQWVJYCTF
x #NCTIGPWODGTQHYQTFUCTGFGTKXGFHTQOVJGYQTF CTGCU6JGNKVGTCVWTGQHVJKURGTKQFOGPVKQPUCDQWVVJG
IQ OGCPKPI EQY # YGCNVJ[ RGTUQP YCU MPQYP #TCDKCP UGC VJG XKPFJ[CP TCPIG CPF VJG 0QTVJGTP
CU IQOCV CPF VJG FCWIJVGT ECNNGF FWJKVTK YJKEJ RNCKPUQHVJG)CPIC;COWPC&QCD
means one who milks the cow.  +PVJG'CUV#T[CPUJCDKVWCVGFVJG#YCFJTGIKQP
x The word gaveshana literally means search for CHVGT VJCV VJG[ GPVGTGF KPVQ $KJCT # RTQQH QH VJG
EQYUDWVKVCNUQOGCPUDCVVNGUKPEGOCP[DCVVNGU Eastward march was given in the satapatha Brahmana
YGTGHQWIJVQXGTECVVNG VJTQWIJVJGUVQT[QHAgni and Videha.
The Later VedasIKXGVJTGGDTQCFFKXKUKQPUQH+PFKC
Agriculture K  #T[CXCTVC
0QTVJGTP+PFKC
x 6JG GXKFGPEG HQT CITKEWNVWTG KP EQORCTKUQP YKVJ ii) Madhyadesa (Central India)
pastoral activities in the portions is meager and KKK  &CMUJKPC2CVJC
5QWVJGTP+PFKC
mostly late insertions.
x 6JG 8GFKE #T[CPU MPQY DCUKE CITKEWNVWTCN 
VGEJPKSWGUNKMGVQCFFHGTVKNK\GTUVQEWVETQRUYKVJ
the help QH UKEMNGU VQ CTTCPIG YCVGT UQWTEGU GVE (1) Rise of Big States
6JG[RTQFWEGF[CTC
OQFGTPLCWQTDCTNG[ YJKEJ The small trKDCN UVCVGU QH 4KI 8GFKE RGTKQF YGTG
was rather a generic word for cereals. TGRNCEGFD[RQYGTHWNUVCVGU/CP[HCOQWUVTKDGUQH
The Vedic Age H-45

4KI8GFKERGTKQFNKMG$JCTCVCU2CTWU6TKVUWUCPF  5VJCRCVK  %JKGH,WFIG


6WTXCUCURCUUGFKPVQQDNKXKQPCPFPGYVTKDGUNKMG  )TCO[CXCFKP  8KNNCIG,WFIG
VJG -WTWU CPF 2CPEJCNCU TQUG KPVQ RTQOKPGPEG Rathakara - Chariot marker
There was the transformation of the Rigvedic  #FJKMTKVC  8KNNCIGQHEGT
NQYGUVKPVJGTCPM
Jana
OGCPKPIRGQRNGQTVTKDG KPVQVJGLCPCRCFC

OGCPKPI VJG CTGC YJGTG VJG VTKDG UGVVNGF  6JG Kingdoms of the Later Vedic Period
rajanyas QH VJG 4KIXGFKE CIG PQY DGECOG VJG Kingdom Location
kshatriyas of their territories.  2CPEJCN  $CTGKNN[$CFC[WP
(2) Growth of Royal Power (CTTWMJCDCFKP72
  -WUJKPCICT  0QTVJGTPTGIKQPQH
In later VedicRGTKQF4KIXGFKERQRWNCTCUUGODNKGU Uttar Pradesh
lost their importance and royal power increased. 3. Kashi - Modern Varanasi
The Vidhata completely disappeared.   -QUJCN  (CK\CDCFKP7VVCT
 6JGUCDJCDGECOGOQTGRQYGTHWNVJCPVJGUCOKVK Pradesh
CPFYCUPQYFQOKPCVGFD[VJGNobles and   5QWVJGTP/CFTC  0GCT#OTKVUCT
VJG$TCJOCPU0QYYQOGPYGTGPQVCNNQYGFVQ   7VVCTC/CFTC  -CUJOKT
CVVGPFVJG5CDJC   'CUVGTP/CFTC  0GCT-CPITC
  -GMC[C  1PVJGDCPMQH$GCU
(3) Origin of Kingship TKXGTGCUVQH)CPFJCT
There were two theories regarding the origin of kingdom
kingship. The Aitareya Brahmana GZRNCKPGF   )CPFJCT  4CYCNRKPFK
VJGTCVKQPCNVJGQT[QHGNGEVKQPD[EQOOQPEQPUGPV Peshawar
of origin of kingship and the Taittiriya Brahmana

GZRNCKPGFVJGFKXKPGQTKIKPQHMKPIUJKR
x The Early Vedic Period was a Bronze (chalcolithic)
(4) Five Types of State System #IGEWNVWTGYJGTGCUVJGNCVGTXGFKERGTKQFYCUCP
K  4CL[C
%GPVTCNMKPIFQO o4WNGFD[VJG4CLC +TQP#IGEWNVWTG
 KK  $JQL[C
5QWVJGTPMKPIFQO o4WNGFD[VJG$JQLC x The transition of vedic society from semi-nomadic
 KKK 5YCTCL[C
9GUVGTPMKPIFQO o4WNGFD[VJG5XCTCV life to settled agriculture in the later vedic age
 KX 8CKTCL[C
0QTVJGTPMKPIFQO o4WNGFD[VJG8KTCV lead to an increase in trade and competition for
 X  5COTCL[C
'CUVGTP MKPIFQO  o 4WNGF D[ VJG TGUQWTEGU
Samrat x 4KEG DCTNG[ DGCPU UGUCOG CPF YJGCV YGTG
(5) Administrative Machinery EWNVKXCVGF
x Rice is called VrihiKPVJG8GFKEVGZVU
In the work of administration the king was
x 0QYVJGCITKEWNVWTCNVGEJPQNQI[YCUFGXGNQRGF
CUUKUVGF D[ C ITQWR QH QHEGTU YJQ YGTG MPQYP
The farmers started plowing lands with the help of
as Ratnins
,GYGNU 6JGMKPITGCNK\GFVCZGUNKMG
VQDWNNU
DCNKUWNMCCPFDJCIC
x 8CTKQWUDKPFUQHNGPVKNUYGTGCNUQRTQFWEGFD[VJG
Important RatninsCPFQVJGT+ORQTVCPVQHECNU
later Vedic people.
 2WTQJKVC  %JKGH RTKGUV CNUQ ECNNGF VJG
x )TKJCYCUVJGDCUKEWPKVQHCITKEWNVWTCNRTQFWEVKQP
Rastra gopa.
with the grahapati emerging as the defacto
 5GPCPK  5WRTGOG %QOOCPFGT QH VJG
owner of the land.
#TO[
x .CPFYCUEWNVKXCVGFYKVJVJGJGNRQHVJGshudras
 8TCLCRCVK  1HEGTKPEJCTIG QH VJG RCUVWTG
and the slaves.
land
x 6JG 8CKU[C YGTG VJG RTQFWEKPI ENCUU CPF VJG
 ,KXCITKDJC  2QNKEGQHEGT
-UJCVTK[CU
TCLCP[C CPFVJG$TCJOCPCU
RTKGUVU 
 5RCUCU&WVCU 5RKGUYJQUQOGVKOGUYQTMGFCU
FGRGPFGFQPVJGOHQTVJGKTUWDUKUVGPEG
messengers
 9KVJ VJG ITQYVJ QH EKXKNKUCVKQP VJG XQNWOG QH
 )TCOCPK  .GCFGTQHVJGXKNNCIG
VTCFG CPF EQOOGTEG JCF KPETGCUGF D[ NGCRU CPF
 /CFJ[COCUK  /GFKCVQTQHFKURWVGU
DQWPFU +PNCPF VTCFG YCU ECTTKGF QP YKVJ VJG
 -WNCRCVK  (COKN[JGCF
MKTCVCUKPJCDKVKPIVJGOQWPVCKPU
 $JCICFWIJC  6CZEQNNGEVQT
x The coins which weTGKPEKTEWNCVKQPYGTG0KUJMC
 5CPITCJKVTK  6TGCUWTGTU
5CVCOCPC CPF -TKUJPCNC 6JG WPKV XCNWG QH
 /CJKUJK  6JG%JKGH3WGGP IQQFU YCU C IQNF DCT ECNNGF PKUJMC YGKIJKPI
 5WVC  %JCTKQVGGT VJTGG JWPFTGF CPF VYGPV[ TCVKU YJKEJ YCU CNUQ
 )QXKMCTVCPC  -KPIUECORCPKQPKPICOGU the weight of a satamana.
 2CNQICNC  %QWTVKGTCPFOGUUGPIGT x #-TKUJPCNCYGKIJGFQPGTCVKKGITCOU
Takshan - Carpenter x Pani was a class of merchants who controlled the
 -UJCVTK  %JCODGTNCKP trade.
 #MUJCXCRC  #EEQWPVCPV
H-46 The Vedic Age

x *QWUGUYGTGOCFGQHYQQF 3. Van-prastha- ashrama (partial retirement from


The Taittiriya AranyakasTGHGTCDQWVCURGEKCN JQWUGJQNFNKHG
V[RG QH JQWUG MPQYP CU &JCPFJCPK
VTGCUWTG 4. Sanaya-ashrama (complete retirement from social
JQWUG  6JG Atharvaveda OGPVKQPU CDQWV life)
Patninam sadan (womens apartment).
x BipathaYCUCTQWIJXGJKENGHQTVTCPURQTVIQQFU 
Social Life: x /CTTKCIG YCU EQPUKFGTGF CU OCKP FWV[ QH XGFKE
+P NCVGT XGFKE RGTKQF VJG RGQRNG FKURGTUGF KP XCTKQWU RGQRNG CPF JGPEG KV DGECOG C RQKPV QH TGNKIKQWU
RCTVUQH+PFKC6JKUCHHGEVGFUQEKCNUVTWEVWTGUCPFOCFG importance. In the grihastasashrama a person
KVOQTGEQORNGZ KUGZRGEVGFD[VJGECPQPUVQIGVOCTTKGF
   +VKURGTEGKXGFVJCVVJTQWIJOCTTKCIGCPFIKXKPI
6JGGNFGUVQHOCNGOGODGTUQHVJGHCOKN[2GTEGKXGFCU DKTVJ VQ EJKNFTGP QPG EQWNF DGEQOG HTGG HTQO VJG
the head of family, called as grihapati. rina
NKVNQCPTGURQPUKDKNKV[ QHJKURCTGPVU
Concept of Purushartha x In this period, 'Inter-Varna' marriages were
'XGT[OCPYCUGZRGEVGFVQHQNNQYHQWTOCKPFWVKGUKP disliked, where as 'similar gotraHCOKN[OCTTKCIGU
his life- YGTGHQTDKFFGP6JGTGYGTGVYQV[RGUQHNGICNK\GF
UVTWEVWTGUQHOCTTKCIGU
x AnulomaOCTTKCIGYCUWUGFVQRGTHQTODGVYGGP
DTKFGITQQO HTQO JKIJGT 8CTPC CPF  DTKFG HTQO
lower Varna.
x PratilomaOCTTKCIGYCUWUGFVQRGTHQTODGVYGGP
Dharma #TVJC Kalma Moksha DTKFGITQQO HTQO NQYGT varna CPF DTKFG HTQO
Concept of Varna higher varna.
+PVJGVJOCPFCNCKP2WTWUJUWMVCQH4KIXGFC There are eight types of marriages mentioned
ENGCTEWVFKXKUKQPQHVJGUQEKGV[JCUDGGPOGPVKQPGF in the writings of smriti writers, These are of
#EEQTFKPIVQVJKUU[UVGOXCTKQWUFWVKGUCUUKIPGFVQ marriages.
each varna like, Brahma-vivaha (CVJGT IKXGU JKU FCWIJVGTU JCPF
Brahman Teaching, learning, performance and hosting of VQ VJG MPQY NGFIGCDNG CPF YGNN
UCETKEG DGJCXGF DTKFGITQQO YKVJ RTQRGT
Kshatriya .GCTPKPI JQUVKPI UCETKEG CPF RTQVGEVKQP TKVGUCPFTKVWCNU
of people and land. Daiva-vivaha (CVJGT IKXGU VJG DTKFGU JCPF VQ
Vaishya 6TCFG CPF CITKEWNVWTG VJG CITKEWNVWTKUVU the priest as dakshina (fees).
VTCFGTU CPF CTVKUCPU DGNQPIGF VQ VJKU Prajaatya vivaha (CVJGT ITGGVU DTKFGITQQO CPF
varna. CRRGCNU VJG EQWRNG VQ HQNNQY
Shudra 5WDOKUUKQP QH UGTXKEG VQ WRRGT VJTGG TGNKIKQWUFWVKGU
classes, this was the lowest of the varna- Arsha-vivaha (CVJGT IKXGU VJG DTKFGU JCPF VQ
ladder and had no powers and no rights in VJG DTKFGITQQO CHVGT TGEGKXKPI C
the society. pair of cattle from the groom.
The three (Brahmans, Kshatriya, Vaishya) in Gandharva-vivaha/CTTKCIGVJTQWIJVJGEQPUGPVQH
EQODKPCVKQP RGTEGKXGF CU OGP QH JKIJGT 8CTPCU KG DTKFGITQQO CPF DTKFG QPN[ KG
traivarnikas. self choice or swayamvara.
Concept of Ashrama Asur- vivaha Bridegroom gives money to the
+P VJKU U[UVGO C RGTUQPU NKHG FKXKFGF KPVQ HQWT RCTVU DTKFGU HCVJGT CPF RWTEJCUGU JGT
CPF JG YCU CUUKIPGF UQOG FWVKGU YKVJ TGURGEV VQ JKU for marriage.
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The Vedic Age H-47

During Life
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deteriorating Rights which they had earlier were not 
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*WUDCPF TGEGKXGF VJG UVCVWU CU C RCVKRCTOGUJYCT Vedic period.

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H-48 The Vedic Age

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The Vedic Age H-49

1.
Exercise - 1
In which type of marriage, payment of bride-price was a 14. How many times the word Jana occur in the Rigveda?
condition? (a) 75 times (b) 175 times
(a) Asura (b) Brahma (c) 275 times (d) 375 times
(c) Daiva (d) Gandharva 15. Which of the following Samhitas of Yajurveda contains
2. Which one of the following sites is not associated with only hymns and no prose?
Painted Grey Ware ? (a) Katha (b) Maitrayaviya
(a) Gilaulikhera (b) Noh (c) Taittriya (d) Vajasaneyi
(c) Tripuri (d) Satwali 16. The game of dice was part of the ritual of :
3. The religion of early Vedic Aryans was primarily of (a) Agnistoma (b) Aswamedha
(a) Bhakti (c) Rajasuya (d) Vajapeya
(b) image worship and Yajnas 17. The Gayatri Mantra is dedicated to :
(c) worship of nature and Yajnas (a) Indra (b) Aditi
(d) worship of nature and Bhakti (c) Gayatri (d) Savitri
4. The people who migrated from the region of the Caspian  6JG QQF .GIGPF KP YJKEJ C FKXKPG UJ JCU DGGP
sea were called
described as rescuing Manu occurs in detail in :
(a) Dravidians (b) Aryans
(a) Rigveda Samhita (b) Vajasaneyi Samhita
(c) Euro Asians (d) Africans
(c) Satapatha Brahmana (d) Aitareya Brahmana
5. With regard to the position of woman during the Vedic
19. To which Sakha does the publised Rigveda Samhita
age, which one of the following statements is not true?
(a) Women enjoyed an honourable position belong?
(b) Women took part in religious deliberation during the (a) Sawnaka (b) Asvalayan
early Vedic period (c) Sakala (d) Sankhayana
(c) The practice of sati was unknown during the early 20. King Asvapati of the Upanishadic Age was the ruler of :
Vedic period (a) Kekaya (b) Matsya
(d) The birth of girl was looked down upon during the (c) Panchala (d) Sursena
early vedic period 21. Who among the following Vedic deities bears
6. The ceremonies of rajasuya and vajpeya are mentioned in resemblance with Avestan God Ahurmazda ?
which text? (a) Indra (b) Varuna
(a) Rig Veda (b) Sama Veda (c) Rudra (d) Vishnu
(c) Yajur Veda (d) Atharva Veda 22. Who among the following was a commentator of the
7. Which book of the later vedic age divides the country into Manusmriti ?
XGRCTVU! (a) Asahaya (b) Visvarupa
(a) Atharva veda (b) Aitreya Brahmana (c) Bhattasvami (d) Medhatithi
(c) Satapatha Brahmana (d) Isa Upanishad 23. A story of Sunahsesha, in which his father Ajigarta is
8. Who among the following artisan classes were entitled to stated to have sold him to Harishchandra, occurs in :
wear the sacred thread in the vedic period? (a) Aitareya Brahmana
(a) Chariot-makers (b) Goldsmiths (b) Gopatha Brahmana
(c) Blacksmiths (d) Weavers (c) Svetasvatara Upanishad
9. The concept of Gotra become established in which (d) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
period?  9JQYTQVGVJGTUVVGZVDQQMQP,[QVKUJ!
(a) Rig Vedic age (b) Later Vedic age (a) Panini (b) Patanjali
(c) Pre Mauryan Period (d) Mauryan period (c) Katyayan (d) Bhrigu
10. Who is the most important God in Rigaveda? 25. The words Satyameva Jayate in the state emblem
(a) Agni (b) Indra of India have been adopted from which one of the
(c) Varun (d) Vishnu
following?
11. The river Chenab was known during the Vedic period
(a) Mundaka Upanishad (b) Katha Upanishad
by the name :
(c) Mandukya Upanishad (d) Chhandogya Upanishad
(a) Askini (b) Parushni
26. The great law giver of ancient time was :
(c) Shutudri (d) Vitasta
12. Which one of the following assemblies was also called (a) Vatsyayana (b) Ashoka
Narishta meaning a resolution that cannot be broken? (c) Manu (d) Panini
(a) Gana (b) Vidhata 27. During the Rigvedic period, Niska was an ornament of :
(c) Sabha (d) Samiti (a) Ear (b) Neck (c) Arm (d) Wrist
13. Which of the following is concerned with origin of 28. Sayana the famous commentator of the Vedic texts, was
Indian medicine? patronised by :
(a) Rigveda (b) Samveda (a) Parmara rulers (b) Satvahana rulers
(c) Yajurveda (d) Atharveda (c) Vijaynagar rulers (d) Vakataka rulers
H-50 The Vedic Age

29. The word Yava mentioned in Rigveda is used for which (b) Kshttri-Chamberlain
agricultural product? (c) Akshavapa-Superintendent of gambling
(a) Barley (b) Gram (c) Rice (d) Wheat (d) Adhikari-Suuperintendent of Police
30. Which of the following was the centre of Aryan activity 36. Which of the following statements about the administrative
in the later Vedic period? system of the Early Vedic period is not correct?
(a) The Aryavarta (a) The king was assisted by a number of functionaries
(b) From the Yamuna to the western border of Bengal of whom the two most important were purohita and
(c) The Punjab and Delhi region the senani
(d) Uttarapatha (b) Gramani was the head of the village only for civic
31. The Rigvedic hymns can be treated as being historically purposes
fairly authentic because (c) Forts and strongholds were under purapati
(a) They give a chronological account of the historical (d) To provide organization in society
events 37. The Rigvedic concept of Rita denotes the
(b) The events described in them are corroborated by (a) Cosmic order or law prevailing in nature
Avesthan Gathas. (b) Ethical and moral order
(c) They are the earliest of the Vedic literature (c) Both (a) and (b) above
(d) Their composition was contemporary with the period (d) Amalgamation of All Gods into one
described 38. The head of which of the following was supposed to be
32. An inscription of 1400 B.C. which describes the Vedic known as ganapati or jyeshtha?
Gods was found in Asia Minor at ________. (a) Family (b) Tribe
(a) Cilicia (b) Boghaz-Koi (c) Tribal republic (d) Sabha
(c) Hitti (d) Euphratide  .KMGVJG8GFKE#T[CPUVJGEWUVQOQHUCETKEKCNTGYCU
33. Which of the following statements about the system of also followed by the ancient
taxation and revenue administration in the Later Vedic (a) Romans (b) Greeks
period is not correct? (c) Iranians (d) All the above
(a) Settled life and stable agriculture led to the 40. The Wedding Hymn describing the oldest marriage
ritual is found in the
production of surplus which could be collected by
(a) Rigveda (b) Yajurveda
the king in the form of taxes
(c) Samveda (d) Grihyasutras
(b) The king received regular contributions from the
41. Which one among the following is not a characteristic of
people in the shape of bali and shulka
Rig-Vedic Aryans?
(c) One-sixth of the produce of the land was payable to
(a) They were acquainted with horses, chariots and the
the king
use of bronze
(d) An official called bhagadugha collected the royal
(b) They were acquainted with the use of iron
share of the produce
(c) They were acquainted with the cow, which formed
34. Which of the following was not one of the reasons for the the most important form of wealth
gradual weakening of the tribal assemblies in the Later (d) They were acquainted with the use of copper and the
Vedic Period? modern ploughshare
(a) Increase in the royal power 42. Which one among the following is not true with regard to
(b) In large territorial states ordinary people could not Rig Veda Samhita?
travel long distances to attend their meetings (a) There are about 300 non-Indo- European words in
(c) The assemblies acquired an aristocratic character Rig Veda
which took away most of their effectiveness (b) There is a reference to dasarajna (battle of ten kings)
(d) They also surrendered some of their activities to the in the Rig Veda
PGYQHEKCNUECNNGFTCVPKPU (c) It is mentioned in the Rig Veda that the Bharata chief
35. Which of the following descriptions of the Later Vedic Sudas fought against a confederacy of ten tribes
QHEKCNUKUPQVEQTTGEV! (d) Purus sided with Bharata in the battle of ten kings
(a) Bhagadugha-Collector of taxes

Exercise -
Statement Based MCQ
2   /QUVTKXGTUOGPVKQPGFKPVJGOQYKPCTGCUYGUVQH
the Yamuna and the Ganga.
1. Which of the following statements regarding the hymns 4. They mention the ruling families on the Kurus,
of the Rig veda are correct ? Panchalas and the Ikshvakus.
1. They refer to the Himavant and the Nujavant. Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
2. They mention geographical terms like Aryavarta (a) 1 and 2 (b) 1 and 3
and Dakshinatya. (c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
The Vedic Age H-51

2. With reference to the early vedic age, consider the Codes:


following statements: A B C D
1. In Rig Veda, there are 20 mandalas of which book I (a) 2 1 4 3
to X are the oldest and relate to early Vedic Age. (b) 4 3 2 1
2. The total numbers of hymns is 1028. (c) 1 4 3 2
3. Book VIII of Rigveda ascribed to Kanvas and (d) 1 2 3 4
Angirases. 6. List-I (Samhita) List-II (Upanisad)
4. Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda are A. Rigveda 1. Chhandogya
composed during the early vedic age. B. Yajurveda 2. Mundaka
Which of the above is/are correct C. Samaveda 3. Katha
D. Atharvaveda 4. Kaushitaki
(a) 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 4
Codes:
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 2, 3 and 4
A B C D
3. Regarding women in the Vedic period, which of the
(a) 2 1 4 3
following are correct?
(b) 4 3 1 2
1. They were allowed to study (c) 1 2 3 4
2. They held good positions (d) 3 4 2 1
3. They did not practice Purdah system 7. List-I (Rigvedic name) List-II (Modern name)
4. They attended Sabha and Samiti A. Gomal 1. Gomati
Which of the given above statements are correct? B. Kurmu 2. Kurram
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 3 and 4 C. Suvastu 3. Swatiu
(c) 2 and 3 (d) All of these D. Drishavari 4. Ghaghar
4. The Dharma and Rita depict a central idea of ancient Codes:
Vedic civilization of India. In this context, consider the A B C D
following statements : (a) 2 4 3 1
1. Dharma was a conception of obligations and of the (b) 1 2 3 4
discharge of ones duties to oneself and to others. (c) 4 3 2 1
2. Rita was the fundamental moral law governing the (d) 1 4 3 2
functioning of the universe and all it contained. 8. Which of the following characteristic(s) describes the
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? nature of religion according to the Rig Veda?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only 1. Rig Vedic religion can be described a naturalistic
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 polytheism.
2. There are striking similarities between the Rig
Matching Based MCQ Vedic religion and the ideas in the Iranian Avesta.
  8GFKEUCETKEGUYGTGEQPFWEVGFKPVJGJQWUGQHVJG
5. List-I List-II priest who was called yajaman.
(Rivers) (Vedic Names)   8GFKEUCETKEGUYGTGQHVYQMKPFVJQUGEQPFWEVGF
A. Satluj 1. Vipasha by the household and those that required rituals
B. Vyas 2. Sutudari specialists.
Select the correct answer using the code given below :
C. Ravi 3. Asikini
(a) 3 only (b) 1 and 2 only
D. Chenab 4. Parushni
(c) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4 only

EXERCISE-1 10. (b) Indra was the most important divinity and was lord
of war. 250 hymns have been devoted to only Indra
1. (a) In Asura marriage, bridegroom gave as much wealth in Rigveda, which is highest for any of the Gods. His
as he could afford to the brides relatives, not in other names are: Car-warrior (Rathestha); A winner
accordance with the injunctions of the scriptures (Jitendra) and Soma Drinker (Somapa). Indra is
because it was like buying the bride, which was mentioned as son of Dyaus. He killed a demon Vritra,
prohibited. so he is known as Vritrahan. He destroyed the forests
2. (d) so also known as Purandhar. He held the thunderbolt
3. (c) The early Vedic Aryans indulged in Image Worship (Vajra) with which he destroyed the enemies.
and Yajnas. 11. (a) The river Chenab was known in the Vedic period as
4. (b) Chandrabhaga also Askini or Iskmati and as Acesines
5. (d) The birth of girl was looked down upon during the to the Ancient Greeks.
early vedic period 12. (c) The Sabha is called Narishta which meant a resolution
6. (c) 7.(b) 8. (a) 9.(b) of many that cannot be broken. It performed the
H-52 The Vedic Age

executive functions. In the later Vedic period it lost VJCVYCUITQWPFGFKPVQQWT;GVOCP[+PFQNQIKUVU


its importance due to the rise of royal power. VTGCVVJGYQTFCUOGCPKPIURGEKECNN[DCTNG[
13. (d) Atharvaveda concerned with the origin of Indian 30. (d) 31. (c) 32. (b) 33. (c) 34. (a) 35. (c)
medicine. It also consists mainly of magical spells 36. (b) 37. (a) 38. (c) 39. (c) 40. (c)
and charms. 41. (b) Rig Vedic Aryans were not acquainted to the use of
14. (c) The term Jana occurs 275 times in the Rigveda. But Iron.
Janapada is not mentioned. The term Rajya occurs 42. (a) Rigveda Samhita is an ancient Indian sacred collection
only once. of vedic sanskrit hymns. It is among the worlds oldest
15. (d) The Samhita of Yajurveda that contains only hymns religions texts. The question of non-Indo Europeqan
and no prose is Vayasaneyi. world being included in the original text does not arise.

E &KEKPI UGGOU VQ JCXG C URGEKCN UKIPKECPEG YJGP
EXERCISE-2
connected with myths and rituals. Dicing involves
uncertainty, chanc e, the vagaries of fortune. The dice 1. (c)
game is representative of the challenges that a king 2. (a) Sam, yajur and Atharveda are composed during later
must endure during his reign. The game of dice be a Vedic Age, Then are ten looks or Mandals in the
part of the rituals of Rajasuya Yagya. Rigveda.
17. (d) The Gayatri Mantra is a highly revered mantra, 3. (d) The Rigvedic society was a free society. The Aryans
based on a Vedic Sanskrit verse from a hymn of the evidently preferred male child to female child.
Rigveda. The Gayatri mantra is dedicated to Savitr, is However, females were as free as their male counterparts.
hence called Savitri. It is considered to be among the Education was equally open for boys and girls. Girls
holiest mantras of Hinduism. UVWFKGFVJG8GFCCPFPGCTVU9QOGPPGXGTQDUGTXGF

E *KPFWQQFO[VJHTQOVJG5CVCRCVJC$TCJOCPCVJG Purdha in the Vedic period. They enjoyed freedom in
/CVU[C #XCVCT UCXGU VJG RKQWU CPF VJG TUV OCP selecting their mates. But divorce was not permissible to
Manu, and advises him to build a giant boat. them. In the family, they enjoyed complete freedom and
19. (c) were treated as Ardhanginis.
20. (a) The Kekaya kingdom was situated on the bank of 4. (c) 5. (a)
river Beas, east of Gandhar kingdom. King Aswapati 6. (b) Some of the important Upanishads are: Aitareya,
ruled Kekaya when Janak was the king of Videha. Kaushitaki (belong to Rigveda); Chhandogya, Kena
21. (a) Indra was the Vedic deities bears resemblance with (belong to the Samaveda); Katha, Svetasvatara,
Avestan god Ahurmazda. In Zoroastrianism as Brihadaranyaka, Isa (belong to the Yajurveda);
TGGEVGF KP VJG #XGUVC #JWTC /C\FC KU KFGPVKGF Mundaka, Prasna and Mandukya (belong to the
YKVJVJGDGPGEGPVURKTKVCPFFKTGEVN[QRRQUGFVQVJG #VJCTXCXGFC 6JGEQTTGEVOCVEJKPIRCKTUCTG4KIXGFC
destructive one. He is all-wise, liberal, undeceiving and Kaushitaki, Yajurveda and Katha, Samaveda and
and the creator of everything good. Chhandogya, Atharvaveda and Mundaka.

F /GFJCVKVJK YCU TUV 5CPUMTKV UEJQNCT YJQ FKF 7. (b) The correct pairs of Rigvedic names and modern
commentary on Manusmriti a Dhramashastra. The names are:
exact date of Medhatithis writing is unclear, and he Rig-Vedic Name Modern Name
has been placed anywhere between about 820 and Sindhu Indus
1050 AD.
23. (a) The story of Sunahsesha in which his father Ajigarta Vitase Jhelum
is stated to have sold him to Harishchandra, occurs in Askini Chenab
Aitareya Brahmana. Purushni Ravi

F  /CJCTKUJK$JTKIWYCUVJGTUVEQORKNGTQHRTGFKEVKXG Vipas Beas
astrology, Jyotisha. He is credited as the father of Sutudari Satluj
*KPFW CUVTQNQI[ CPF VJG TUV CUVTQNQIKECN VTGCVKUG Gumal Gomati
Bhrigu Samhita is attributed to his authorship.The
Krumu Kurram
Bhrigu Samhita is an astrological (Jyotish) classic
attributed to Maharishi Bhrigu during the Vedic Drishdvati Ghagghar
period. Suvastu Swat
25. (a) Satyameva Jayate is a mantra from the ancient Indian 8. (c) Even though monotheism characterizes some of
scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of the hymns of Rig Veda, naturalistic polytheism
India, it was adopted as the national motto of India. and monism can be discerned in the religion of the
26. (c) Manu-smriti (Laws of Manu), traditionally, the hymns of Rig Veda. Like the rigvedic Aryans the
most authoritative of the books of the Hindu code ancient Iranians worshipped gods like Mitr,Vayu and
(Dharmashastra) in India. It is attributed to the Verutraghna. They also wore the scared thread and
NGIGPFCT[TUVOCPCPFNCYIKXGT/CPW+PKVURTGUGPV YQTUJKRRGFTGGVE+PKVKCNN[UCETKEGUYGTGUKORNG
form, it dates from the 1st century BCE. house hold duties performed by the oldest male
27. (b) In Rigvedic period, Niska was a gold necklace in member of the house yajmana who acted as priest and
the beginning but later it was also used as a coin for the oldest female member. yajmana patni(wife of the
giving as a reward to a poet. householder) who assisted in the act. The agnihotra
28. (c) YCUCUKORNGFQOGUVKEUCETKEGVQDGRGTHQTOGFFCKN[
29. (a) It is accepted that the word yava in the oldest texts, by the head of a Dvija household in the morning and
including the Rigveda, applied to any type of grain the evening. Other involved the participation of many
different ritual specialists along with their assistants.

 
  
5

  Chapter

Introduction
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communities of the later vedic period. The term Mahajanapad was used to describe a large area capable of bearing taxes and
various imposition5GXGTCN,CPCRCFCUKPENWFGFKPC/CJCLCPRCFC6JGTGYGTGUGXGTCNVJQWUCPFXKNNCIGUKPC,CPCRCFC6JG
-CWVKN[CP,CPCRCFCEQORTKUGFXKNNCIGU.

Emergence of Mahajanapadas

Introduction Origin & Development Causes of New Different Mahajanapadas


Culture and religion

Boundary Economic Life Janapadas Union Emergence


of
Magadha

Taxes New Methods in


Agriculture Invasion
Iranian Invasion

Alexander's Invasion

Results of Alexander's
Invasion

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENTS OF MAHAJANAPADAS


Boundary and Army  6Q UJQY JQY TKEJ CPF RQYGTHWN VJG[ YGTG D[ DWKNFKPI
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 /QUV QH /CJCLCPCRCFCU JCF C capital city CPF YGTG
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YQQFDTKEMQTUVQPGU  6JGTCLCUOCKPVCKPGFCTOKGUVQRTQVGEVVJGRGQRNGCPFVJGHQTV
 The objectivesQHDWKNFKPIHQTVUYGTGVQRTQVGEVVJGRGQRNG  The people lived in hutsCPFMGRVcattleCUYGNNCUQVJGT
CPFVJGMKPIFQOHTQOVJGCVVCEMUQHQVJGTMKPIU animals.
H-54 Emergence of Mahajanapadas and Magadh

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 6JG[MPGYOCMKPIearthen potsUQOGYGTGKPITG[CPF VCZGUYGTGEQNNGEVGFHTQO
red colours. (i) Farmers on their crop production,
 5QOGRCKPVGFITG[RQVUQHgeometric pattern are found. (ii) CraftsRGTUQPUKPVJGHQTOQHNCDQWT
+P VTCPUKVKQP HTQO VTKDG VQ OQPCTEJ[ VJG[ NQUV VJG GUUGPVKCN (iii) Herders in the form of animals and animal produce,
FGOQETCVKE RCVVGTP QH VJG VTKDG DWV TGVCKPGF VJG KFGC QH
(iv) TradersQPIQQFUVJCVYGTGDTQWIJVCPFUQNF
IQXGTPOGPV VJTQWIJ CP CUUGODN[ TGRTGUGPVKPI VJG VTKDGU
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5JCM[CU-QNKC/CNNCUGVEQTCEQPHGFGTCE[QHVTKDGUUWEJCU New Methods in Agriculture
VJG8TKLKU;CFCXCU2CPEJCNCGVE
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VJG #T[CP DQWPFCT[ YGTG EQPUKFGTGF CU mlecchas. There VJCVYGTG
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K  6JG[ WUGF iron ploughshare CV VJG RNCEG QH YQQFGP
Aryavarta 'CEJ LCPCRCFC VTKGF VQ FQOKPCVG CPF UWDLWICVG RNQWIJUJCTG+VUOQVKXGYCUVQVWTPQXGTVJGJGCX[ENC[G[
QVJGTLCPCRCFCUVQDGQOG/CJCLCPCRCFU UQKNDGVVGTVQRTQFWEGOQTGITCKP
(ii) People started developing nursery of paddy instead

QH UECVVGTKPI UGGF QP VJG ITQWPF HQT PCN ETQRKPI +P
Taxes of Mahajanapada VJKU PWTUGT[ RNCPVU YGTG URTQWVGF UCRNKPIU YGTG
The rulers needed more resourcesHQTDWKNFKPIhuge forts and ITQYP CPF VJGP RNCPVGF KP VJG GNFU VQ KPETGCUG
maintaining big armies. 5Q VJG[ UVCTVGF EQNNGEVKPI TGIWNCT production.

CAUSES OF RISE OF NEW CULTURE AND RELIGIONS


 6JG EJCPIGU KP GEQPQOKE CPF UQEKCN GXGPVU NGF KP EQ  6JGTGKUPQFQWDVVJCVVJGrise of Jainism and Buddhism
existent of religious thought. FWTKPIVJKURGTKQFYCUCTGUWNVQHVJGchanged economic
 6JGETGCVKQPQHCYCMGPGFITQWRUQHVTCFGTUKPFWUVTKCNKUVU and social circumstances also.
CPFNCDQWTTGUWNVGFKPRWVVKPICEJCNNGPIGVQVJGUWRTGOCE[  9GCNUQPFVJCVDQVJQHVJGUGTGNKIKQWUUGEVUIQVUWRRQTV
QHVJG$TCJOCPCU from the neo-rich trading and industrial classes YJKEJ
 6JGETGCVKQPQHUWDECUVGUCNUQFKFVJGUCOG YGTGGCIGTVQIGVCDGVVGTUQEKCNUVCVWUUQHCTFGPKGFVQVJGO
 5GXGTCNQHVJGUGITQWRUYGTGTKEJCUYGNNYJKEJICXGVJGO  6JG UCOG YC[ DQVJ ,CKPKUO CPF $WFFJKUO FTGY NCTIG
CPCFXCPVCIGQWURQUKVKQPKPVJGUQEKGV[+VNGFVQTGNKIKQWU EQPXGTVU HTQO PGY UWDECUVGU YJQ YGTG KPVGTGUVGF KP
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several religious sects. HCEKNKV[QHJCXKPIDGVVGTUQEKCNUVCVWUHQTVJGOUGNXGU

DIFFERENT MAHAJANAPADAS
6JGTG YGTG CDQWV UKZVGGP /CJCLCPCRCFCU
CDQWV  [GCTU
KPENWFKPIVJGCTGCQHYGUVGTP7VVCT2TCFGUJWRVQVJGGCUVQH
ago) according to Anguttara Nikaya KPVJGUKZVJEGPVWT[$% TKXGT ;COWPC WRVQ VJG -QUCNC ,CPCRCFC  YKVJ KVU ECRKVCN CV
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EQXGTKPI $TKL /CPFCN  YKVJ KVU
Magadha
KPENWFKPIVJGRTGUGPVFKUVTKEVUQH2CVPC)C[CCPF capital at Mathura. (xii) Matsya
EQXGTKPIVJGCTGCQH#NYCT
RCTVUQH5JCJCDCF YKVJKVUECRKVCNCVGirivraja or Rajgriha. $JCTCVRWT CPF ,CKRWT KP 4CLCUVJCP 
ZKKK  Avanti (modern
(ii) Anga
KPENWFKPI VJG RTGUGPV FKUVTKEVU QH /QPIJ[T CPF /CNYC  YKVJ KVU ECRKVCN CV Ujjain CPF /CJKUJOCVK
ZKX 
$JCICNRWT KP $KJCT  YKVJ KVU ECRKVCN CV Champa. (iii) Vajji Asmaka
DGVYGGPVJGTKXGTU0CTOCFCCPF)QFCXCTKYKVJKVU

CEQPHGFGTCE[QHGKIJVTGRWDNKECPENCPU6QVJGPQTVJQHVJG capital at Potana. (xv) Gandhara


CTGCEQXGTKPIVJGYGUVGTP
TKXGT )CPIC KP $KJCT  YKVJ KVU ECRKVCN Vaisali. (iv) Malla RCTV QH 2CMKUVCP CPF GCUVGTP #HIJCPKUVCP  YKVJ KVU ECRKVCNU CV

CNUQCTGRWDNKECPEQPHGFGTCE[KPENWFKPIVJGRTGUGPVFKUVTKEVU TaxilaCPF2WUJMCNCXCVKCPF
ZXK Kamboja
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of Deoria, Basti, Gorakhpur and Siddharthnagar in eastern OQFGTPFKUVTKEVQH*C\CTCFKUVTKEVUQH2CMKUVCP YKVJKVUECRKVCN
7VVCT2TCFGUJ YKVJVYQECRKVCNUCVKusinagar and Pawa. (v) at Rajpur.
KasiYKVJKVUECRKVCNCVVaranasi. (vi) Kosala (including the S. Mahajanapadas Present areas Capitals
present district of Faizabad, Gonda, BaharaichGVE YKVJKVU No.
capital at Shravasti. (vii) Vatsa (including the present districts
1. )CPFJCTC 9GUVGTP2CMKUVCP Taxila
Allahabad, Mirzapur GVE  YKVJ +VU ECRKVCN CV Kausambi.
#HIJCPKUVCP
(viii) Chedi
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its capital at Shuktimati. (ix) Kuru (including the present  -CODQLC 2CMKUVCP 4CLRWT
*CT[CPC CPF &GNJK CTGC VQ VJG 9GUV QH TKXGT ;COWPC  YKVJ 3. #UOCMC $GVYGGP0CTOCFC Potana
its capital at Indraprastha
OQFGTP &GNJK 
Z  Panchala )QFCXCTK
Emergence of Mahajanapadas and Magadh H-55

 Vatsa #NNCJCDCF -CWUJCODK strengthened his position by marriage alliances *G VQQM
VJTGGYKXGU*KUTUVYKHGYCUVJGFCWIJVGTQHVJGMKPI-QUCNC
 #XCPVK /CNYC 7LLCKP
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 Surasena $TKL/CPFCN /CVJWTC
.KEJJCXK 2TKPEGUU HTQO 8CKUJCNK CPF JKU VJKTF YKHG YCU VJG
 %JGFK $WPFGNMJCPF 5JWMVKOCVK FCWIJVGTQHVJGEJKGHQHVJG/CFTCENCPQH2WPLCD
8. /CNNC &GQTKC$CUVK -WUJKPCTC  /CTTKCIG TGNCVKQPU YKVJ VJG FKHHGTGPV RTKPEGN[ HCOKNKGU
2CYC ICXGGPQTOQWUFKRNQOCVKERTGUVKIGCPFRCXGFVJGYC[HQT
9. -WTWU *CT[CPC&GNJK Hastinapur/ VJGGZRCPUKQPQH/CICFJCYGUVYCTFCPFPQTVJYCTF
Indraprashta  6JGGCTNKGUVECRKVCNQH/CICFJCYCUCVRajgirYJKEJYCU

&GNJK called Girivraja CVVJCVVKOG+VYCUUWTTQWPFGFD[XG
10. /CVU[C #NYCT,CKRWT Virat Nagari hillsVJGQRGPKPIUKPYJKEJYGTGENQUGFD[UVQPGYCNNUQP
11. 8CLLKU
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 *GYCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKUUQPAjatasatru (492460 B.C.)
 #PIC /QPIJ[T %JCORC  #LCVCUCVTW MKNNGF JKU HCVJGT CPF UGK\GF VJG VJTQPG HQT
13. -CUJK $CPCTCU himself. Throughout his reign, he pursued an aggressive
(Varanasi) RQNKE[QHGZRCPUKQP
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*KUTGKIPYCUKORQTVCPVDGECWUGJGbuilt the fort upon the
 /CICFJC 2CVPC)C[C )KTKXTCLC
EQPWGPEGQHVJG)CPICCPF5QPCV2CVPC6JKUYCUFQPG
4CLITKJC
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 Panchala 7VVCT2TCFGUJ #JKEJJCVTC
 7FC[KPYCUUWEEGGFGFD[VJGF[PCUV[QHSisunagasYJQ

92CPEJCNC 
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-CORKN[C
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(S. Panchala)
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QH TGRTGUGPVCVKXGU GNGEVGF D[ VJG EQOOQP RGQRNG 6JG
x #FXCPVCIGQWU geographical location GKVJGT CV 4CLIKT QT
/CJCLCPCRCFCU QH 8TKLLK /CNN -WTW 2CPEJCN CPF -CODQL
Pataliputra situated at strategic locations.
YGTG TGRWDNKECP UVCVGU CPF UQ YGTG GKVJGT UOCNNGT UVCVGU
x #FXCPVCIGQWU natural resources such as iron GPCDNG
NKMG .KEJJCXK 5JCM[C -QN[C $JCIIC CPF /QTK[C #NN
/CICFJCPTWNGTUVQGSWKRYKVJeffective weapons.
VJG CFOKPKUVTCVKXG FGEKUKQPU QH VJG UVCVGU YGTG VCMGP D[ VJG
Parisha6JGTGRWDNKEUYGTGDCUKECNN[QHVYQV[RGU x The alluvial soilQH)CPIGVKERNCKPUCPFUWHEKGPVTCKPHCNN

C  6JGTGRWDNKEUEQORTKUKPICsingle tribeNKMGVJQUGQHVJG YCUXGT[EQPFWEKXGHQTagriculture produces.


5CM[CUVJG-QNKCUCPFVJG/CNNCU x 4KUG QH VQYP CPF use of metallic money DQQUVGF VTCFG

D  6JG TGRWDNKEU EQORTKUKPI C PWODGT QH VTKDGU QT VJG and commerce.
TGRWDNKEUQHconfederacyNKMGVJG8TKLLKU x The princes could use tools and accumulate wealth to
RC[CPFmaintain their army.
Emergence of Magadha x 7UGQHelephants on a large scale in wars.
6JGTUVKORQTVCPVMKPIQH/CICFJCYCUBimbisara
$% x Liberal
7PQTVJQFQZ characterQH/CICFJCPUQEKGV[
  $%  YJQ DGNQPIGF VQ VJG Haryanka dynasty. He x %QPVTKDWVKQPQHUGXGTCNGPVGTRTKUKPICPFCODKVKQWUTWNGTU

VARIOUS INVASIONS
Iranian Invasion +TCPKCP KPWGPEG OC[ CNUQ DG YKVPGUUGF KP VJG RTGCODNG QH
#UJQMCUGFKEVUCUYGNNCUKPEGTVCKPYQTFUWUGFKPVJGO
The Achaemenid rulers of Iran YJQ URTGCFGF VJGKT
MKPIFQO CV VJG UCOG VKOG CU VJG /CICFJCP RTKPEGU VQQM Points to Remember
CFXCPVCIGQHVJGRQNKVKECNFKUWPKV[QPVJGPQTVJYGUVHTQPVKGT
The Iranian ruler, DariusRGPGVTCVGFKPVQPQTVJYGUV+PFKCKP x In 516 B.C. Darius sent a naval expedition to explore
$%CPFCPPGZGF2WPLCDYGUVQHVJG+PFWUCPF5KPFJ+V VJGXCNNG[QHVJGTKXGT+PFWU
ICXGCOQOGPVWOVQ+PFQ+TCPKPCPVTCFGCPFEQOOGTEG6JG x *GOCTMGFVJGRTQXKPEGCU20th StraphyYJKEJYCU
+TCPKPCP UETKDGU DTQWIJV KPVQ +PFKC C HQTO QH YTKVKPI YJKEJ EQPUKFGTGF VQ DG VJG TKEJGUV CPF VJG OQUV RQRWNQWU
ECOG VQ DG MPQYP CU VJG Kharoshi script +V YCU YTKVVGP province of the Persian Empire.
from right to left like the Arabic. Iranian coins are also found
x +VU CPPWCN VTKDWVG COQWPVGF VQ  'WDQKE VCNGPVU QH
KPVJGPQTVJYGUVTGIKQPYJKEJRQKPVUVQVJGGZKUVGPEGQHVTCFG
YKVJ +TCP +TCPKCP GHHGEV QP VJG /CWT[C UEWNRVWTG KU ENGCTN[ IQNFFWUV
PQVKEGCDNG 6JG OQPWOGPVU QH #UJQMCU VKOG GURGEKCNN[ VJG x 6JG -JCTQUJK UETKRV YCU WUGF QP VJG PQTVJYGUVGTP
DGNN UJCRGF ECRKVCNU QYGF UQOGVJKPI VQ VJG +TCPKCP OQFGNU HTQPVKGTUKPEGVJGPWPVKNCDQWVVJEGPVWT[#&
H-56 Emergence of Mahajanapadas and Magadh

EJTQPQNQIKECN QTFGT QH UWDUGSWGPV GXGPVU KP


+PFKC+VCNUQQRGPGFCPGYFQQTHQT)TGGMCTV
and architecture.
 6JWU #NGZCPFGT RCXGF VJG YC[ HQT
the rise of a united empire under the
/CWT[CU
Summary of Alexanders Invasion
x #NGZander marched to India through
the Khyber Pass in 326 B.C.
x AmbiVJGTWNGTQH6CZKNC UWDOKVVGF
VQ#NGZCPFGT
x *GYCUDTCXGN[EJGEMGFD[VJGNQECN
EJKGHVCKPU FGURKVG VJG HCEV VJCV VJG[
had no chance of success.
x *G YCU TGUKUVGF TUV UVTQPIGUV D[
Porus at Jhelum.
x *KUCFXCPEGYCUEJGEMGFQPVJGDCPM
Alexanders Invasion QHVJG$GCUDGECWUGQHVJGOWVKP[QH
his soldiers.
+P VJG HQWTVJ EGPVWT[ $% VJG )TGGMU CPF VJG +TCPKCPU
x +P$%JGDGICPJKUJQOGYCTF
HQWIJVHQTVJGUWRTGOCE[QHVJGYQTNFAlexanderVJGMKPI
LQWTPG[
of Macedonia Grecce EQPSWGTGF PQV QPN[ #UKC /KPQT CPF x +P  $% JG TGCEJGF 5WUC KP 2GTUKC
+TCSDWVCNUQ+TCP(TQO+TCPJGOQXGFQPVQ+PFKCQDXKQWUN[ CPFFKGFVJGPGZV[GCT
attracted by its great wealth. x 6JG )TGGM KPXCUKQP QH +PFKC QRGPGF
#NGZCPFGTFGHGCVGF+PFKCPTWNGTUQPGCHVGTCPQVJGT#OQPIVJG VJG VTCFG TQWVG DGVYGGP PQTVJYGUV
TWNGTUQHVJGUGVGTTKVQTKGUVYQYGTGYGNNMPQYPAmbhi, the +PFKCCPF9GUVGTP#UKC
prince of Taxila, and Porus YJQUGMKPIFQONC[DGVYGGPVJG
,JGNWOCPFVJG%JGPCD Chronology of Foreign Invasions
#HVGTVJGXKEVQT[QH+TCP#NGZCPFGTTGCEJGFVQ-CDWNHTQO
YJGTGJGOCTEJGFVQ+PFKCVJTQWIJVJGKhyber Pass.  $%-KPI&CTKWUQT&CTWUKPXCFGF+PFKC
#ODJKVJGTWNGTQH6CZKNCTGCFKN[UWDOKVVGFVQVJGKPXCFGT
 $%#NGZCPFGTKPXCFGF+PFKC
CWIOGPVGFJKUCTO[CPFTGRNGPKUJJKUVTGCUWTG
9JGP JG TGCEJGF VJG ,JGNWO #NGZCPFGT OGV VJG TUV CPF  $%+PFKC)TGGMUQT$CEVTKCPUKPXCFGF+PFKC
the strongest resistance from Porus #NVJQWIJ #NGZCPFGT  $%5CMCUKPXCFGF+PFKC
FGHGCVGF2QTWUJGYCUKORTGUUGFD[VJGDTCXGT[CPFEQWTCIG  #&UV%GPVWT[2CJNCXCUKPXCFGF+PFKC
QHVJG+PFKCPRTKPEG5QJGTGUVQTGFJKUMKPIFQOVQJKOCPF  #&-WUJCPCUQT;WGEJKUKPXCFGF+PFKC
OCFGJKOJKUCNN[
Then, he advanced as far as the Beas river *G YCPVGF VQ Points to Remember
OQXGUVKNNHWTVJGTGCUVYCTFDWVJKUCTO[TGHWUGFVQCEEQORCP[ x +PETGCUGFKPRTQURGTKV[CPFITQYVJQHVQYPU
him.
x +PETGCUGFKPRTQURGTKV[YCUFWGVQHQTGKIPVTCFG
Alexander remained in India for 19 months (326325
B.C.) YJKEJ YGTG HWNN QH IJVKPI *G JCF DCTGN[ CP[ VKOG x One trade routeYCUHTQO-QUCODK)CPIGVKERNCKP
VQQTICPK\GJKUEQPSWGUVU5VKNNJGOCFGUQOGCTTCPIGOGPVU 2WPLCD6CZKNCVQ+TCP%GPVTCN#UKC'WTQRG
/QUV EQPSWGTGF UVCVGU YGTG TGUVQTGF VQ VJGKT TWNGTU YJQ x Another trade route YCU HTQO 4CLCITKJC-QUCODK
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$WV JKU QYP VGTTKVQTKCN RQUUGUUKQPU YGTG FKXKFGF KPVQ VJTGG
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1PG QH VJG OQUV TGOCTMCDNG CURGEVU QH #NGZCPFGTU HQTGKIP x Another routeHTQO)CPIGVKERNCKPVQPQTVJGTPRNCKPU
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He dreamt of uniting the east and the west D[ VJG PCVWTCN
x 6QYPUDGECOGEGPVTGUQHVTCFGCPFKPFWUVTKGU
DQPFUQHOCTTKCIGCPFTWNKPIQXGTKV
x Indian rulers minted coins of different metals.
Results of Alexanders Invasion x +PVGNNGEVWCNITQWRUYGTGETGCVGFKPVQYPUYJKEJNGFVJG
 #NGZCPFGTU ECORCKIP QRGPGF WR CPF TGKPHQTEGU C HQTOCVKQPQHUGXGTCNUWDECUVGU
PWODGT QH VTCFG TQWVGU DGVYGGP PQTVJYGUVGTP +PFKC x 5CPUMTKV DGECOG VJG NCPIWCIG QH KPVGNNGEVWCNU CPF
XKC#HIJCPKUVCPCPF+TCPVQ#UKC/KPQTCPFVQVJGRQTVU purohits.
CNQPIVJGGCUVGTP/GFKVGTTCPGCP
x 4GIKQPCN NCPIWCIGU YGTG CNUQ HQTOGF NKMG 2TCMTKV
 6JG FCVG QH #NGZCPFGTU ECORCKIP PQVGF ENGCTN[ KP VJG
EJTQPKENGUNGHVD[VJGJKUVQTKCPUJCUJGNRGFGUVCDNKUJVJG 2CNK/CICFJKGVE
Emergence of Mahajanapadas and Magadh H-57

1.
Exercise - 1
Which one of the following Janapadas was republican state (a) Anga (b) Magadha
in sixth century BC? (c) Kosala (d) Vajji
(a) Kosala (b) Anga 8. The capital of Magadha was shifted from Rajgriha to
(c) Mayadha (d) Vajji (a) Patliputra (b) Ujjaini
 $[YJQOVJGTUVTGRWDNKEQHVJGYQTNFYCUGUVCDNKUJGF (c) Varanasi (d) Kannauj
in Vaishali? 9. The dynasties which ruled Magadha were
(a) Maurya (b) Nand (a) Haryanka (b) Saisunagas
(c) Licchhavi (d) Gupta (c) Nandas (d) All of above
3. The list of sixteen Mahajanapadas is available in 10. Where did the 16 Janapadas were mentiond?
(a) Mahabharata (a) Buddhist Scripts (b) Brahmanas
(b) Chhandogya Upanishad (c) Aryanakas (d) Jaina Scriptures
(c) Samyukta Nikaya 11. Which one of the following statements about ancient
(d) Anguttara Nikaya Indian Mahajanapadas is correct?
4. In sixth century BC, Suktimati was the capital of (a) All Mahajanapadas were oligarchies where power
(a) Panchala (b) Kuru was exercised by a group of people
(b) All Mahajanapadas were located in Eastern India
(c) Chedi (d) Avanti
(c) No army was maintained by the Mahajanapadas
5. Name of the Mahajanapada, which was a confederacy of
(d) Buddhist and Jaina texts list sixteen Mahajanapadas
eight republican clans?
12. What was the period of Chandra Gupta Maurya?
(a) Vatsa (b) Magadha (a) 314-287 BC (b) 310-299 BC
(c) Vajji (d) Malla (c) 320-289 BC (d) 324-300 BC
6. In the Mahayana Buddhism, the Bodhisatoa Avalokitesvara 13. Chandra Gupta Maura defeated Nandas with the help of?
was also known as: (a) Chanakya (b) Aswaghosa
(a) Vajrapani (b) Manjusri (c) Harisena (d) Jayasimha
(c) Padmapani (d) Maitreya 14. Chandra Gupta Maura was the follower of?
7. The kingdom which was most powerful among the (a) Buddhism (b) Hinduism
Shodasa Mahajanapadas ? (c) Aynika (d) Jainism

Exercise - 2
4. With reference to Mahajanapad as consider the
Statement Based MCQ statements:
1. Arrange the following Mahajanpadas moving from west 1. Anga and Magadha were located in the wheat
to east in the correct order: growing area of the Gangetic Valley
1. Avanti 2. Magadha 2. In agricultural output, rice exceeded wheat leading
3. Matsya 4. Kosala to a greater density of population in the rice growing
Codes: area.
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 1 3 4 2
Which of the above is / are not correct ?
(c) 1 3 2 4 (d) 1 4 3 2
2. Arrange the following Magadha dynasties in the (a) 1 only (b) 2 only
chronological order: (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2?
1. Nandas 2. Sungas 5. Which of the following caused by success of Magadh ?
3. Mauryas 4. Haryanks
1. Magadha enjoyed a advantageous geographical
Codes:
(a) 2, 1, 4, 3 (b) 3, 2, 1, 4 position in the iron age as most of the deposits were
(c) 1, 3, 4, 2 (d) 4, 1, 3, 2 located there.
3. Consider the following statements: 2. The rulers of this state had very good weapon.
1. The list of sixteen Mahajanapadas is available in 3. The capitals of Magadha were situated at strategic
Anguttara Nikaya. positions.
2. Asmaka Mahajanapada was situated on the bank of 4. No other power at that time had the courage to
Godawari. attack it
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 (c) 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 4
H-58 Emergence of Mahajanapadas and Magadh

7. List-I List-II
Matching Based MCQ
(Mahajanpada) (Capital)
6. List-I List-II A. Matsya 1. Potana
(King) (Kingdom) B. Asmaka 2. Virat
A. Pradyota 1. Magadha C. Anga 3. Champa
B. Udayana 2. Vatsa D. Chedi 4. Shuktimati
C. Prasenjit 3. Avanti
Codes:
D. Ajatshatru 4. Kosala
Codes: A B C D
A B C D (a) 1 2 3 4
(a) 2 3 1 4 (b) 2 1 3 4
(b) 3 2 4 1 (c) 4 3 2 1
(c) 4 1 3 2 (d) 3 4 2 1
(d) 1 4 2 3

EXERCISE-1 Aryans in North India, around the 6th century BC.


These states were called the Mahajanapadas. There
1. (d) Vajji Janapada was republican state in sixth century
BC. Its capital was Vaishali. The Vajji republic was were sixteen of such Mahajanapadas: Kasi, Kosala,
ruled by a confederation of eight clans (Atthakula) of Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru,
whom the Vrijis, the Lichchavis, the Jnatrikass and Panchala, Machcha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti,
the Videhas were the most important. Gandhara and Kamboja. Literally Mahajanapadas

E  .KEEJJCXKUGUVCDNKUJGFVJGTUVTGRWDNKEQHVJGYQTNF means Great Kingdoms.
in Vajji Mahajanapada of ancient India. They were 2. (d) In chronological order, Magadha dynasties are
the most famous clan amongst the ruling confederate Haryanks, Nandas, Mauryas and Sungas. Haryanka
clans of the Vajji. Vaishali was the capital of the dynasty founded the Magadha empire in 600 BC,
Lichhavis, whose capital was Rajagriha, later Pataliputra, near
3. (d) The ancient Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya the present day Patna. This dynasty lasted until 424
gives the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas includes BC, when it was overthrown by the Shishunaga
the Gandhara and the Kamboja as the only two dynasty.
salient Mahajanapadas in the Uttarapatha. Another 3. (c) The list of sixteen Mahajanapadas is available
Buddhist text Digha Nikaya mentions only twelve in Anguttara Nikaya. Asmaka Mahajanapada
Mahajanapadas.
was situated on the bank of river Godavari.The
4. (c) Chedi kingdom was one among the many kingdoms
Anguttara Nikaya, the fourth division of the Sutta
ruled during early periods by Paurava kings in the
Pitaka, consists of several thousand suttas arranged
central and western India. Suktimati was the capital
of Chedi. in eleven books (nipatas) according to numerical
5. (c) content.An excellent modern print translation of the
6. (c) Avalokitesevara is a Bodhisattva who embodies complete Anguttara Nikaya is Bhikkhu Bodhis The
the compassion of all Buddhas. He is one of the Numerical Discourses of the Buddha:
more widely revered bodhisattvas in mainstream 4. (a)
Mahayana Buddhism. In Sanskrit, Avalokitesvara 5. (a)
is also referred to as Padmapni (Holder of the 6. (b) Correctly matched pairs are:
Lotus) or Lokevara (Lord of the World). Pradyot Avanti
7. (b) 8.(a) 9. (d) 10. (d)
Udayana Vatsa
11. (d) According to Angunttara Nikaya(Budhist text)
and Bhagavati sutra (jain text) there were 16 Prasenjit Kosala
mahajanapadas in ancient India. Ajatshatru Magadha
12 (d) 13 (a) 14 (d) 7. (b) Correctly matched pairs are:
Matsya Virat
EXERCISE-2 Asmaka Potana
1. (b) Mahajanapadas west to east are Avanti, Matsya, Anga Champa
Kosala and Magadha. There were many states of the Chedi Suktimati

 6
  Chapter

Introduction
#PWODGTQHTGNKIKQWUUGEVUECOGKPVQGZKUVGPEGKPVJGOKFFNG)CPIGVKEDCUKPKPVJGUKZVJEGPVWT[$%6JGTGYGTGCTQWPF
TGNKIKQWUUGEVUCVVJCVRGTKQF1WVQHVJGUG,CKPKUOCPF$WFFJKUOYGTGVJGOQUVKORQTVCPVCPFVJG[GOGTIGFCUVJGOQUV
potent religious reform movements.

Religious Revolution

Introduction 5QEKGV[ Jainism $WFFJKUO *KPFW4GXKXCNKUV


/QXGOGPV

&KHHGTGPEGU $WFFJKUV Spread of &GENKPGQH


%QWPEKNU $WFFJKUO $WFFJKUO

Teachings  Jain Jain Jaina %CVGIQTKGU $JCICXCVKUO Saivism


6KTVJCPMCTCU Principles 2JKNQUQRJ[ %QWPEKNU of Siddhas

SOCIETY
6JG UQEKGV[ YCU ENGCTN[ FKXKFGF KPVQ HQWT 8CTPCU DTCJOKPU trCFGYCUIGPGTCNN[NQQMGFFQYPWRQPD[VJGDTCJOKPU6JG
MUJCVTK[CU XCKU[CU CPF UJWFTCU KP VJG 8GFKE RGTKQF 'CEJ XCKU[CUYJQRTCEVKEGFVJKUVTCFGYCPVGFVQTCKUGVJGKTUQEKCN
8CTPC YCU CNNQYGF YGNNFGPGF LQDU CNVJQWIJ KV YCU RQUKVKQPKPVJGG[GUQHTGNKIKQP
GORJCUK\GF VJCV 8CTPC YCU DCUGF QP DKTVJ CPF VYQ JKIJGT 6JGXCKU[CUICXGVJGKTUWRRQTVVQDQVJ/CJCXKTCCPF)CWVCOC
XCTPCUYGTGIKXGPUQOGRTKXKNGIGU
$WFFJC 6JG OGTEJCPVU ECNNGF VJG UGVVJKU QHHGTGF RTGEKQWU
%NGCTN[VJG8CTPCUGGOUVQJCXGETGCVGFVGPUKQPKPVJGUQEKGV[
IKHVUVQ)CWVCOC$WFFJCCPFJKUFKUEKRNGU
6JG -UJCVTK[CU YJQ CEVGF CU TWNGTU TGCEVGF CICKPUV VJG
FQOKPCVKQP QH RTKGUVN[ ENCUU ECNNGF DTCJOKPU YJQ GPLQ[GF 6JG8GFKERTCEVKEGQHMKNNKPIECVVNGUKPUCETKEKCNTKVWCNUYCU
XCTKQWURTKXKNGIGUYCUQPGQHVJGECWUGUQHVJGQTKIKPQHPGY KPKOKECNVQVJGGOGTIKPICITKEWNVWTCNGEQPQO[$GUKFGUVJG
TGNKIKQPU 8TFJCOCPC /CJCXKTC YJQ HQWPFGF ,CKPKUO CPF 5CPUMTKVNCPIWCIGYCUVJGNCPIWCIGQHCEJQUGPHGYYJKNGVJG
)CWVCOC $WFFJC YJQ HQWPFGF $WFFJKUO DGNQPIGF VQ VJG EQOOQPOCUUGUURQMG2TCMTKV6JGGNCDQTCVG8GFKETKVWCNU
-UJCVTK[CENCPCPFDQVJFKURWVGFVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJG$TCJOKPU YGTGJGCXKN[HGNVGXGPD[VJGTKEJ6JGKPVGTKQTRQUKVKQPQH
6JG VTCFG QH OQPG[NGPFKPI YCU GUVCDNKUJGF KP VJG 8GFKE YQOGP CNUQ HCEKNKVCVGF VJG ITQYVJ QH PGY TGNKIKQPU YJKEJ
CIG6JGRTCEVKEGQHKPVGTGUVQPNQCPUYCUCNUQNGICNDWVVJG JCFCEVWCNN[UVCTVGFQHHVJGTGHQTOQHVJG*KPFWKUO
H-60 Religious Revolution

JAINISM
Vardhmana Mahavira is associated with Jainism. The Jains 9. Suivdhinath %TQEQFKNG
EHOLHYHWKDW0DKDYLUDZDVWKHODVWRIWKHWLUWKDQNDUDVRUJUHDW 10. Shitalnath Srivatsa
WHDFKHUV7KHUVWZDVRishabhadev. Their teachings constitute
 5JTG[CPUPCVJ 4JKPQEGTQU
the core of the religion of Jainism.
 8CUWRWL[C $WHHCNQ
/CJCXKTCYCUDQTPCVKundagrama (near Vaishali KP$KJCT
*KUHCVJGTYCUVJGJGCFQHVJG,PCVTKMCENCPCPFJKUOQVJGTYCU 13. Vimalnath $GCT
C.KEJEJCXKRTKPEGUU  #PCPVJPCVJ Falcon
#VVJGCIGQH/CJCXKTCNGHVJKUJQOG(QTVJGPGZV[GCTU  &JCTCOPCVJ 8CLTC
JGYCPFGTGFHTQORNCEGVQRNCEGKPUGCTEJQHMPQYNGFIG6JGP  5JCPVKPCVJ &GGT
QPGFC[YJKNGOGFKVCVKPIJGTGCNK\GFVJGVTWVJ6JTQWIJVJKU  -WPVWPCVJ *G)QCV
MPQYNGFIGJGEQPSWGTGFDQVJOKUGT[CPFJCRRKPGUU*GECOG  #TCPCVJ Fish
VQDGMPQYPCU,KPCVJGITGCVEQPSWGTQT*KUHQNNQYGTUECOG  /CNNKPCVJ 9CVGT2QV
VQDGMPQYPCU,CKPU  /WPKUWXTCVC Tortoise
/CJCXKTCVTCXGNNGFHTQORNCEGVQRNCEGRTGCEJKPIJKUOGUUCIG  0COKPCVJ $NWG.QVWU
*GXKUKVGFVJGEQWTVQH$KODKUCTCCPF#LCVCUJCVTW  0GOKPCVJ %QPEJ5JGNN
Jainism in the Past  2CTUYCPCVJ Serpent
x 6JGPCOGQH,CKPC6KTVJCPMTC4KUJCDJCKUHQWPFKPVJG /CJCXKT .KQP
4KI8GFC #EEQTFKPI VQ ,CKPKUO VJG VKTVJCPMCTCU FGUEGPFGF QP GCTVJ
x 6JG8KUJPW2WTCPCCPFVJG$JCICXCV2WTCPCFGUETKDG from time to time to guide the masses.
4KUJCDCCUCPKPECTPCVKQPQH0CTC[CPC
x 6JGOCNGPWFGVQTUQFKUEQXGTGFHTQOVJG+PFWU8CNNG[ The Principles of Jainism as Preached
EWNVWTGJCUUQOGVJKPIVQFQYKVJVJGVKTVJCPMCTCU by Mahavira
x 6JGTGYGTGVYGPV[HQWTVKTVJCPMCTCUCNN-UJCVTK[CUCPF
4GLGEVGFVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJG8GFCUCPFVJG8GFKETKVWCNU
DGNQPIKPIVQVJGTQ[CNHCOKN[2CTUCXPCVJYCUVJGTF
VKTVJCPMCTC x Svetambaras and Digambaras : #NVJQWIJ 2CTUXC
C RTGFGEGUUQT QH /CJCXKTC JCF CUMGF JKU HQNNQYGTU
VQ EQXGT VJG WRRGT CPF NQYGT RQTVKQPU QH VJGKT DQF[
Teachings /CJCXKTCCUMGFVJGOVQFKUECTFENQVJGUEQORNGVGN[ 1P
CEEQWPV QH VJKU KP NCVGT VKOGU ,CKPKUO YCU FKXKFGF KPVQ
,CKPKUOYCUDCUGFQPXGFQEVTKPGU
K Ahinsa, non-violence,
VYQUGEVUXGVCODCTCUQTVJQUGYJQRWVQPYJKVGFTGUU
(ii) FQPQVURGCMCNKG, (iii) do not steal, (iv) do not acquire
CPFFKICODCTCUQTVJQUGYJQMGGRVJGOUGNXGUPCMGF
RTQRGTV[CPF(v) QDUGTXGEQPVKPGPEG
$TCJOCEJCT[C). It is said
VJCVQPN[VJGHVJFQEVTKPGYCUCFFGFD[/CJCXKTVJGQVJGT x Sacred Literature : #EEQTFKPI VQ UXGVCODCTCU VJG
HQWTDGKPIVCMGPQXGTD[JKOHTQORTGXKQWUVGCEJGTU QTKIKPCN FQEVQTKPG VCWIJV D[ /CJCXKTC YCU EQPVCKPGF KP
QNFVGZVUECNNGFPurvasYJKEJYCURCUUGFQTCNN[CPF
,CKPKUO TGEQIPK\GF VJG GZKUVGPEG QH VJG )QFU DWV TGICTFGF
YCUEQORKNGFNCVGT
VJGO NQYGT VJCP VJG LKPC +V FKF PQV EQPFGOP VJG 8CTPC
U[UVGO #EEQTFKPI VQ /CJCXKTC C RGTUQP KU DQTP KP C JKIJ x 6JG UCETGF NKVGTCVWTG QH VJG 5XGVCODCTCU KU YTKVVGP
QTKPCNQYGT8CTPCKPEQPUGSWGPEGQHVJGUKPUQTVJGXKTVWGU in a form of 2TCMTKV ECNNGF #TIJCOCICFJK CPF OC[ DG
CESWKTGFD[JKOKPVJGRTGXKQWUDKTVJ+PJKUQRKPKQPVJTQWIJ ENCUUKGFCUHQNNQYU
RWTG CPF OGTKVQTKQWU NKHG OGODGTU QH VJG NQYGT ECUVGU ECP 
K  6JGVYGNXG#PICU
KK  6JGVYGNXG7RCPICU
CVVCKP NKDGTCVKQP (WNN MPQYNGFIG CEVKQP CPF NKDGTCVKQP CTG 
KKK  6JGVGP2TCMKTPCMCU
KX  6JGUKZ%JJGFCUWVTCU
EQPUKFGTGFVQDGVJGVJTGGIGOUQTTCVPCUQH,CKPKUO 
X  6JGHQWT/WNCUWtras
 6JKUNKVGTCVWTGKUPQVCEEGRVGFD[&KICODCTCU
24 Tirthankaras
Name Symbol Jaina Philosophy
 4KUJCDJC $WNN x Syadvada :#NNQWTLWFIGOGPVUCTGPGEGUUCTKN[TGNCVKXG
 #LKVPCVJ Elephant EQPFKVKQPCNCPFNKOKVGF#EEQTFKPIVQ5[CFXCFC
VJGVJGQT[
 5CODJCXCPCVJ Horse QHOC[DG UGXGPOQFGUQHRTGFKECVKQP
UCRVCDJCPIK CTG
 #DJKPCPFCO5YCO[ /QPMG[ RQUUKDNG#DUQNWVGCHTOCVKQPCPFCDUQNWVGPGICVKQPDQVJ
CTGYTQPI#NNLWFIGOGPVUCTGEQPFKVKQPCN
 5WOCVJKPCVJ %WTNGY
x Anekantavada : 6JG ,CKPC OGVCRJ[UKEU KU C TGCNKUVKE CPF
 2CFCORTCDJW 4GF.QVWU
TGNCVKXKUVKERNWTCNKUO+VKUECNNGF#PGMCPVCXCFCQTVJGFQEVTKPG
 5WRCTCUYCPCVJ 5YCUVKM QHVJGOCP[PGUUQHTGCNKV[Matter (Pudgala) and Spirit (Jiva)
 %JCPFTCLKV2TCDJW /QQP are regarded as separate and independent realities.
Religious Revolution H-61

Important Terms ENGCTN[OCTMKVUGNHQWVHTQOVJGDTCJOCPKECNTGNKIKQPKVHCKNGF


VQ CVVTCEV VJG OCUUGU &GURKVG VJKU ,CKPKUO ITCFWCNN[ URTGCF
Ajnanevada: #LPCPGXCFC TGHGTU VQ VJG LCKP FQEVTKPG KPVQ UQWVJ CPF YGUV +PFKC #EEQTFKPI VQ C NCVG VTCFKVKQP VJG
agnosticism or scepticim. In the Jaina text, there is mention URTGCFQH,CKPUKOKP-CTPCVCMCKUCVVTKDWVGFVQ%JCPFTCIWRVC
QHMKPFUQH#LPCPGXCFC /CWT[C
$% 6JGGORGTQTDGECOGC,CKPCICXG
Anuvratas: #PWXTCVCU TGHGT VQ TUV XG XQYU KP ,CKPKUO WRJKUVJTQPGCPFURGPVVJGNCUV[GCTUQHJKUNKHGKP-CTPCVCM
6JGUGCTGOQTGOQFGTCVGXGTUKQPQH/CJCXTCVG6JGUGXQYU CUC,CKPCOQPM$WVVJKUVTCFKVKQPKUPQVEQPFKVKQPGFD[CP[
KPENWFG CDUVKPGPEG HTQO ITQUU XKQNGPEG ITQUU HCNUGJQQF other sources.
ITQUU UVGCNKPI EQPVGPVOGPV YKVJ QPGU QYP YKHG CPF ,CKPKUOURTGCFVQ-CNKPICKP1TKUUCKPVJGHQWTVJEGPVWT[$%
limitation of ones possessions. +VGPLQ[GFVJGRCVTQPCIGQHVJG-CNKPICMKPI-JCTCXGNCYJQJCF
Avasarpini: +P,CKPKUOVKOGKUFKXKFGFKPVQKPPKVGGSWCNVKOG FGHGCVGFVJGRTKPEGUQH#PFJTCCPF/CICFJC+PVJGUGEQPFVJG
E[GNGUQT-CNEJCMTCU'XGT[VKOGE[ENGKUHWTVJGTFKXKFGF TUVEGPVWTKGU$%KVCNUQUGGOUVQJCXGTGCEJGFVJGUQWVJGTP
KPVQVYQGSWCNJCNXGU6JGTUVJCNHKUVJGRTQITGUUKXGE[ENGQT districts of Tamil Nadu. In later centuries, Jainism penetrated
CUEGPFKPIQTFGTECNNGF7VUCTRKPKYJGTGCUVJGUGEQPFJCNHKU /CNYC)WLCTCVCPF4CLCUVJCPCPFGXGPPQYVJGUGCTGCUJCXG
VJGTGITGUUKXGE[ENGQTFGUEGPFKPIQTFGTECNNGF#XCUCXRKPK IQQFPWODGTQH,CKPCUOCKPN[GPICIGFKPVTCFGCPFEQOOGTEG
Samavasarana: The term samavasarana refers to a place +PVJGUQWVJTQ[CNF[PCUVKGUNKMGVJG)CPICU-CFCODCU%JCNWM[CU
YJGTGCNNJCXGCEQOOQPQRRQTVWPKV[QHCESWKTKPIVJGYKPFQY CPF4CUJVTCMWVCUUWRRQTVGF,CKPKUO+P)WLCTCVRCVTQPCIGECOG
VJGVJGOGQH5COCXCUCTCPCJCUDGGPRQRWNCTKP,CKPCTV HTQOYGCNVJ[OGTEJCPVU6JGEQPETGVGGZRTGUUKQPQH,CKPKUOU
Samayasara: 5COC[UCTC KU C HCOQWU ,CKP VGZV YTKVVGP D[ TGNKIKQWUHCXQWTKUUGGPCNNQXGTVJGEQWPVT[KPVJGYQTMUQHCTV
#EJCT[C-WPFCMWPFC+PVJKUVGZV#EJCT[CFGUETKDGUCDQWV CPF CTEJKVGEVWTG 6JG HQQV JKIJ UVCVWG QH Gomateshvara at
4CVPCVTC[C YJKEJ KPENWFGU 5CO[CM &CTUJCP 5CO[CM 5TCXCPC $GNCIQNC KP /[UQTG GTGEVGF KP  QT  #& KU
)[CP5CO[CM%JCTKVTC COCTXGNQHKVUMKPF6JGVGORNGUCV/QWPV#DWCPFVJQUG CV
Samachari: +V TGHGTU KP C RCTV QH -CNRUWVTC 9JKEJ FGCNU 2CNKVJCPCKP)WLCTCVCPF/QQFCDKFTKCPF-CTMCNCKPVJGUQWVJ
YKVJ,CKPOQPMU OCMGCTKEJEQPVTKDWVKQPVQVJG+PFKCPJGTKVCIG
Decline :5GXGTCNHCEVQTUCVVTKDWVGFVQVJGFGENKPKPIRQRWNCTKV[
Jaina Councils QH ,CKPKUO +P +PFKC KV JCF VQ EQORGVG YKVJ DQVJ *KPFWKUO
CPF $WFFJKUO #DUGPEG QH RQRWNCT TGNKIKQWU RTGCEJGTU CHVGT
$[VJGGPFQHHQWTVJEGPVWT[$%VJGTGYCUCUGTKQWUHCOKPG
VJG FGCVJ QH /CJCXKTC KVU FKXKUKQP KPVQ VYQ KORQTVCPV UGEVU
KPVJG)CPIGUXCNNG[NGCFKPIVQCITGCVGZQFWUQHOCP[,CKPC
CDUGPEGQHRTQVGEVKQPD[NCVGTTWNGTUCPFVJGTGXKXCNQH*KPFWKUO
OQPMUVQVJG&GEECPCPF5QWVJ+PFKC
5TCXCPC$CNIQNC CNQPI
YKVJ$JCFTCDCJWCPF%JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[C6JG[TGVWTPGFVQ CNNEQPVTKDWVGFVQVJGFGENKPGQHVJKUTGNKIKQP$GUKFGUKVCNUQ
VJG )CPIGVKE XCNNG[ CHVGT  [GCTU 6JG NGCFGT QH VJG ITQWR YCU WPCDNG VQ URTGCF VQ CP[ EQPUKFGTCDNG GZVGPV DG[QPF VJG
YJKEJUVC[GFDCEMCV/CICFJCYCU5VJWNCDCJW6JGEJCPIGU NKOKVUQH+PFKCCPFPGXGTTGCEJGFVJGRQRWNCTKV[QH$WFFJKUO
VJCV VQQM RNCEG KP VJG EQFG QH EQPFWEV QH VJG HQNNQYGTU QH 6JGHQNNQYGTUQH,CKPKUOCNUQCDUVTCEVGFHTQOCPCEVKXGRQNKE[
5VJWNCDCJW NGF VQ VJG FKXKUKQP QH VJG ,CKPC KPVQ &KICODCTCU QH EQPXGTUKQP +V VJWU RTCEVKECNN[ GUECRGF WPPQVKEGF FWTKPI

UM[ENCFQTPCMGF CPF5XGVCODCTCU
YJKVGENCF  VJG$TCJOCPKECNTGXKXCN;GVKVEQPVKPWGUVQTGVCKPKVUJQNFQP
x First Council YCU JGNF CV Pataliputra D[ 5VJWNCDCJW KP CUOCNNDQF[QHHQNNQYGTUWRVQVJGRTGUGPVFC[
VJGDGIKPPKPIQHVJGVJKTFEGPVWT[$%CPFTGUWNVGFKPVJG Impact of Jainsim :,CKPKUOOCFGVJGTUVUGTKQWUCVVGORVVQ
EQORKNCVKQPQH#PICUVQTGRNCEGVJGNQUV2WTXCU reduce the evils of the Varna order and the ritualistic Vedic
x Second CouncilYCUJGNFCVValabhi KPVJGVJEGPVWT[#& TGNKIKQP6JGGCTN[,CKPC5CPUMTKVNCPIWCIGOCKPN[RCVTQPK\GFD[
WPFGT VJG NGCFGTUJKR QH &GXCTCFJK -UJCOCUTCOCPC CPF VJG$TCJOCPCU6JG[CFQRVGF2TCMTKVNCPIWCIGQHVJGEQOOQP
TGUWNVGFKPPCNEQORKNCVKQPQH#PICUCPF7RCPICU RGQRNGVQRTGCEJVJGKTFQEVTKPGU,CKPKUOEQPVTKDWVGFOWEJVQ
NGZKEQITCRJ[RQGVT[OCVJGOCVKEUCUVTQPQO[CUVTQNQI[CPF

 political thought. The Jainas composed the earliest important
4KIJV HCKVJ
5CO[CM 8KUJYCU  TGHGTTKPI VQ .QTF /CJCXKTC YQTMUKPApabhramsa (common language of the masses) and
TKIJV MPQYNGFIG
5CO[CM )[CP  MPQYNGFIG QH FQEVTKPGU QH KVUTUVITCOOCT6JG,CKPCNKVGTCVWTGEQPVCKPUGRKEU2WTCPCU
,CKPKUO4KIJVEQPFWEV
5CO[CM-CTOC HWNNOGPVQHTQYU PQXGNUCPFFTCOC#NCTIGRQTVKQPQHVJG,CKPCYTKVKPIKUUVKNN
of Jainism. KPVJGHQTOQHOCPWUETKRVUYJKEJJCXGPQVDGGPRWDNKUJGFCPF
YJKEJCTGHQWPFKPVJG,CKPCUJTKPGUQH)WLCTCVCPF4CLCUVJCP
Five Categories of Siddhas .CUVDWVPQVVJGNGCUVVJG[EQPVTKDWVGFVQVJGITQYVJQHTGIKQPCN
NCPIWCIGU UWEJ CU 6COKN 6GNWIW )WLCTCVK *KPFK /CTCVJK
x 6KTVJCPMCTCYJQJCUCVVCKPGFUCNXCVKQP 4CLCUVJCPKCPF-CPPCFCKPYJKEJVJG[YTQVGGZVGPUKXGN[
x ArhatYJQKUCDQWVVQCVVCKP0KTXCPC ,CKPCCTEJKVGEJVWTGKUTGOCTMCDNG6JGHathi gumpha caves of
x #EJCT[C, the head of the ascetic group. MJCTXGNCCPFMJCPFCIKTKCPF7FCKIKTKECXGUQH1TKUUCEQPVCKP
x 7RCFJ[C[C, teacher or saint, and GCTN[,CKPCTGNKGU+PVJG)WRVCRGTKQFDKIUVCVGUQH$CJWDCNK
x SadhuCPQTFKPCT[CUEGVKE
ECNNGF )QOCVGUJYCTC  CV 5JTCXCPC DGNCIQNC CPF -CTMCNC KP
Spread of Jainism : In order to propagate the teachings of -CTPCVCMCYGTGGTGEVGF#NUQ,CKPVGORNGUQH4CPCMRWT
PGCT
,CKPKUO/CJCXKTCQTICPK\GFCPQTFGTQHJKUHQNNQYGTUYJKEJ Jodhpur) and Dilwara VGORNGUKP/QWPV#DWCTGGZCORNGUQH
CFOKVVGF DQVJ OGP CPF YQOGP 5KPEG ,CKPKUO FKF PQV XGT[ excellent architecture.
H-62 Religious Revolution

BUDDHISM
$WFFJKUOKUPCOGFCHVGT)CWVCO$WFFJC*KUTGCNPCOGYCU 
5KFFJCTVJC*GYCUDQTPCV.WODKPK*KUHCVJGTYCUVJGEJKGH

K  6JGHQNNQYGTUQH/CJC[CPCDGNKGXGFKPVJGJGCXGPNKPGUU
QH VJG 5JCM[C ENCP 5KFFJCTVJC JCF C EQOHQTVCDNG NKHG CU C
QH$WFJCCPFUQWIJVVJGUCNXCVKQPQHCNNVJTQWIJVJGITCEG
RTKPEG[GVJGYCUPQVJCRR[ CPFJGNRQH$WFFJCCPF$QFJKUCVVCXCU
5KFFJCTVJCNGHVJQOGVQUGGMMPQYNGFIGCPFVJGVTWGOGCPKPI
KK  $GNKGXGUKPKFQNYQTUJKR
QH NKHG (QT UKZ [GCTU JG YCPFGTGF HTQO RNCEG VQ RNCEG *G

KKK  $GNKGXGUVJCV0KTXCPCKUPQVCPGICVKXGEGUUCVKQPQHOKUGT[
NGCTPV VQ OGFKVCVG *G UCV DGPGCVJ C RKRCN VTGG KP )C[C CPF
DWVCRQUKVKXGUVCVGQHDNKUU
DGICPVQOGFKVCVG#HVGTOCP[FC[UQHKPVGPUGOGFKVCVKQPJG
(iv  /CJCPC[C JCF VYQ EJKGH RJKNQUQRJKECN UEJQQNU VJG
FKUEQXGTGF GPNKIJVGPOGPV *G WPFGTUVQQF YJ[ VJG YQTNF KU
/CFJ[COKMCCPFVJG;QICEJCTC
HWNNQHUWHHGTKPICPFYJCVUJQWNFDGFQPGVQQXGTEQOGKV*G
VJWUDGECOGVJG$WFFJCVJGGPNKIJVGPGFQTVJG#YCMGPGF 
QT VJG 9KUG QPG 6JG RKRCN VTGG WPFGT YJKEJ JG CVVCKPGF

K  6JGHQNNQYGTUQHXCLTC[CPCDGNKGXGFVJCVUCNXCVKQPEQWNF
GPNKIJVGPOGPV ECOG VQ DG MPQYP CU VJG VTGG QH YKUFQO QT
DGDGUVCVVCKPGFD[CEJKGXKPIVJGOCIKECNRQYGTYJKEJ
$QFJK8TKMUJC VJG[ECNNGF8CLTC
(TQO)C[CVJG$WFFJCYGPVVQ5CTPCVJ*GICXGJKUTUVUGTOQP
KK  6JGEJKGHFKXKPKVGUQHVJKUPGYUGEVYGTGVJG6CTCU
CVVJG&GGT2CTMKP5CTPCVJ+VKUMPQYPCUVJG&JCTOCEJMTC
KKK  +V DGECOG RQRWNCT KP 'CUVGTP +PFKC RCTVKEWNCTN[ $GPICN
Pravartana
UGVVKPI KP OQVKQP VJG YJGGN QH FJCTOC  6JG CPF$KJCT+VYCUCHQTOQH$WFFJKUOYJKEJCRRGCTGFKP
$WFFJCURGPFVJGTGUVQHJKUNKHGVTCXGNNKPIHTQOQPGRNCEGVQ eastern India in the 8thEGPVWT[CPFYCUPCNN[GUVCDNKUJGF
another, meeting people and preaching his message of love and KP6KDGVKPVJEGPVWT[, as a result of mission sent from
RGCEG*GVCWIJVKPCNCPIWCIGYJKEJVJGEQOOQPRGQRNGEQWNF VJGITGCV8CLTCPC[COQPCUVGT[QH8KMTCOUJKNC
understand.

 Buddhist Councils


6JG EQPEGRV QH 0KTXCPC YCU QTKIKPCNN[ GZRNCKPGF D[ .QTF #EEQTFKPIVQ2CNKNKVGTCVWTGHQWTEQWPEKNUYGTGJGNFVQFTCY
$WFFJC6JGYQTF0KTXCPCNKVGTCNN[OGCPUVQDNQYQWVCPF up the canonical texts and the creed in their pure form.
TGHGTUVQGZVKPIWKUJKPIQHTGUQHITGGFJCVTGFCPFFGNWUKQP The First Council YCU JGNF CV Rajgir KOOGFKCVGN[ CHVGT
6JGVGTO0KTXCPCJCUDGGPGZRNCKPGFCUGZVKPEVKQPQHVJTGG VJG 2CTKPKTXCPC QH VJG $WFFJC +V YCU RTGUKFGF QXGT D[
TGU PCOGN[ RCUUKQP QT TCIC CXGTUKQP QT FYGUJC CPF /QNCMCUUCRC #V VJKU EQWPEKN 8KPC[C 2KVCMC CPF 5WVTC
KIPQTCPEG OQJC #EEQTFKPI VQ $WFFJKUV RJKNQUQRJ[ YJGP 2KVCMCYGTGEQORKNGF
VJGUGTGUCTGGZVKPIWKUJGFQPGIGVUHTGGFQOHTQOVJGE[ENGQH The Second Council YCU JGNF CV Vaishali KP  $% +P
DKTVJCPFFGCVJCPFVJWU0KTXCPCKUCVVCKPGFD[VJGKPFKXKFWCN. KV8KPC[C2KVCMCYCUTGXKUGFCPFVJGFCKN[CEVKXKVKGUQHVJG
OQPMUYGTGUGVVNGF
Jatakas:6JGUVQTKGUQHFKHHGTGPVDKTVJUQH$WFFJCCTGECNNGF The Third Council YCU JGNF KP Patliputra KP  $%
,CVCMCU+VKUCEQNNGEVKQPQHQXGTRQGOUDTKG[QWVNKPKPI FWTKPIVJGTGKIPQH#UJQMC/QIINKRWVVC6KUUCRTGUKFGFQXGT
HQNMVCNGUCPFUVQTKGUCVVTKDWVGFVQ$WFFJCIJQUC KV#VVJKUEQWPEKN#DJKFJCOOC2KVCMCYGTGEQNNGEVGF
The Fourth CouncilYCUJGNFWPFGT-CPKUJMC. The place
Differences in Buddhism QHCUUGODN[YCU-CUJOKT6JGRTGUKFGPVQHVJKUEQWPEKNYCU
.KMG,CKPKUO$WFFJKUOCNUQHCEGFKFGQNQIKECNFKHHGTGPEGU+V 8CUWOKVTC YJGTG #UJXCIJQUJC CEVGF CU XKEG RTGUKFGPV QH
YCUFKXKFGFKPVQVJTGGUGEVU VJKUEQWPEKN6JGRTQEGGFKPIUQHVJKUEQWPEKNYGTGEQPTOGF
to the composition of commentaries.

K  6JGHQNNQYGTUQH*KP[CPCDGNKGXGFKPVJGQTKIKPCNVGCEJKPIU
Spread of Buddhism
QH$WFFJC

KK  6JG[UQWIJVKPFKXKFWCNUCNXCVKQPVJTQWIJUGNHFKUEKRNKPGF 6JGURTGCFQH$WFFJKUOYCUFWGVQVJGOKUUKQPCTKGUCEVKXKVKGU
meditation. QH 'ORGTQT #UJQMC *G UGPV OKUUKQPCTKGU VQ OCP[ RNCEG KP

KKK  6JG[FKFPQVDGNKGXGKPKFQNYQTUJKR
KX *KPC[CPCNKMG EGPVTCN #UKC VQ RQRWNCTK\G $WFFJKUO &WTKPI VJG TGKIP QH
,CKPKUO KU C TGNKIKQP YKVJQWV )QF Karma VCMKPI VJG MKPI-CPKUJMCCNUQOCP[+PFKCPOKUUKQPCTKGUYGPVVQ%GPVTCN
RNCEGQH)QF #UKC 6JG[ KPVTQFWEGF /CJC[CPU $WFFJKUO KP VJKU TGIKQP
(v) Nirvana is regarded as the annihilation of all. #EEQTFKPI VQ /CJC[CPC $WFFJC YCU EQPUKFGTGF C HQTO QH

XK  6JG QNFGUV UEJQQN QH *KPC[CPC $WFFJKUO KU VJG )QFQPGCTVJCPFJKUKOCIGUYGTGYQTUJKRRGF6JGYQTUJKR


Sthaviravada (Theravada in Pali) or the doctrine of the QH $QFJK 5CVXCU $WFFJKUV 5CKPVU CNUQ DGECOG RQRWNCT HTQO
Elders. %GPVTCN#UKCCPF%JKPC$WFFJKUOURTGCFVQ-QTGCCPF,CRCP

XKK )TCFWCNN[5CTXCUVKXCFCQT8CKDJCUKMCDTCPEJQHCPQVJGT The 5KNM4QWVGCNUQJGNRGFITGCVN[KPVJGURTGCFQH$WFFJKUO


UEJQQN ECNNGF 5CWVCPVTKMC YJKEJ YCU OQTG ETKVKECN KP VQ %GPVTCN #UKC CPF %JKPC 2NKITKOU CPF OKUUKQPCTKGU HTQO
QWVNQQM +PFKCVTCXGNNGFVQ%JKPCCPF%GPVTCN#UKCVJTQWIJVJKUTQWVG
Religious Revolution H-63

6JG HCOQWU $WFFJKUV OQPM -WOCTCLC YGPV VQ %JKPC CPF CVVCEMUQH*WPCMKPIKPVJGVJEGPVWT[#&CPFVJG6WTMKUJ
UVC[GF VJGTG HQT UQOG VKOG VQ URTGCF $WFFJKUO $WFFJKUV KPXCFGTUKPVJGVJEGPVWT[#&DTQWIJVTCRKFGZVKPEVKQPQH
RKNITKOU HTQO %JKPC CNUQ EQOG VQ +PFKC D[ VJKU 5KNM 4QWVG $WFFJKUO
1VJGT EQWPVTKGU UWEJ CU ,CXC 5WOCVTC 8KGVPCO 6JCKNCPF &GURKVGKVUGZVKPEVKQPCUCPQTICPK\GFTGNKIKQP$WFFJKUONGHV
CPF %QODQFKC YGTG CNUQ KPWGPEGF D[ $WFFJKUO 6QFC[ KVUOCTMQPVJGJKUVQT[QH+PFKC6JGQDLGEVKXGQHVJG$WFFJKUV
$WFFJKUOKURTCEVKUGFKP%GPVTCNCPF5QWVJGCUV#UKC VGCEJKPIU YCU VQ UGEWTG VJG UCNXCVKQP QH VJG KPFKXKFWCN QT
0KTXCPC $WFFJKUO OCFG CP KORQTVCPV KORCEV QP UQEKGV[ D[
Decline of Buddhism MGGRKPIKVUFQQTUQRGPVQYQOGPCPFUWFTCU6JGKTEQPXGTUKQPU
VQ$WFFJKUOHTGGFVJGOHTQOUWEJOCTMQHKPHGTKQTKV[
%XGGKLVPEHFDPHH[WLQFWLQ,QGLDE\WKHHQGRIFHQWXU\
$WFFJKUO UVTGPIVJGPU VJG ECVVNG QH VJG EQWPVT[ 6JG GCTNKGUV
)TCFWCNN[ VJG $WFFJKUV OQPMU YGTG EWV QHH HTQO VJG $WFFJKUV VGZV 5WVTC RKVCMC FGENCTGU VJG ECVVNG VQ DG IKXGT QH
OCKPUVTGCO QH NKHG VJG[ ICXG WR 2CNK VJG NCPIWCIG QH VJG HQQFDGCWV[CPFJCRRKPGUU
CPPCFCXCPPCFCCPFUWMJCFC ,
RGQRNG CPF VQQM VQ 5CPUMTKV VJG NCPIWCIG QH KPVGNNGEVWCNU CPFVJWUFGHGPFGFHQTVJGKTRTQVGEVKQP$WFFJKUOETGCVGFCPF
TJG *KPFWKUO YCU KPVGTPCNN[ TGHQTOGF CPF UVTGUUKPI WRQP FGXGNQRGFCPGYCYCTGPGUUKPVJGGNFQHKPVGNNGEVCPFEWNVWTG
NQXG CPF FGXQVKQP RTQOKUGF PQPXKQNGPEG CICKPUV ECVVNG $WFFJKUO NGHV KVU OCTM QP VJG CTV QH CPEKGPV +PFKC 6JG TUV
CPF TCKUG KP YQOGPU RQUKVKQP KP VJG UQEKGV[ (TQO VJG TUV JWOCPUVCVWGUYQTUJKRRGFKP+PFKCYGTGRTQDCDN[VJQUGQHVJG
EGPVWT[ #& VJG[ RTCEVKUGF KFQN YQTUJKR QP C NCTIG UECNG Buddha6JGHCKVJHWNFGXQVGGUFGUETKDGFVJGXCTKQWUGXGPVUKP
and received numerous offerings from devotees. Some of the VJGNKHGQHVJG$WFFJCKPUVQPG
OQPCUVGTKGUUWEJCU0CNCPFCEQNNGEVGFTGXGPWGHTQOCUOCP[ (QTVJGTGUKFGPEGQHVJGOQPMUTQQOUYGTGJGYPECTXGFQWVQH
CU  XKNNCIGU $[ VJG UGXGPVJ EGPVWT[ #& VJG $WFFJKUV VJGTQEMUCPFVJWUDGICPVJGECXGCTEJKVGEVWTGKPVJG$CTCDCT
OQPCUVGTKGUJCFEQOGVQDGFQOKPCVGFD[GCUGNQXKPIRGQRNG JKNNU KP )C[C CPF KP YGUVGTP +PFKC CTQWPF 0CUKM 7PFGT VJG
CPFDGECOGEGPVTGUQHEQTTWRVRTCEVKEGUYJKEJ)CWVCOC$WFFJC KORGVWUQH4QOCPVTCFG$WFFJKUVCTVQWTKUJGFKPVJG-TKUJPC
JCFUVTKEVN[RTQJKDKVGF6JGPGYHQTOQH$WFFJKUOYCUMPQYP delta, and under that QH %GPVTCN #UKCP EQPVCEVU KV VJTQXG KP
CU8CLTC[CPC'PVT[QHYQOGPKPVQ$WFFJKUV5CPIJCUCPFVJG /CVJWTCCPF)CPFJCTC

HINDU REVIVALIST MOVEMENT


,Q IDFH RI DWWDFNV IURP -DLQLVP DQG %XGGKLVP WKH +LQGX VJGTGCNK\CVKQPD[CPKPFKXKFWCNVJCVGXGT[UQWNKUCRCTV
UHOLJLRQVRXJKWWRUHYLYHLWVORVWJORU\ QH VJG 2CTCOCVOC
7PKXGTUCN 5QWN  GXGT[ RGTUQP JCU C
UQWN UQWN PGXGT FKGU PQDQF[ ECP VQWEJ QT MKNN C UQWN
(a) Bhagavatism or Vaishnavism soul has neither friends, enemies nor relations and soul
neither feels pleasure nor pain. If an individual does not
 6JKU UGEV YCU RTQRCIGF D[ Vasudeva. The faith in the
TGCNK\GVJKUVJGPJGQTUJGKUKIPQTCPVCPFECPPQVCVVCKP
2WTCPCU VJG 4COC[CPC VJG /CJCDJCTCVC VJG $JCIYCV
UCNXCVKQP #EEQTFKPI VQ VJG )KVC #I[CPC (ignorance) is
)KVC VJGQT[ QH KPECTPCVKQPU QH )QF CVVCKPOGPV QH
OQTG C URKTKVWCN DNKPFPGUU VJCP CP KPVGNNGEVWCN YGCMPGUU
5CNXCVKQPQT0KTXCPCD[DJCMVKKFQNYQTUJKREJCPVKPIQH
YJKEJ ECP DG TGOQXGF D[ -CTOC[QIC $WV VJG )[CPC
RTC[GTUGVEYGTGRQRWNCTK\GFD[JKO
OCTIYJKEJFKTGEVUCPKPFKXKFWCNVQVJGOGFKVCVKQPQHVJG
Teachings: +P $JCICXCVKUO Vishnu, is considered as CDUQNWVGKUCFKHEWNVRTQEGUU6JGTGHQTGVJG)KVCUWIIGUVU
VJG UWRTGOG )QF *G KU VJG ETGCVQT QH VJG WPKXGTUG -CTOCOCTICUCPGCUKGTCNVGTPCVKXG#PKPFKXKFWCNUJQWNF
TGKIPUKP8CKMWPVJCUCPFTGUVUKPVJGRTKOGXCNQEGCPQP DG-CTOC;QIKPIVQCVVCKP0KTXCPC
VJG VJQWUCPFJGCFGF UPCMG 5GUCPCIC 6JG EQNQWT QH
Spread of Bhagvatism: The religious ideas and practices
JKU UMKP KU FCTM DNWG CPF JG JCU HQWT CTOU *KU YKHG KU
YJKEJITGYWRFWTKPIVJKUVKOGJCFOCVWTGFD[VJGCIGQH
.CMUJOKYJQKUVJG)QFFGUUQHYGCNVJCPFRTQURGTKV[*G
VJG)WRVCUCPFHQWPFVJGKTRGTOCPGPVRNCEGKP*KPFWKUO
TKFGUVJGITGCVGCING)CTWFC
1HEQWTUGTGNKIKQWUUEJQNCTUCPFRTGCEJGTUNKMGKumaril
BrahmaYJQETGCVGUVJGYQTNFKUDQTPKPVJGNQVWUQYGT Bhatt YJQ RTGCEJGF Dualism and 5JCPMCTCEJCT[C YJQ
YJKEJITQYUHTQOVJGPCXGNQH8KUJPWKPJKUUNGGR6JG preached Monism VTKGFVQTGXKXGVJG-CTOC
CEVKQP CPF
UCOG YC[ CNN QVJGT )QFU JCXG DGGP ETGCVGF CPF CTG )[CPC
MPQYNGFIG  OCTI TGURGEVKXGN[ VQ CVVCKP 0KTXCPC
FGRGPFGPV QP 8KUJPW 6JGTGHQTG 8KUJPW KU VJG 2CTCO DWVVJGKTGHHQTVUDTQWIJVNKVVNGTGUWNVU
$TCJOCVJG2CTCOCVOC0CTC[CPCQT*CTKCPFVJGTGHQTG
YQTUJKR CPF DJCMVK QH 8KUJPW KU VJG OQUV GUUGPVKCN
TGNKIKQWUFWV[QHCPKPFKXKFWCN
(b) Saivism
Literature: Bhagwad GitaYCUVJGOQUVRQRWNCTTGNKIKQWU The other popular sect of Hindusim is Saivism. The origin
DQQMQH$JCICXCVKUOYJKEJKUIGPGTCNN[DGNKGXGFVQDGC of SivaECPDGVTCEGFVQVJGEQPEGRVQH4WFTCKPVJG4KIXGFC
YQTMQHVJGTUVQTUGEQPFEGPVWT[$% 2TQDCDN[JGHQWPFJKURNCEGCOQPI#T[CP)QFUDGECWUG
 6JG)KVCFGNKXGTUVJGOQUVJCTOQPKQWUDNGPFQHVJTGGRCVJU QH VJG KPWGPEG QH VJG &TCXKFKCPU YJQ JCF C UKOKNCT
QHUCNXCVKQPQT0KTXCPCXK\VJQWIJ)[CPC
MPQYNGFIG  )QFCOQPIVJGOECNNGFPasupati+PVJG;CLWTXGFCJGKU
Karma (action) and $JCMVK
FGXQVKQP CPFFGENCTGU#NN refered to as Sambhu or 5JCPMCT+PVJG#VJTCXCXGFCJG
TQCFUVQ/QMUJC
UCNXCVKQP NGCFDWVWPVQOG)[CPCKU KUTGICTFGFCUVJG5WRTGOG)QFYJKNGKPVJG5XGVCUXCVCTC
H-64 Religious Revolution

7RCPKUJCF JKU URQWUG 7OC QT 2CTXCVK KU RTQXKFGF C x $WFFJKUO JCU VJTGG UGEVU *KPC[CPC /CJC[CPC CPF
UKOKNCT RQUKVKQP 6JWU 5KXC TQUG KPVQ RTQOKPGPEG YKVJ 8CLTC[ana.
VJGRCUUCIGQHVKOG*QYGXGTVJGTKUGQH5CKXKUOYKVJC
x 'ORGTQT #UJQM RNC[GF CP KORQTVCPV TQNG KP URTGCF
RJKNQUQRJ[CPFQTICPK\CVKQPQHKVUQYPECPPQVDGVTCEGF
QH $WFFJKUO *G UGPV OKUUKQPCTKGU VQ OCP[ RNCEGU KP
DCEM GTNKGT VJCP CDQWV VJG DGIKPPKPI QH VJG %JCTKUVKCP
EGPVTCN#UKC
GTC6JGUGEVRTQDCDN[YCUUVCTVGFD[CRGTUQPECNNGF
x *KPFWTGXKXCNKUVOQXGOGPVRNC[GFCPKORQTVCPVTQNGKP
.CMWNKPQT0CMWNKPPGCTCDQWVVJGDGIKPPKPIQHVJGPF
TGFWEKPIRQRWNCTKV[QH,CKPKUOCPF$WFFJKUO
EGPVWT[#&#HVGTYCTFU5CKXKUOYCUFKXKFGFKPVQHQWT
x $JCIXCVKUOQTXCKUJPCXKUOUGEVYCURTQRCSGFD[8CUWCFGXC
KORQTVCPV UEJQQNU XK\ 2CUWRCVC 5CKXC -CRCNKMC CPF
8KUJPWKUEQPUKFGTGFUWTPCOG)QFKU$JCIXCVKUOCPF
-CNCOWMJC *QYGXGT5JKXCKUYQTUJKRRGF OQUV KPVJG
$JCIYCV)KVCKUEQPUKFGTGFOQUVRQRWNCTDQQM
form of the Linga (Phallus DGECWUGQHVJGKPWGPEGQH
x 5CKXKUO EQPUKFGTU UKXC CU KVU UWRTGOG )QF 6JKU UGEV
another sectQH5CKXKUOECNNGF.KPI[CV5CKXKUOKUPQYC
YCUUVCTVGFD[.CMCNKTQT0CMWNKTKPPFEGPVWT[#&
RCTVQH*KPFWKUOCPFVJGYQTUJKRQH5KXCKUOQUVRQRWNCT
among the Hindus. x ,CKPKUO CPF $WFFJKUO GOGTIGF CP VJG OQUV RQKPV
religious reform movements.
Points to Remember x ,CKPKUOKUDCUGFQPXGFQEVTKPGU
x JainismCPF$WFFJKUOGOGTIGFCUVJGOQUVRTQOKPGPV 
K #JKOUC
KK &QPQVURGCMCNKG
KKK &QPQVUVGCN
KX 
religious reforms movements. &QPQVCESWKTGRTQRGTV[CPF
X 1DUGTXGEQPVKPGPEG
x ,CKPKUOKUDCUGFQPXGFQEVTKPGU x ,CKPRJKNQUQRJ[KPENWFGU

K #JKOUC
KK &QPQVURGCMCNKG
KKK &QPQVUVGCN
KX      5[CFXCFC  #NN QWT LWFIGOGPV KU PGEGUUCTN[ TGNCVKXG
&QPQVCESWKTGRTQRGTV[CPF
X 1DUGTXGEQPVKPGPEG conditional and limited.
x ,CKPRJKNQUQRJ[KPENWFGU  #PGMCPVCXCFC/CVVGT
2WFICNC CPFURKTKV
,KXC CTG
 5[CFXCFC#NNQWTLWFIGOGPVKUPGEGUUCTKN[TGNCVKXG regarded as separate and independent realities.
conditional and limited. x $WFFJKUO KU PCOGF CHVGT )CWVCO $WFFJC YJQUG TGCN
 #PGMCPVCXCFC/CVVGT
2WFICNC CPFURKTKV
,KXC CTG PCOGYCU5KFFJCTVJC
regarded as separate and independent realities. x $WFFJKUOJCUVJGTGUGEVU*KPC[CP/CJC[CPCPF8CLTC[CPC
x $WFFJKUOKUPCOGFCHVGT)CWVCO$WFFJC9JQUGTGCN x 'ORGTQT #UJQM RNC[GF CP KORQTVCPV TQNG KP URTGCF
QH $WFFJKUO *G UGPV OKUUKQPCTKGU VQ OCP[ RNCEGU KP
PCOGYCU5KFFJCTVJC
EGPVTCN#UKC
Religious Revolution H-65


Exercise - 1
6JG$QFJKUCVXC&QEVTKPGKUCUUQEKCVGFYKVJ  6JGRQKPVUQHUKOKNCTKV[DGVYGGP$WFFJKUOCPF*KPFWKUOKU

C  /CJC[CPC$WFFJKUO 
C  6JGOKUUKQPCT[URKTKV

D  *KPC[CPC$WFFJKUO 
D  6JGRCPVJGQPQH)QFUKP*KPFWKUO

E  8CLTC[CPC$WFFJKUO 
E  #EEGRVCPEGQHVJGNCYUQH-CTOCCPFVJG*KPFW

F  6JGTCXCFC$WFFJKUO8KGY VJGQTKGUQHTGDKTVJ
 #UJQMC ECTXGF QWV TQEMEWV ECXGU CV $CTCDCT CPF 
F  0QPGQHVJGCDQXG
0CICTLWPJKNNUKP$KJCTHQTQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPI  6JGOGTECPVKNGEQOOWPKV[YCUOQUVCVVTCEVGFVQ,CKPKUO

C  *KPC[CPC
D  &KICODCTC DGECWUG

E  /CJC[CPC
F  #LKXKMC 
C  +VEQWNFHQNNQYVJGTGNKIKQPYKVJQWVCP[JKPFTCPEGVQ
 9JQYCUVJGHQWPFGTQH#LGGXKMCUGEV! its economic activities

C  /CMMCNK)QUCNC
D  /CJCXKTC 
D  6JG8GFKETKVWCNUCPFUCETKEGUYGTGJKPFTCPEGUVQ

E  8CUWFGXC-TKUJPC
F  5WFFJQFCPC its vocation
 9JQCOQPIVJGHQNNQYKPIYCU-KPIQH/CICFJCCVVJG 
E  6JG RGCEG CPF PQPXKQNGPEG QH ,CKPKUO YCU
VKOGQH/CJCRCTKPKTXCPCQH)CWVCO$WFFJC! conducive to the development of trade and

C  $KODKUCTC
D  7FC[K commerce

E  #LCVUJCVTW
F  %JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[C 
F  6JGFQEVTKPGQH-COCQH,CKPKUOITGCVN[KORTGUUGF
 6JGOCKPFKHHGTGPEGDGVYGGP,CKPCUCPF*KPFWUKP the merchants and traders
VTGCVKPIVJGCUEGVKEUKU  1PVJGDCUKUQHYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIVTCFKVKQPCNTGEQTFU

C  6Q*KPFWUCUEGVKEYGTGGUECRKUVUDGNKUVGFVQ JCXGVJGFCVGUQH.QTF$WFFJCUDKTVJCPFFGCVJDGGP

D  ,CKPUTGURGEVVJGOYJKNG*KPFWUYQTUJKRVJGO ZGF!

E  *KPFWUVTGCVCUEGVKEUCU)QFOGPYJGTGCU,CKPUFQPV 
C  %JKPGUGVTCFKVKQP%CPVQPGUGTGEQTFU

F  #PCEUGVKEKUQWVUKFGVJGUQEKGV[VQ*KPFWUYJKNG 
D  5KOJCNGUGVTCFKQP/CJCXCOUCCPF&KRCXCOUC
,CKPCCUEGVKEMGRVCTGNCVKQPUJKRYKVJVJGUQEKGV[ 
E  +PFKCP$WFFJKUVVGZVU#UJQMCXCFCPCPF&KX[XCFCP
 6JGOGTEJCPVUYGTGCVVTCEVGFVQCUGEVNKMG$WFFJKUO 
F  6KDGVCPVTCFKVKQPQHJKUVQTKCP6CTCPCVJ
DGECWUG  9JCVYCUVJGPCVWTGQHFKHHGTGPEGDGVYGGP$JCFTCDCJW

C  $TCJCOCPKECNTKVWCNUYGTGDGEQOKPIGZRGPUKXGHQT CPFJKUHQNNQYGTUYJKEJNGFVQVJGURNKVQH,CKPKUOKPVQ
them. VYQUGEVUPCOGN[&KICODCTCUCPF5XGVCODCTCU!

D  6JG[HQWPFKVUWKVCDNGHQTVJGKTXQECVKQP (a) Interpretation of certain philosophical canons

D  %QORKNCVKQPQHVJGVGCEJKPIUQH/CJCXKTC

E  6JG[HGNVVJCVVJGPGYOCVGTKCNKUVKEEQPFKVKQPUYGTG

E  9JGVJGTQTPQVVJGOQPMUUJQWNFYGCTENQVJGU
EQTTWRVKPIUQEKGV[

F  +FQNYQTUJKR

F  6JG[YGTGPQVITCPVGFCUQEKCNUVCVWUVJCVYCUKP
 (TQO VJG RQKPV QH XKGY QH RNCEGU QH $WFFJKUV
TGUQPCPEGYKVJGEQPQOKERTQURGTKV[
RKNITKOCIGKPVGTGUVYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUVJGNCVGUV
 9JKEJQHVJGHGCVWTGUIKXGPDGNQYYCUPQVCPCURGEVQH
CTEJCGQNQIKECNFKUEQXGT[!
$WFFJKUO!

C  &KUEQXGT[QHVJG$WFFJCUVQQVJTGNKECV$JCTJWVKP

C  &KXKPGKPVGTXGPVKQPYCUPGEGUUCT[KPVJGRTQEGUUQH
/2
QDVCKPKPIUCNXCVKQP

D  &KUEQXGT[QHC2KNNCTKPFKECVKPIVJGCEVWCNDKTVJRNCEG

D  +VEJCNNGPIGFVJGUWRGTKQTKV[QHVJG$TCJOCPCU
QHVJG$WFFJCCV.WODKPK
(c) It denied the predominance assigned to vedic texts 
E  &KUEQXGT[CPFKFGPVKHKECVKQPQH-CRKNCXCUVWYKVJ

F  +VYCURTCEVKECNCPFUKORNG 2KRTCJCYCCXKNNCIGKP$CUVKFKUVTKEVQH7VVCT
 9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIEJCTCEVGTKUVKEUQH$WFFJKUO Pradesh
distinguishes it from Jainism? 
F  5CPIJQNC-WUJCPC$WFFJKUVUKVG

C  $GNKGHKPGHECE[QHCEVKQP  6JG&QEVTKPGQH-CTOCKP$WFFJKUOOGCPU

D  0QPCEEGRVCPEGQHVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJG8GFCU (a) predestination

E  #VVKVWFGQHPQPKPLWT[VQYCTFUCNNDGKPIU 
D  VJGLWUVKECVKQPHQTUQEKCNCPFGEQPQOKEKPGSWCNKVKGU

F  4GLGEVKQPQHDQVJGZVTGOGRNGCUWTGCPFUGNH in life
OQTVKECVKQP (c) the deeds of a person determine the state of his life
 9JCVYGTGVJG(QWT)TGCV5KIPUVJCVCEEQTFKPIVQ 
F  FQKPIQPGUFWV[YKVJQWVDQVJGTKPICDQWVVJGTGUWNV
$WFFJKUVVTCFKVKQPNGF)CWVCOCVQTGPQWPEGVJGYQTNF!  6JG$WFFJCFKFPQVVCNMQHURKTKVWCNCURGEVUUWEJCU)QF

C  .QXGEQORCUUKQPPQPKPLWT[RWTKV[ UQWNNKHGCHVGTFGCVJGVEDGECWUG

D  1NFCIGFKUGCUGFRGTUQPFGCFDQF[CPCUEGVKE 
C  *GYCUQPN[EQPEGTPGFYKVJVJGGVJKECNCURGEVUQH

E  6JCVVJGYQTNFKUHWNNQHUWHHGTKPIFGUKTGCPFECTXG life
HQTGZKUVGPEGTGPWPEKCVKQPQHFGUKTGE[ENGQHDKTVJU 
D  *GYCPVGFVQTGUQNXGVJGRTCEVKECNRTQDNGOUQHNKHG
CPFTGDKTVJ 
E  *GEQPUKFGTGFUWEJURGEWNCVKQPUWPPGEGUUCT[

F  0QPGQHVJGCDQXG 
F  *GFKFPQVKPVGPFVQGUVCDNKUJCHQTOCNTGNKIKQP
H-66 Religious Revolution

 9JCVYCUVJGQEECUKQPQHVJG5GEQPF$WFFJKUV%QWPEKN! 
C  4GEQNNGEVKQP
D  8KTVWQWUNKHG
(a) To prepare a complete and authentic collection of the 
E  /GFKVCVKQP
F  2KGV[
VGCEJKPIUQH.QTF$WFFJC  9JCVKUVJGITGCVGUVFGDVQYGFD[VJG$WFFJKUVYQTNFVQ

D  6QUGVVNGVJGEQPVTQXGTU[CTKUKPIHTQOVJGCFQRVKQP 5TK.CPMC!
QHEGTVCKPRTCEVKEGUD[VJG8CLLKCPOQPMUQH8CKUJCNK 
C  6JGRTGUGTXCVKQPQH$WFFJCUTGNKEUCPFUCETGF$QFJK

E  VQGUVCDNKUJVJGRWTKV[QHVJGECPQPYJKEJJCFDGGP tree
KORGTKNGFD[VJGTKUGQHFKHHGTGPVUGEVU 
D  6JGTGUGTXCVKQPQHVJG2CNKECPQPKPKVUGPVKTGV[

F  6QRWVCPGPFVQVJGFKUUGPUKQPUKPVJG%JWTEJ 
E  6JGFGXGNQROGPVQH$WFFJKUOVJTQWIJ5KOJCNGUG
(Sangha) EQOOGPVCTKGUQH$WFFJKUVVGZVU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYQTMUKPENWFGFKP8CKRWN[CUWVTCU 
F  6JGRTQRCICVKQPQH$WFFJKUOKP5QWVJ'CUV#UKCP

PKPGECPQPKECNDQQMUQH/CJC[CPKUVU KUCV[RKECN countries
/CJC[CPCYQTMEQPVCKPKPICNNVJGEJCTCEVGTKUVKEHGCVWTGU  6JG$WFFJKUV.CYQH&QEVTKPGQH-CTOCOGCPV
of that school? 
C  #OCPTGCRUYJCVJGUQYU

C  5CFFJCTOCRWPFCTKMC
D  .CNKVCXKUVCTC 
D  'XGT[KPFKXKFWCNKUVJGOCMGTQHJKUQYPFGUVKP[

E  .CPMCXCVCTC
F  5WXCTPCRTCDJCUC 
E  2TC[GTUVQC)QFQT)QFUCNQPGECPPQVEJCPIGVJG
 6JGCFOKUUKQPQHYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIVQVJG5CPIJC FGUVKP[QHOCP
CVVJGKPUVCPEGQH#PCPFC
VJGRGTUQPCNCVVGPFCPVQHVJG 
F  #NNQHVJGCDQXG
/CUVGT OCTMGFVJGDGIKPPKPIQHCPQTFGTQHPWPUKP  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPI$WFFJKUV2JKNQUQRJGTKUUCKFVQ
India? JCXGXKUKVGF0GRCNKPVJGHQWTVJEGPVWT[#&KPQTFGTVQ

C  ;CUJQFJCTCVJGYKHGQHVJG$WFFJC RTQRCICVGJKUQYPFQEVTKPG!

D  )CWVCOKVJGYKFQYGFUVGROQVJGTQHVJG$WFFJC 
C  #EJCT[C#VKUJC 
D #ECT[C-COCNCUJKNC

E  #EJCT[C5JCVCTCMUJKVC
F #EJCT[C8CUWDCPFJW

E  5WLCVCVJGOGTEJCPVUFCWIJVGTYJQQHHGTGFCDQYN
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUEQTTGEVN[FGUETKDGVJG
QHOKNMVQVJG$WFFJCCHVGTJGJCFFGEKFGFVQIKXG
FKHHGTGPEGDGVYGGPC%JCKV[CCPFC5VWRC!
up austerities

C  %JCKV[CKUCTGNKIKQWUVGTOYJKNG5VWRCKUCP

F  )JQUKVCTCOOCOQPCUVGT[CV2KRCTJCYC
architectural term for a mound containing a relic of
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYTKVGTUYCUVJGHQWPFGTQH
VJG$WFFJCCPFNCVGTQPQHNGCFKPI$WFFJKUV5CKPVU
$WFFJKUVNQIKECPFJCUDGGPECNNGFVJG(CVJGTQH/GFKGXCN

D  %JCKV[CKUCRNCEGQHRTC[GTUYQTUJKRYJKNG5VWRCKU
0[C[C!
a funeral monument

C  &JCTOCMKTVK
D  &KIPCIC

E  %JCKV[CYGTGEQPUVTWEVGFD[VJGOQPCUVGTKGUYJKNG

E  $WFJJCRCNKVC
F  $JCXCXKXGMC 5VWRCUYGTGEQPUVTWEVGFD[VJGMKPIUCPFVJGTKEJ
 0CICTLWPCKUMPQYPCUVJG'KPUVGKPQH+PFKCDGECWUG merchants

C  .KMG'KPUVGKPJGJCFCTCTGKPUKIJVKPVQVJGPCVWTGQH 
F  %JCKV[CU TGRTGUGPV /CJC[CPKUO CPF 5VWRCU
the universe *KPC[CPKUO

D  *GYCUQPGQHVJGITGCVGUVRJ[UKEKUVUQHCNNVKOG  9JCVYCUVJGRWTRQUGQHVJG%JCKV[CUFWTKPIVJGGCTN[

E  *GRTQRQWPFGFVJGVJGQT[QHUJWP[CXCFCUKOKNCTVQ RJCUGQH$WFFJKUO!
'KPUVGKPUVJGQT[QHTGNCVKXKV[ 
C  6JG[UGTXGFVJGRWTRQUGQHVGORNGU

F  *GYCUCITGCVFKCNGEVKEKCP 
D  6JG[YGTGOGFKVCVKQPJCNNU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGTGCUQPUHQTVJG 
E  6JG[YGTGWUGFHQTTGNKIKQWUCUUGODNKGUCPFRTC[GTU
RQRWNCTKV[QH$WFFJKUOKP%JKPC! 
F  6JG[YGTGWUGFHQTJQNFKPIUQEKCNHWPEVKQPU

C  6JGTG YGTG PQ TKXCN TGNKIKQPU CV VJG VKOG QH  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGRQKPVUQH
KPVTQFWEVKQPQH$WFFJKUOKP%JKPC TGNKIKQWUFKHHGTGPEGDGVYGGP$WFFJKUOCPF,CKPKUO!

D  6JGYTKVKPIQHUWEJRGQRNGCU/QWVUGWETGCVGF 
C  %QORCTGFVQ,CKPKUO$WFFJKUOYCUOQFGTGCVGKP
EQPFGPEGKPVJGOKPFUQHVJGGFWECVGFEJKPGUG its stress on the doctrine of ahimsa

E  6JGNKHGQHRWTKV[HQNNQYGFD[VJGKOOKITCPV+PFKCP 
D  9JGTGCU,CKPKUODGNKGXGFKPTKIQTQWUCUEGVKEKUO
$WFFJKUVUCPFVJGKT%JKPGUG&KUEKRNGUCVVTCEVGFVJG $WFFJKUOEQPUKFGTGFTKIKFRGPCPEGVQDGWUGNGUU
%JKPGUGVQ$WFFJKUO 
E  7PNKMG$WFFJKUO,CKPKUOFKFPQVCNVQIGVJGT

F  6JGRCVTQPCIGQHVJGTGKIPKPIF[PCUVKGUKP%JKPC FKURGPUGYKVJVJGYQTUJKRQHVJGQNFFGKVKGUQTVJG

GI9GKF[PCUV[ JGNRGFVJGECWUGQH$WFFJKUO UGTXKGUQHVJG$TCJOKPU
 6JGUQECNNGFWPKXGTUKVKGUQH0CNCPFC8KMTCOUJKNCGVE 
F  9JKNG$WFFJKUOCEMPQYNGFIGUCRGTOCPGPVGPVKV[
YGTGCEVWCNN[ or an immortal soul, Jainism does not

C  $WFFJKUVOQPCUVGTKGU  5QOGJQNFVJGXKGYVJCV$WFFJKUOYCUOGTGN[CRJCUG

D  #RGZDQFKGUQH$WFFJKUVOQPCUVGTKGU QH*KPFWKUO9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQH

E  .GCTPKPIEGPVTGUQH$WFFJKUVOQPMU VJGEQPEGRVUCPFRTCEVKEGUDQTTQYGFD[$WFJJKUOHTQO
(d) Secular centres of education and learning *KPFWKUO$TCJOCPKUO!
 <GP$WFFJKUOKPVTQFWEGFKPVJGVYGNHVJEGPVWT[#& (a) The idea of monastic order
HQWPFKVUCFJGTGPVUOCKPN[COQPIVJGYCTTKQTUCPF 
D  6JGGORJCUKUQPRWTKV[QHDQF[CPFTKIJVEQPFWEV
KPWGPEGF,CRCPGUGEWNVWTGEQPUKFGTCDNG[6JGMG[VQ (c) The concept of Nirvana
GPNKIJVGPOGPVCEEQTFKPIVQ<GP$WFFJKUOKU 
F  $GNKGHKP5COUCTCCPF-CTOC
Religious Revolution H-67

 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIRNCEGUECPDGTGICTFGFCU  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVKPENWFGFKPVJGGKIJV


VJGNCTIGUVOQPCUVKEGUVCDNKUJOGPVKP9GUVGTP+PFKC HQNFRCVJQH$WFFJKUO!
(containing 130 caves)? 
C  4KIJVURGGEJ
D  4KIJVEQPVGORNCVKQP

C  -CTNG
D  #LCPVC 
E  4KIJVFGUKTG
F  4KIJVEQPFWEV

E  ,WPPCKT
F  -CPJGTK  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVCRCTVQHGCTN[,CKPU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVCUKOKNCTKV[DGVYGGP literature?
$WFFJKUOCPF,CKPKUO! 
C  6JGTKICVJC
D  #ECTCPICUWVTC

C  $QVJYGTGCIPQUVKECPFTGLGEVGFVJG8GFKEVJQWIJVU 
E  5WVTCMTKVCPIC
F  $TKJCVMCNRCUWVTC

D  $QVJJCFGSWCNHCKVJKP#JKPUC  6JGEQPEGRVQH#PWXTCVCYCUCFXQECVGFD[

E  $QVJCEEGRVGFHQNNQYGTUYKVJQWVCP[ECUVUFKUVKPEVKQP 
C  /CJC[CPC$WFFJKUO

F  $QVJDGNKGXGFKPVJG.CYQH&QEVTKPGQH-CTOC 
D  *KOC[CPC$WFFJKUO
 6JGOQUVKORQTVCPVGXGPVQPVJGFGCVJEGPVGPCT[ (c) Jainism

RCTKPKXTCPC QHVJG$WFFJCYCUVJG 
F  6JG.QMC[CVC5EJQQN

C  &GURCVEJQHVJG$WFFJKUVOKUUKQPVQ5TK.CPMC  9JQ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI YCU C EQPVGORQTCT[ QH )CWVCOC

D  %CNNKPIQHVJGUGEQPF$WFFJKUV%QWPEKN $WFFJC!

E  %QORKNCVKQPQHVJGVGCEJKPIUQHVJG$WFFJC 
C  $JCFTCDCJW
D  -CNCUJQM

F  &KXKUKQPQH$WFFJKUOKPVQ/CJC[CPCCPF*KPC[CPC 
E  2CTUXCPCVJ
F  8CTFJCOCP/CJCXKT
sects  5XGVCODCTC#ICOCYCUPCNN[GFKVGFCVVJG,CKPEQWPEKN
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGTGCUQPUHQTVJG of
TCRKFURTGCFQH,CKPKUOCOQPIUVVJGVTCFKPIEQOOWPKV[! 
C  8CKUJCNK
D  8CNNCDJK

C  6JGVTCFKPIEQOOWPKV[EQWNFQDUGTXGVJGXQYQH 
E  2CYC
F  8KFCTDJC
PQPKPLWT[YKVJQWVCP[FKHEWNV[  #PGMCPVCXCFCKUCEQTGVJGQT[CPFRJKNQUQRJ[QHYJKEJ

D  6JGUVTKEVNKOKVCVKQPQHRTKXCVGRTQRGTV[YCU QPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPI!
KPVGTRTGVGFVQOGCPNCPFGFRTQRGTV[CPFPQVVJG 
C  $WFFJKUO
D  ,CKPKUO
YGCNVJGCTPGFHTQOVTCFGCPFEQOOGTEG 
E  5KMJKUO
F  8CKUJPCXKUO
(c) The Jain temples received generous donations from  /KNKPFC2CPJQKUKPVJGHQTOQHCFKCNQIWGDGVYGGPVJG
rich merchants MKPI/GPCPFGTCPF$WFFJKUV/QPM

F  6JGGPEQWTCIGOGPVQHHTWICNKV[KP,CKPKUOEQKPEKFGF 
C  0CICUGPC
D  0CICTLWPC
YKVJCUKOKNCTUGPVKOGPVKPEQOOGTEKCNCEVKXKV[ 
E  0CICDJCVVC
F  -WOCTKNDJCVVC
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGTGCUQPUHQTVJG  9JQKUDGNKGXGFD[VJG,CKPCUVQDGVJGTUV6KTVJCPMCT!
gradual decline of Jainism? 
C  4KUJCDJCFGXC
D  /CJCXKTC

C  6JGCUUKOKNCVKXGRQYGTQH*KPFWKUO (c) Neminath (d) Parshvanath

D  6JGFGUVTWEVKQPQHVJGKTVGORNGUD[VJGHQTGKIP  9JQYCUVJGHQWPFGTQH/CJC[CPUGEVQH$WFFJKUO!
invaders and others 
C  $WFFJCFGXC
D  )JQUJCM
(c) The extremism of its ethical code and religious 
E  &JCTOVTCV
F  #UCPIC
discipline  9JQHQWPFGFVJG.KPIC[CV/QXGOGPV!

F  6JG KPHNWGPEG CPF RQRWNCTKV[ QH 5JCKXC CPF 
C  $CUCXC
D  .CMWNKUJC
Vaishnava saints in the South 
E  /CVU[GPFTCPCVJ
F  -WNUJGMJCT
 9JGTGFKFVJG/CJCUCOIJKMCUEJQQNCTKUG!  5[CFXCFKUCFQEVTKPGQH

C  $QFJCIC[C
D  4CLCITKJC 
C  $WFFJKUO
D  ,CKPKUO
(c) Sravasti (d) Vaishali (c) Shaivism (d) Vaishnavism
 6JG GCTNKGUV GRKITCRJKE GXKFGPEG OGPVKQPKPI VJG DKTVJ  9JQ DGECOG VJG EJKGH QH ,CKP 5CPIJ CHVGT VJG FGCVJ QH
RNCEGQH5CM[COWPK$WFFJCKUQDVCKPGFHTQO /CJCXKTC!

C  5CTPCVJ
D  5TCXCUVK 
C  +PFTCDJWVK
D  ,CODW

E  -CWUCODK
F  4WOOKPFGK 
E  5VJWNDJCFTC
F  5WFJCTOC
 9JKEJ QPG COQPI VJG HQNNQYKPI 6KTVJCPMCTCU YCU  /QVJGTQH)CWVCO$WFFJCDGNQPIGFVQYJKEJF[PCUV[!
CEEQTFKPIVQVJG5XGVCODCTVTCFKVKQPCNCF[! 
C  5JCM[CF[PCUV[
D  /C[CF[PCUV[

C  5WOCVKPCVJC
D  5JCPVKPCVJC 
E  .KEJEJCXKF[PCUV[
F  -QNK[CPF[PCUV[

E  /CNNKPCVJC
F  #TKUJVCPGOK  $WFFJCKUFGRKEVGFQPVJGEQKPUQH
 6JG ,CKP 6KTVJCPMCTC /CJCXKTC JCU DGGP OGPVKQPGF KP 
C  9KOC-CFRJKUGU
D  -CPKUJMC
VJGGCTN[$WFFJKUVNKVGTCVWTGCU 
E  0CJCRCPC
F  $WFJIWRVC

C  0KICPVJC0CVCRWVVC
D 8CTFJCOCPC  5QOG$WFFJKUVTQEMEWVECXGUCTGECNNGF%JCKV[CUYJKNG

E  8GUCNK[C
F  8KFGJCRWVVC VJG QVJGTU CTG ECNNGF 8KJCTCU 9JCV KU VJG FKHHGTGPEG
 9JQ COQPIUV VJG HQNNQYKPI KU MPQYP CU VJG .KIJV QH DGVYGGPVJGVYQ!    
#UKC! 
C  8KJCTC KU C RNCEG QH YQTUJKR YJKNG %JCKV[C KU VJG
(a) Jesus %hrist FYGNNKPIRNCEGQHVJGOQPMU

D  .QTF$WFFJC 
D  %JCKV[C KU C RNCEG QH YQTUJKR YJKNG 8KJCTC KU VJG

E  2TQRJGV/QJCOOCF FYGNNKPIRNCEGQHVJGOQPMU
(d) Zarathustra
H-68 Religious Revolution


E  %JCKV[C KU VJG UVWRC CV VJG HCT GPF QH VJG ECXG 
E  *GYCUVJGNCUVCPFthVKTVJCPMCTCYJQYCUPQV
YJKNG8KJCTCKUVJGJCNNCZKCNVQKV EQPUKFGTGFCUVJGHQWPFGTQHVJGPGYHCKVJDWVCUC

F  6JGTGKUPQOCVGTKCNFKHHGTGPEGDGVYGGPVJGVYQ reformer of the existing religious sect
 9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIFGUETKDGUDGUVVJGEQPEGRVQH 
F  *GYCUPQVQPGQHVJGVKTVJCPMCTCU
0KTXCPCKP$WFFJKUO!      6JG(QWTVJ$WFFJKUV%QWPEKNYCUJGNFKP-CUJOKTWPFGT

C  6JGGZVKPEVKQPQHVJGCOGQHFGUKTG the leadership of

D  6JGEQORNGVGCPPKJKNCVKQPQHUGNH 
C  $KPFWUCTC
D  #UJQMC

E  #UVCVGQHDNKUUCPFTGUV 
E  -WPCN
F  -CPKUJMC

F  #OGPVCNUVCIGDG[QPFCNNEQORTGJGPUKQP  )CWVCO$WFFJCFGNKXGTGFJKUTUVUGTOQPCVYJKEJQPG
 6JG $WFFJC FGNKXGTGF JKU TUV UGTOQP MPQYP CU QHVJGHQNNQYKPIRNCEGU!
6WTPKPIQHVJGYJGGNQHNCYCV   
C  -WUJKPCICT
D  5CTPCVJ

C  5CPEJK
D  5CTPCVJ 
E  $QFJ)C[C
F  .WODKPK

E  5TCXCUVK
F  $QFJ)C[C  9JGTGFKF$WFFJCCVVCKP2CTKPKTXCPC!
 +P$WFFJKUOYJCVFQGU2CVKOQMMJCUVCPFHQT! 
C  $QFJ)C[C
D  -WUJKPCICTC

C  #FGUETKRVKQPQH/CJC[CPC$WFFJKUO 
E  4CLITKJC
F  8CKUCNK

D  #FGUETKRVKQPQH*KPC[CPC$WFFJKUO 9JGTGFKF)CWVCO$WFFJCIKXGJKUTUVUGTOQP!
(c) The rules of the Sangha 
C  )C[C
D  4CLITKJC

F  6JGSWGUVKQPUQHMKPI/GPCPFGT (c) Sarnath (d) Sanchi
 6JG ,CKPCU DGNKGXG VJCV ,CKPKUO KU VJG QWVEQOG QH  9JQ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI  KU C EQPVGORQTCT[ QH )CWVCOC
VJG VGCEJKPIU QH  VKTVJCPMCTCU +P VJG NKIJV QH VJKU $WFFJC!
UVCVGOGPV YJKEJ QPG COQPI VJG HQNNQYKPI KU EQTTGEV QH 
C  #UJXCIJQUC
D  0CICTLWPC
8CTFJCOCPC/CJCXKTC!   
E  2CTUXCPCVJ
F  8CTFJOCPC/CJCXKTC

C  *G YCU VJG TUV VKTVJCPMCTC CPF VJG HQWPFGT QH  9JQ COQPI VJG HQNNQYKPI YCU C EQPVGORQTCT[ QH
Jainism )CWVCO$WFFJC!  

D  *G YCU VJG rd VKTVJCPMCTC VJG TUV  
C  0CICTLWPC
D  -CPKUJMC
VKTVJCPMCTCUDGKPIEQPUKFGTGFNGIGPFCT[ 
E  -CWVKNC
F  /CJCXKT
Religious Revolution H-69

Exercise - 2
 9JCVYGTGVJGKORCEVUQH$WFFJKUOKP+PFKCPEWNVWTG!
Statement Based MCQ   6JG TGNKIKQWU KPFKHHGTGPEG DGVYGGP YQOGP CPF
UJWFTCUYGTGTGOQXGFD[$WFFJKUO
 %QPUKFGTVJGUVCVGOGPVU   5CPUMTKVFGXGNQRGFCUCNKVGTCT[NCPIWCIG
  8KPC[CVGZVUFGCNYKVJVJGOQPCUVKEFKUEKRNKPG   +P 5CPEJK $JCTJWV $QFJIC[C #OTCXCVK CTV CPF
  6JG8KUWFFJKOCIICKUCRCTVQHEQNQPKCNVGZV RCKPVKPIUYGTGQWTKUJGF
  /CJC[CPCVGZVUFGCNYKVJRTCLPCQTYKUFQO   +VRQRWNCTK\GFKFQNYQTUJKR
  5WVTCU KP VTCPUOKITCVKQP CFXQECVG VJG FQEVTKPG QH   %QPEGRVQHTGUKFGPVKCNWPKXGTUKVKGUDGECOGRQRWNCT
VYGNXGNKPMUQHRTCVK[CUCOWVRCFC  9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV! 
C  CPF
D  CPF

C  CPF
D  CPF 
E  #NNQHCDQXG
F  0QPG

E  CPF
F  CPF  9J[FKF$WFFJKUOUVCTVFGENKPKPIKP+PFKCKPVJGGCTN[
 9KVJ TGHGTGPEG VQ VJG CPEKGPV +PFKC YJKEJ QH VJG medieval times?
HQNNQYKPI YCU  YGTG EQOOQP VQ DQVJ $WFFJKUO CPF   $WFFJC YCU D[ VJCV VKOG EQPUKFGTGF CU QPG QH VJG
Jainism? KPECTPCVKQPU QH 8KUJPW CPF VJKU DGECOG C RCTV QH
  #XQKFCPEGVQGZVTGOKVKGUQHRGPCPEGCPFGPLQ[OGPV Vaishanavism.
  +PFKHHGTGPEGVQVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJG8GFCU   6JGKPXCFKPIVTKDGUHTQO%GPVTCN#UKCVKNNVJGVKOG
  &GPKCNQHGHECE[QHTKVWCNU QHNCUV)WRVCMKPICFQRVGF*KPFWKUOCPFRGTUGEWVGF
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTU $WFFJKUVU

C  QPN[
D  CPF   6JGMKPIUQH)WRVCF[PCUV[YGTGUVTQPIN[QRRQUGF

E  $QVJCPF
F  CPF VQ$WFFJKUO
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYGTGEQOOQPVQDQVJ$WFFJKUO 
C  QPN[
D  CPF
and Jainism? 
E  CPF
F  CPF
  #XQKFCPEGQHGZVTGOKVKGUQHRGPCPEGCPFGPLQ[OGPV  9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI MKPIU QH CPEKGPV +PFKC YGTG
  +PFKHHGTGPEGVQVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJGXGFCU patrons of Jainism?
  &GPKCNQHGHEKGPE[QHTKVWCNU   5TGPKMC$KODKUCTC  %JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[C
  0QPKPLWT[VQCPKOCNNKHG   -JCTCXGNC
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV! Codes:

C  CPF
D  CPF 
C  CPF
D  CPF

E  CPF
F  CPF 
E  CPF
F  CPF
 9KVJ TGHGTGPEG VQ ,CKPKUO YJKEJ QPG QH VJG HQNNQYKPI  9JKEJ QPG QH VJG HQNNQYKPI JKNNU KUCTG UCETGF VQ VJG
statements is correct? Jainas?
  ,CKPKUO GPLQ[GF VJG RCVTQPCIG QH VJG MCNKPIC MKPI   5CVTWPLCW[CIKTK  7TLC[CPVQIKTK
-JCTCXGNCKPVJGUVEGPVWT[$%   #TDWFCIKTK  %JCPFTCIKTK
  +PVJGKPKVKCNUVCIGQH,CKPKUOVJG,CKPCUYQTUJKRRGF Codes:
KOCIGUWPNKMG$WFFJKUV 
C  CPF
D  CPF

C  QPN[
D  QPN[ 
E  QPN[
F  CPF

E  $QVJCPF
F  0GKVJGTPQT  9JKEJ VYQ QH VJG HQWT MKPIU NKUVGF DGNQY YGTG QP
 6JG KORQTVCPEG QH 0CICTLWPCMQPFC UVWRG KU DGECWUG QH HTKGPFN[ VGTO GSWCNN[ YKVJ 8CTFJCOCPC /CJCXKT CPF
KVU DGCWVKHWN RCPGNU YJKEJ KNNWUVTCVG GRKUQFGU HTQO VJG )CWVCOC$WFFJC!
NKHG QH VJG $WFFJC 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI KU PQV VJG   $KDKUCTCQH/CICFJC
characteristic of the scenes depicted?   #LCVCUCVTWQH/CICFJC
  2TCUGPLKVQH-QUCNC
  )QFURTC[KPIVQVJG$QFFJKUCVJXCVQVCMGDKTVJQP
  2TCF[QVCQH#XCPVK
earth.

C  CPF
D  CPF
  $WFFJCU GPVT[ KPVQ VJG YQOD KP VJG  HQTO QH C

E  CPF
F  CPF
YJKVGGNGRJCPV
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUCTGVTWGTGICTFKPI$WFFJKUO!
  $KTVJQHVJG$WFFJCWPFGTCQYGTKPIVGCMVTGGGVE
  +VFKFPQVTGLGEV8CTPCCPF,CVK
  7PKSWG TGRTGUGPVCVKQP QH VJG HQTGUV CPKOCNU KU C   +V EJCNNGPIGF VJG JKIJGUV UQEKCN TCPMKPI QH
OCPPGT YJKEJ NQQMU CU KH VJG GPVKTG CPKOCN YQTNF $TCJOCPCU
VWTPGFQWVVQYQTUJKRVJG$WFFJC   +VTGICTFGFEGTVCKPLQDUCUNQY
 9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!  %JQQUGVJGEQTTGEVEQFG

C  CPF
D  CPF 
C  CPF
D  CPF

E  QPN[
F  0QPG 
E  CPF
F  0QPGQHVJGUG
H-70 Religious Revolution

 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI CTG EJCTCEVGTKUVKE CUETKDGF VQ  %QPUKFGT VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU TGICTFKPI )TGGMU
$WFFJKUO!%JQQUGVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTIKXGPDGNQY KPWGPEGQH+PFKCP%WNVWTG
  6JGQT[QH2TCMTKVCPF2WTWUJC   6JG +PFQ)TGGM MKPI OCJGPFTC YCU EQPXGTVF VQ
  4GLGEVKQPQHVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJG8GFCU $WFFJKUO D[ $WFFJKUV OQPM CPF RJKNQUQRJGT
3. Emphasis on the role of the individual nagasena.
  $GNKGHUKPVJGECVGIQTKGUQH,KXCCPF#LKXC   +PFKCPCUVTQNQI[YCUKPWGPEGFD[)TGGMKFGCUYKVJ

C  CPF
D  CPF VJGVGTO*QTCUVTCWUGFHQTCUVTQNQI[KP5CPUMTKV

E  CPF
F  CPF   )TGGMUKPVTQFWEGFKPVQ+PFKCPCUVTQPQO[VJGOGVJQFU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPICTGVTWGQH,CKPKUO! of calculating eclipses, the notion of methods of
  +V JCU CHPKV[ YKVJ VJG 5CPMJ[C U[UVGO QH calculating eclipses, the notion of parallax and methods
RJKNQUQRJ[ of calculating it.
  )TGGMU KPVTQFWEGF VJG WUG QH EWTVCKP KP +PFKCP
  +VEQORNGVGN[TGLGEVGFVJGEQPEGRVQHVJGUQWN
theatre.
  +V JCU CHPKV[ YKVJ VJG 8GFCPVC U[UVGO QH  9JKEJQHVJGCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
RJKNQUQRJ[ 
C  CPF
D  CPF
  #EEQTFKPI VQ KV VJG YQTNF EQPUKUVU QH VYQ GVGTPCN 
E  CPF
F  #NNQHCDQXG
ECVGIQTKGU XK\ EQPUEKQWU ,KXC CPF WPEQPUEKQWU  %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU   

#LKXC    6JG $WFFJKUVU KP &GEECP GZECXCVGF TQEMEWV
 %JQQUGVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTHTQOVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY %JCKV[CU CPF VJG 8CKUJPCXCU 5JCKXCU CPF ,CKPCU

C  CPF
D  CPF imitated these in later centuries.

E  CPF
F  CPF   6JG 8CKUJPCXCU 5JCKXCU CPF ,CKPCU GZECXCVGF
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU KUCTG CRRNKECDNG VQ VGORNGUCVUKVGUHCTFKUVCPVHTQOTQEMEWV%JCKV[CU
Jain doctrine?  9JKEJQHVJGUVCVGOGPVUIKXGPCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
  6JGUWTGUVYC[QHCPPKJKNCVKPI-CTOCKUVQRTCEVKEG 
C  QPN[
D  QPN[
penance. 
E  $QVJCPF
F  0GKVJGTPQT
  'XGT[QDLGEVGXGPVJGUOCNNGUVRCTVKENGJCUCUQWN  %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVU
  -CTOCKUVJGDCPGQHVJGUQWNCPFOWUVDGGPFGF   6JG,CKPUDGNKGXGFVJCV/CJCXKTCJCFVYGPV[VJTGG
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTWUKPIVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY predecessors.
  2CTUJXCPCVJCYCUVYGPV[VJKTF6KTVJCPMCTC

C  QPN[
D  CPFQPN[
  4KUJCXC YCU KOOGFKCVG UWEEGUUQT QH /CJCXKTC

E  CPFQPN[
F  CPF
9JKEJQHVJGUVCVGOGPVUIKXGPCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEV!
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPI-KPIFQOUYGTGCUUQEKCVGFYKVJ 
C  CPF
D  CPF
VJGNKHGQHVJG$WFFJC!     
E  1PN[
F  1PN[
 #XCPVK  )CPFJCTC &KTGEVKQPU
3   6JG HQNNQYKPI SWGUVKQPU EQPUKUV QH VYQ
  -QUCNC  /CICFJC UVCVGOGPVU5VCVGOGPV+CPF5VCVGOGPV++;QWCTGVQGZCOKPG
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTWUKPIVJGEQFGIKXGPDGNQY VJGUGVYQUVCVGOGPVUECTGHWNN[CPFUGNGEVVJGCPUYGTUVQVJGUG

C  CPF
D  CPF SWGUVKQPUWUKPIVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY%QFGU

E  CPFQPN[
F  CPF
C  $QVJ VJG UVCVGOGPVU CTG VTWG CPF 5VCVGOGPV ++ KU VJG
 9KVJTGHGTGPEGVQ$WFFJKUVJKUVQT[VTCFKVKQPCPFEWNVWTG correct explanation of Statement I
KP+PFKCEQPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPIRCKTU 
D  $QVJVJGUVCVGOGPVUCTGVTWGDWV5VCVGOGPV++KUPQVVJG
Famous shrine Location correct explanation of Statement I

E  5VCVGOGPV+KUVTWGDWV5VCVGOGPV++KUHCNUG
  6CDQOQPCUVGT[CPF  5RKVK8CNNG[

F  5VCVGOGPV+KUHCNUGDWV5VCVGOGPV++KUVTWG
temple complex  Statement I: /CJCXKTC KPKVKCNN[ LQKPGF C ITQWR QH
  .JQVUCXC.JCMJCPI  <CPUMCT8CNNG[ ascetics called Nirgranthas.
  VGORNG0CMQ Statement II:6JGUGEVYCUHQWPFGF[GCTUGCTNKGTD[
Parsva.
  #NEJKVGORNGEQORNGZ  .CFCMJ
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUYGTGPQVTGNCVGFVQ$WFFJCU
 9JKEJQHVJGRCKTUIKXGPCDQXGKUCTGEQTTGEVN[OCVEJGF! life?

C  QPN[
D  CPFQPN[   -CPVJCMC  #NCTC-CNCOC

E  CPFQPN[
F  CPF   %JCPPC  )QUJCNC/CUMCTKRWVTC
 5GNGEVVJGEQTTGEVCPUYGTWUKPIVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY
 %QPUKFGTVJGHQNNQYKPI$JCMVK5CKPVU 
C  1PN[
D  1PN[
  &CFW&C[CN 
E  CPF
F  CPF
  )WTW0CPCM  6JG  PCVKQPCN  OQVVQ  QH  +PFKC 5CV[COGXC ,C[CVG
  6[CICTCLC KPUETKDGFDGNQYVJG'ODNGOQH+PFKCKUVCMGPHTQO

C  -CVJC7RCPKUJCF
 9JQ COQPI VJG CDQXG YCUYGTG RTGCEJKPI YJGP VJG 
D  %JCPFQI[C7RCPKUJCF
.QFKF[PCUV[HGNNCPF$CDWTVQQMQXGT! 
E  #KVCTG[C7RCPKUJCF

C  CPF
D  QPN[ 
F  /WPFCMC7RCPKUJCF

E  CPF
F  CPF
Religious Revolution H-71

 List-I List-II


Matching Based MCQ  # #LKV-GUJ-CODNKP  (CVCNKUO
 $ 5CPLC[8GVJCNKRWNVC  #VQOKUV
 List I List II  % 2CMWFJ-CEJC[CP  /CVGTKCNKUO
 #5GEQPF5CPICO  #DJKFJCOOC2KVCM  & 2WTCP-CUJ[CR  /CVGTKCNKUO
 $6JKTF5CPICO  6QNMCRRK[CP     5[PKEKUO
 %(KTUV$WFFJKUVEQWPEKN  6TKRKVKMC Codes:
  # $ % &
 &6JKTF$WFFJKUVEQWPEKN  5KNCMJCFKMCTCO 
C     

C 
#$%& 
D     

D 
#$%& 
E     

E 
#$%& 
F     

F 
#$%& 30. List-I List-II
 List-I List-II (Tirthankara) (Birth place)
(Characters) (Related objects)  # 4KUJCDJCPCVJC  -CUJK
 # 8KUJW  -CV[QVUCTIC2QUVWTG  $ 5CODJCXCPCVJC  -CWUCODK
 $ )CWVCOC$WFFJC  (NCUMCPFTQUCT[  % 2CFOCPCDJC  5CTCXCUVK
 % ,KPC  &JCTOCEJCMTC  & 2CTCUJXCPCVJ  #[QFJ[C
    2TCXCTVCPC/WFTC Codes:
 & $QFJKUCVVXC  )CTWFCFJXCLC   # $ % &
  /CKVG[C 
C     
Codes: 
D     
  # $ % & 
E     

C      
F     

D      31. List-I List-II

E      (Jain Tirthankara) (Birth place)

F       # #LKVPCVJ  -CUJK
 List-I List-II  $ 8KOCNPCVJ  *CUVKPCRWT
(Vedangas) (Their subject)  % 5JCPVKPCVJ  -CORKN[C
 # 0KTWMVC  /GVTGU  & 2CTUJCXCPCVJ  #[QFJ[C
 $ 5JKMUJC  'V[OQNQI[ Codes:
 % -CNRC  #UVTQNQI[   # $ % &
 & %JJCFCU  2JQPGVKE 
C     
    4KVWCN 
D     
Codes: 
E     
  # $ % & 
F     

C        List-I List-II

D      (Jain Tirthankars) (Cognizance)

E       # 5CPVK0CVJC  #PVGNQRG

F       $ /CNNK0CVJC  .KQP
 List-I List- II  % 2CTUYC0CVJC  5GTRGPV
 # 4CJWN  $WFFJCUUHCVJGT  & /CJCXKTC  9CVGTLCT
 $ #NCTC-CNCO  $WFFJCUEQWUKP Codes:
  # $ % &
 % 5WFFJQFJCPC  $WFFJCUUQP 
C     
 & &GXFCVVC  6JG UCIG YJQ VCWIJV 
D     
OGFKVCVKQPVQ$WFJJC 
E     
 ' 5KFFJCTVJC  $WFFJCUQTKIKPCNPCOG 
F     
  # $ % & '  /CVEJ VJG XG OCLQT /CWT[CP RTQXKPEGU YKVJ VJGKT

C       ECRKVCNU

D        # 7VVCTCRCVJC  +7LLCKP

E       (Northern Province)

F        $ #XCPVKTCVJC  ++5WXCTPCIKTK
 List-I List-II  
9GUVGTP2TQXKPEG 
 # $KTVJ  5VWRC  % &CMUJKPCRCVJC  +++6QUCNK
 $ (KTUV5GTOQP  .QVWUCPFDWNN (Southern Province)
 % 0KTXCPC  &JCTOCEJCMTC  & 2TCEJ[C  +82CVCNKRWVTC
 & 2CTKPKTXCPC  $QFJKVTGG (Eastern Province)
Codes:  ' %GPVTCN2TQXKPEG  86CZKNC
  # $ % &   # $ % & '

C      (a) V I II III IV

D      
D  + ++ + +++ 8

E      (c) II III I IV V

F      (d) III II I IV V
H-72 Religious Revolution

EXERCISE-1 
C  6JGTKICVJCKUPQVCRCTVQHGCTN[,CKPUNKVGTCVWTG6JG
Therigatha is C $WFFJKUV UETKRVWTG C EQNNGEVKQP QH

F  
F  
C  
E  
F
UJQTV RQGOU UWRRQUGFN[ TGEKVGF D[ GCTN[ OGODGTU

F  
C  
F  
D  
E 
QHVJG$WFFJKUVSCPIJCKP+PFKCCTQWPF$%

E  
C 

E  +P ,CKPKUO #JKPUC KU VJG UVCPFCTF D[ YJKEJ CNN

E  6JGTG YCU C HWTVJGT URNKV CTQWPF VJG UKZVJ EGPVWT[
CEVKQPU CTG LWFIGF (QT C JQWUGJQNFGT QDUGTXKPI
#&QPVJGRQKPVQHKFQNYQTUJKR
VJG UOCNN XQYU
CPWXTCVC  VJG RTCEVKEG QH CJKPUC

F  
E  
F  
D  
C
TGSWKTGUVJCVJGPQVMKNNCP[CPKOCNNKHG

D  

F

D  #NNVJGHQWTCWVJQTUYGTGNQIKEKCPU6JGNCVVGTVYQCV

D  8CNNCDJKJCUDGGPCHCOQWU,CKPEGPVTG+VYCUJGTG
TGURQPUGU
E CPF
F HQWPFGFVYQUEJQQNUQHNQIKECN
KPQT#&VJG8CNNCDJKEQWPEKNQHVJG,CKPU
VJKPMKPIPCOGN[2TCUCPIKMCCPF5XCVCPVTCUEJQQN
RTQFWEGF KP YTKVKPI VJG TGNKIKQWU ECPQP WPFGT VJG
TGURGEVKXGN[
JGCFQHVJGUJTCOCP&GXCTFJKICPK5XGVCODCTC#ICOC

E  0CICTLWPCYCUVJGHQWPFGTQH/CFJ[COKMCUEJQQN
YCUPCNN[GFKVGFCVVJG,CKPEQWPEKNQH8CNNCDJK
YJKEJVGCEJGUVJCVVJGYJQNGYQTNFKUCOGTGKNNWUKQP

D  #PGMCPVCXCFC KU QPG QH VJG OQUV KORQTVCPV CPF
(Shunvavada).
fundamental doctrines of Jainism. It refers to the

C  +PFKIGPQWUTGNKIKQPUNKMG%QPHWEKCPKUOCPF6CQKUO
YGTGVJGTG$WFFJKUOYCUJQYGXGTCOWEJTKEJGT PQVKQPVJCVVTWVJCPFTGCNKV[CTGRGTEGKXGFFKHHGTGPVN[
TGNKIKQPVJCP%QPHWEKCPKUOCPFKVRQUUGUUGFCOWEJ HTQOFKXGTUGRQKPVUQHXKGYCPFVJCVPQUKPINGRQKPV
OQTGRTQHQWPFRJKNQUQRJ[VJCP6CQKUO QHXKGYKUVJGEQORNGVGVTWVJ

C  
E  
F  
F  
F 
C  /KNKPFC2CPJCKUKPVJGHQTOQHCFKCNQIWGDGVYGGP

C  
E  VJG )TGGM -KPI /KNKPFC
/KPCPFGT +  CPF VJG

F   6JGHCEVKULWUVVJGTGXGTUGQHKV $WFFJKUVOQPM0CICUGPC

C   
E  
D  
D  
E 
C

E  +VYCUPQVVJGECWUGQHKVUFGENKPGDWVVJGECWUGQH 
F  #UCPICYCUDQTPCUVJGUQPQHC-UJCVTK[CHCVJGTCPF
KVUNKOKVGFHQNNQYKPICRRGCN $TCJOKP OQVJGT KP 2WTWUCRWTC %WTTGPV UEJQNCTU

F  /CJCUCPIJKMCKUVJGPCOGQHCPGCTN[$WFFJKUVUEJQQN RNCEGJKOKPVJGHQWTVJEGPVWT[%'*GYCURGTJCRU
KP+PFKCFWTKPIVJG5GEQPF$WFFJKUVEQWPEKNJGNFCV QTKIKPCNN[ C OGODGT QH VJG /CJKUCUCMC UEJQQN QT
8CKUJCNK 6JG /CJCUCPIJKMC UEJQQN TGRTGUGPVU VJG VJG /WNCUCTXCUVKXCFC UEJQQN DWV NCVGT EQPXGTVGF VQ
TUVOCLQTUEJKUOGXGTTGEQTFGFKP$WFFJKUO /CJC[CPC

F  4WOOKPFGK2KNNCT+PUETKRVKQPUC[UVJCV6JG$GNQXGF 
C  6JG .KPIC[CV %QOOWPKV[ YCU HQWPFGF D[ $CUCXC
QHVJG)QFUVJGMKPI2K[CFCUUKYJGPJGJCFDGGP KP VJG VJ EGPVWT[ #& 6JG .KPIC[CVU CTG
EQPUGETCVGF VYGPV[ [GCTU ECOG KP RGTUQP PF 8KTCUJCKXKVGU6JGRJKNQUQRJ[QHVJG.KPIC[CVCUYCU
TGHGTGPEGFVJGRNCEGYJGTG$WFFJC5CM[COWPKYCU KPWGPEGFD[VJGVGCEJKPIUQHDQVJ5JCPMCTCEJCT[C
DQTP*GECWUGFCUVQPGGPENQUWTGVQDGOCFGCPF CPF 4COCPWLC 6JKU UGEV YCU EJCTCEVGTKUGF D[ CP
CUVQPGRKNNCTVQDGGTGEVGF#UVJG.QTFYCUDQTP CPVK$TCJOCPKECNURKTKV
JGTGKPVJGXKNNCIGQH.WODKPKJGJCUGZGORVGFKV 
D  5[CFXCF KU C FQEVTKPG QH ,CKPKUO 5[CFXCF KU VJG
HTQOVCZCPFZGFKVUEQPVTKDWVKQP=KGQHITCKP?CV RJKNQUQRJ[QHUGGKPICPKPFKXKFWCNQTCPQDLGEVHTQO
QPGGKIVJ XCTKQWU RQKPVU QH XKGY VT[KPI VQ WPFGTUVCPF VJGO

E  5XGVCODCTCU OCKPVCKP VJCV VJG VJ 6KTVJCPMCTC CPFCESWKTKPIVJGTKIJVMPQYNGFIGQHVJQUGVJKPIU
/CNNKPCVJ YCU C YQOCP 6JG[ CNUQ DGNKGXG VJCV 
F  #HVGT VJG FGCVJ QH /CJCXKTC QPG QH JKU FKUEKRNG
YQOGPCTGCDNGVQQDVCKP/QMUJC 5WFJCTOC 5YCOK KU UCKF VQ JCXG VQQM QXGT VJG

C  +P VJG $WFFJKUV 2CNK %CPQP /CJCXKTC KU TGHGTTGF NGCFGTUJKR*GYCUVJGJGCFQH,CKPEQOOWPKV[VKNN
as Nigantha Nataputta. Nigantha Nataputta refers $%'
VQ#0KTITCPVJCTGHGTUVQ,CKPU#RGTUQPYJQJCU 
F  /C[CYCUVJGOQVJGTQHVJG$WFFJCCPFYCUHTQOVJG
attained -GXCN[CECPDGCNirgrantha. -QNK[CPENCP/C[CYCUDQTPKP&GXCFCJCKPCPEKGPV

D  )CWVCO $WFFJC YJQ YCU RTKPEG 5KFFJCTVJC QH 0GRCN5JGYCUOCTTKGFVQ-KPI5WFFJQFCPCYJQ
-CRKNCXCUVWKP+PFKC#UKCDGHQTGJKUGPNKIJVGPOGPV TWNGFKPVJGMKPIFQOQH-CRKNCXCUVW
KUECNNGF6JG.KIJVQH#UKC 
D  -CPKUJMCUEQKPURQTVTC[KOCIGUQH+PFKCP)TGGM

E  6JGGKIJVHQNF2CVJKP$WFFJKUOCPGCTN[HQTOWNCVKQP +TCPKCP CPF GXGP 5WOGTQ'NCOKVG FKXKPKVKGU
of the path to enlightenment. The idea of the Eight FGOQPUVTCVKPIVJGTGNKIKQWUU[PETGVKUOKPJKUDGNKGHU
fold Path appears from VJG TUV UGTOQP QH VJG 6JG$WFFJKUVEQKPUQH-CPKUJMCCTGEQORCTCVKXGN[
$WFFJC YJKEJ FGNKXGTGF CHVGT JKU GPNKIJVGPOGPV rare. Several coins UJQY -CPKUJMC QP VJG QDXGTUG
4KIJVFGUKTGKUPQVKPENWFGFKPVJG'KIJVHQNFRCVJQH CPFVJG$WFFJCUVCPFKPIQPVJGTGXGTUGKP*GNNGPKUVKE
$WFFJKUO UV[NG
Religious Revolution H-73


D %JCKV[CU TGHGT VQ VJG JCNNU GPENQUKPI VJG UVWRCU EXERCISE-2
%JCKV[CU YGTG RTQDCDN[ EQPUVTWEVGF VQ JQNF NCTIG
1.
C  6JG8KUJWFFJKOCIICKUCRCTVQHPQPEQNQPKCNVGUV
PWODGTU QH FGXQVGGU HQT RTC[GT 8KJCTCU QP VJG
QVJGT JCPF CTG EQPUVTWEVKQPU DWKNV KP CPEKGPV +PFKC 
D 
KPQTFGTVQRTQXKFGTGUVKPIRNCEGUHQTVJGYCPFGTKPI 
D  +P $WFFJKUO CXQKFCPEG QH GZVTGOKVKGU QH 2GPCPEG
$WFFJKUVOQPMU CPFGPLQ[OGPVUVTGUUGFQPYJKEJ,CKPKUOUVTGUUGUQP

E  6JGEQPEGRVQH0KTXCPCYCUQTKIKPCNN[GZRNCKPGFD[ penance and extremism.
.QTF $WFFJC
 $%  6JG YQTF 0KTXCPC 
C  ,CKPKUO GPLQ[GF VJG RCVTQPCIG QH -CNKPIC MKPI
EQOGU HTQO VJG TQQV OGCPKPI VQ DNQY QWV CPF -JCTCXGNC,CKPCUPGXGTYQTUJKRGFKOCIGU
TGHGTU VQ VJG GZVKPIWKUJKPI QH VJG TGU QH ITGGF 
E   
E
JCVTGF CPF FGNWUKQP 9JGP VJGUG GOQVKQPCN CPF 
C  $WFFJC YCU D[ VJCV VKOG EQPUKFGTGF CU QPG QH
RU[EJQNQIKECNFGNGOGPVUCTGFGUVTQ[GFD[YKUFQO VJG KPECTPCVKQPU QH 8KUJPW CPF DGECOG RCTV QH
VJGOKPFDGEQOGUHTGGTCFKCPVCPFLQ[HWNCPFJG Vaishnavism.
YJQJCUTGCNK\GFVJG6TWVJ
0KTXCPC KUVJGJCRRKGUV 
E   
C  
E  
C  
C
DGKPIKPVJGYQTNF*GKUHTGGHTQOCNNEQORNGZGU 13. (d)
CPFQDUGUUKQPU*GFQGUPQVTGRGPVVJGRCUVPQTFQGU 
F 6JGUWTGUVYC[QHCPPKJKNCVKPI-CTOCKUVQRTCEVKEG
JGDTQQFQXGTVJGHWVWTG*GNKXGUHWNN[KPRTGUGPV RGPCPEG-CTOCKUVJGDCPGQHVJGUQWNCPFOWUVDG
*GCRRTGEKCVGUCPFGPLQ[UVJKPIUKPNKHGKPVJGRWTGUV ended.
UGPUGYKVJQWVUGNHRTQLGEVKQPU*GKUHTGGHTQOVJG   5YCFJ[C[ 2CTCOCO 6CR #EEQTFKPI VQ ,CKP
VJKTUVQHDGEQOKPICPFVJGKNNWUKQPQHUGNH$WFFKUO FQEVTKPGU 2GPCPEG YCUJGU CYC[ CNN VJG DNGOKUJGU
GZRNCKP0KXTCPCCUCUVCVGQHDNKUUQTRGCEG CPFRWTIGUVJGUQWNQHCNNMCTOKEOCVVGT

D  $WFFJCFGNKXGTGFJKUTUVUGTOQPCV5CTPCVJ5CTPCVJ   #NUQ CEEQTFKPI VQ ,CKPKUO -CTOC KU VJG DCPG QH
KUCEKV[NQECVGFKPVJGPQTVJGCUVQH8CTCPCUKPGCT VJGUQWN-CTOCPQVQPN[GPEQORCUUGUVJGECWUCNKV[
VJGEQPWGPEGQHVJG)CPIGUCPFVJG)QOCVKTKXGTU QH VTCPUOKITCVKQP DWV KV KU CNUQ EQPEGKXGF CU CP
KP7VVCT2TCFGUJ GZVTGOGN[ UWDVNG OCVVGT YJKEJ KPNVTCVGU VJG UQWN

E  2CVKOQMMJC UVCPFU HQT VJG TWNGU QH VJG 5CPIJC QDUEWTKPI KVU PCVWTCN VTCPURCTGPV RWTG SWCNKVKGU
$WFFJC&JCOOCCPF5CPIJCCTGVJGVJTGG,GYGNUQH -CTOCKUVJQWIJVQHCUCMKPFQHRQNNWVKQPVJCVVCKPVU
$WFFJKUO VJGUQWNYKVJXCTKQWUEQNQTU$CUGFQPKVUMCTOCC

E  /CJCXKTCYCUCVGCEJGTQHVJGTGNKIKQPQH,CKPKUO soul undergoes transmigration and reincarnation in
*GNKXGFKP+PFKC*KUHQNNQYGTUDGNKGXGFVJCVJGYCU XCTKQWUUVCVGUQHGZKUVGPEGNKMGJGCXGPUQTJGNNUQTCU
VJGVJKPCNKPGQHITGCVVGCEJGTU6JGUGVGCEJGTU humans or animals.
YGTGECNNGFVKTVJCPMCTCU

E  $WFFJ DQTP KP .WODKPK KP -QUCNC MKPIFQO

F  6JG(QWTVJ$WFFJKUV%QWPEKNYCUJGNFCV-WPFCNXCPC
$WFFJ FKGF KP -WUKPCTC KP /CICFJC MKPIFQO
-CUJOKTKP#&WPFGTVJGRCVTQPCIGQH-WUJCP
#XCPVK NC[ QWVUKFG VJG CTGC XKUKVGF D[ $WFFJC
MKPI-CPKUJMCCPFVJGRTGUKFGPVQHVJKUEQWPEKNYCU
CPF YCU EQPXGTVGF VQ JKU VGCEJKPI D[ JKU FKUEKRNG
8CUWOKVTC YKVJ #!XCIJQUC CU JKU FGRWV[ 6JKU
/CJCMCEECPC)CPFJCTCKUYGUVGTPRCTVQH2CMKUVCP
EQWPEKNFKUVKPEVN[FKXKFGFVJG$WFFJKUOKPVQUGEVU
#HIJCPKUVCPCPF$WFFJCPGXGTYGPVVQ2CMKUVCP
/CJC[CP*KPC[CP

E  6CDQ OQPCUVGT[ CPF VGORNG EQORNGZ KU KP 5RKVK

D  #HVGT GPNKIJVGF $WFFJC LQWTPG[GF VQ VJG 5CTPCVJ
YJGTG JG RTGCEJGF JKU TUV UGTOQP VQ JKU XG 8CNNG[ CPF #NEJK VGORNG EQORNGZ KU KP .CFCMJ
disciples. .JQVUCXC.JCMJCPI0CMQKUKP*KOCEJCN2TCFGUJ

D  $WFFJCCVVCKPGF2CTKPKTXCPCCV-WUJKPCICTKP7VVCT <CPUMCT8CNNG[KUKP,COOWCPF-CUJOKT
Pradesh. 
D  )WTW0CPCM&GXYCUDQTPKP$CDWTFGHGCVGF

E +DTCJKO .QFK KP  9JGP $CDWT VQQM QXGT

F  6JG VYGPV[HQWTVJ CPF NCUV 6KTVJCPMCTC YCU CPF GUVCDNKUJGF VJG /WIJCN F[PCUV[ 0CPCM YCU
8CTFJCOCPC/CJCXKTCDQTPKP$%+P$% travelling to different parts of India and preaching
JGFKGFCVVJGCIGQH)CWVCODQTPCDQWV$% 5KMJKUO$CDWTQPEGOGV)WTW0CPCMFWTKPIQPGQH
CPFFKGFCVVJGCIGQH
CDQWV$%  his travel.

F  $QVJ )CWVCO $WFFJC CPF 8CTFJOCP /CJCXKT 18. (d)
YGTGEQPVGORQTCT[VQGCEJQVJGTCPFHQWPFGFVJGKT 
C  #%JCKV[CKUC$WFFJKUVUJTKPGKPENWFKPICUVWRC
TGURGEVTKXGTGNKIKQPUDGVVGTMPQYPCU$WFFJKUOCPF 
C  4KUJCDJCUV6KTVJCPMCTCQWVQH2CTUJXCPCVJC
Jainism in India. TFVKTVJCPMCTC/CJCXKTCVJVKTVJCPMCTC

D  /CJCXKTC YCU PQV VJG HQWPFGT CPF CWVJQT QH ,CKP
TGNKIKQP DWV UKORN[ C TGHQTOGT 6JKU UGEV QH VJG
0KITCPVJCU YCU CP KORQTVCPV UGEV CV VJG TKUG QH
$WFFJKUO 6JKU OC[ DG KPHGTTGF HTQO VJG HCEV
H-74 Religious Revolution

VJCV VJG[ CTG HTGSWGPVN[ OGPVKQPGF KP VJG RKVCMCU 30. (d) List of 24 Tirthankars and their birth places
as opponGPVU QH $WFFJC CPF JKU FKUEKRNGU 6JKU Name Birth place
EQPENWUKQP KU HWTVJGT UWRRQTVGF D[ CPQVJGT HCEV
/CPMMJCNK )QUCNC C EQPVGORQTCT[ QH $WFFJC 4KUJCDJC
#FKPCVJ #[QFJ[C
CPF /CJCXKTC FKXKFGF OCPMKPF KPVQ UKZ ENCUUGU #LKVPCVJ #[QFJ[C
of these the third class contained the Nigranthas. 5CODJCXCPCVJ Sravasti
Hence, statement II is not the correct explanation of
#DJKPCPFCPPCVJ #[QFJ[C
statement I.

D  )QUJCNC/CUMCTKRWVTCYCUVJGHQWPFGTQH#LKXKMC 5WOCVKPCVJ #[QFJ[C
5GEV*GYCUVJGEQPVGORQTCT[QH/CJCXKT 2CFOCDTCDJC -CWUCODJK

F  6JGYQTFU5CV[COGXC ,C[CVG ECOGHTQO/WPFCMC 5WRCTUJXCPCVJ -CUK
$CPCTCU
7RCPKUJCFOGCPKPI6TWVJ#NQPG6TKWORJU
%JCPFTCRTCDJC %JCPFTCRWTK

D  
E  
C 
D

D  5[ODQNQHITGCVGXGPVUQH$WFFJCUNKHG 9. Pushpadanta -CMCPFK
(Suvidhinatha)
Event Symbol
10. Shiatnath $JCFTKMCRWTK
$WFFJCUDKTVJ .QVWUDWNN 5JTG[CPUCPCVJ Simhapuri

The great departure Horse 8CUWRWL[C %JCORCRWTK



/CJCDJKPKUJMTCOCPC 13. Vimalnath -CORKN[C
#PCPVPCVJ #[QFJ[C
Enlightment (Nirvana) $QFJKVTGG
&JCTOCPCVJ 4CVPCRWTK
First sermon 9JGGN
5JCPVKPCVJ Hastinapura

&JCOOCEJCMTCRCTKXCTVCP
-WPVJWPCVJ Hastinapura
&GCVJ
2CTKPKTXCPC Stupa #TCPCVJ Hastinapura
/CNKPCVJ /KVJKNCRWTK

C  'CTN[$WFFJKUVVGZVUURGCMQHUKZHQTGOQUVQRRQPGPVU
QH.QTF$WFFJCYJQYGTG /WPKUWXTCVC -WUCITCPCICTC
4CLITKJ
  #LKV-GUJ-CODNKP$GNKGXGFKP/CVGTKCNUO 0COKPCVJC /KVJKNCRWTK
/CVJWTC
  /CUMCTK)QUCN(QWPFGTQH#LKXCMCUGEV 0GOKPCVJC 5CWTKRWTC
&YCTMC
  2WTCP-CU[CR#VQOKUV
  2CMWFJ-CV[C[CO$GNKGXGFKP(CVCNKUO 2CTUXCPCVJC -CUK
$CPCTCU
  5CPLC[ 8GVJCNKRWVVC$GNKGXGF KP OCVGTKCNKUO /CJCXKTC -WPFCRWTC
U[PKEKUO (Vardhamana)
  0KIICPVJC0CVJRWVVC*GYCU$JCIXCP/CJCXKT 
F   
F  
C
  7
  Chapter

Introduction
6JGTGCTGVYQKORQTVCPVUQWTEGUQH/CWT[CPJKUVQT[1PGKUVJGArthashastraYTKVVGPD[-CWVKN[CCNUQMPQYPCU%JCPCM[C
VJG2TKOG/KPKUVGTQH%JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[CYJKEJFGUETKDGUJQYCIQQFIQXGTPOGPVUJQWNFDGQTICPK\GF6JGQVJGTUQWTEG
is IndicaYTKVVGPKP)TGGMD[/GICUVJGPGUVJGCODCUUCFQTQH5GNGWEWU0GECVQTCVVJGEQWTVQH%JCPFTCIWRVC/GICUVJGPGU
YTQVGPQVQPN[CDQWVVJGECRKVCNEKV[QH2CVCNKRWVTCDWVCNUQCDQWVVJG/CWT[C'ORKTGCUCYJQNGCPFCDQWVVJGUQEKGV[6JG
JKUVQT[QH#UJQMCUTGKIPECPDGHTCOGFQPVJGDCUKUQHJKUGFKEVU
1VJGT UQWTEG KU VJG Mudrarakshasa YTKVVGP D[ 8KUJCMJCFCVVC KP VJ EGPVWT[ #& IKXGU CP KPVGTGUVKPI CEEQWPV QH JQY
%JCPFTCIWRVCYKVJVJGJGNRQH-CWVKN[CCPFC2CWTCXCRTKPEGFGHGCVGFVJG0CPFCU,CKPCPF$WFFJKUVVTCFKVKQPUCNUQVJTQYNKIJV
QPVJGJKUVQT[QHVJG/CWT[CU,CKPUETKRVWTGUTGHGTVQ%JCPFTCIWRVCUFGCVJCPFVJG$WFFJKUVYQTMMahavamsa, relates an
CEEQWPVQHVJGNKHGCPFYQTMQHVJGMKPI#UJQMCMalvikagnimitram YTKVVGPD[-CNKFCUCVJTQYUGPQWIJNKIJVQPVJGNCUV[GCTU
QHVJG/CWT[CPTWNGCPFVJGCUEGPFCPEGQH2WUJ[COKVTC5WPIC
#RCTVHTQOVJGCDQXGUQWTEGUKPUETKRVKQPQHJunagarh CPFQVJGTKPUETKRVKQPUQH#UJQMCQPTQEMUCPFRKNNCTUJGNRWUOWEJKP
DWKNFKPIVJGUVQT[QHVJKUCIG6JGOQPWOGPVUDGNQPIKPIVQVJG/CWT[CPRGTKQFURGCMQHVJGEWNVWTGCPFEKXKNK\CVKQPQHVJKU
RGTKQF6JGUVWRCUXKJCTCUCPFECXGUVGNNWUCDQWVVJGFGXGNQROGPVQHCTVCPFCTEJKVGEVWTGQHVJKURGTKQF.GVUUGECINKORUG
QHOCWT[CPGORKTGKPVJGEJCTV

6JG/CWT[CP'ORKTG

Introduction %JCPFTCIWRVC $KPFWUWTC #UJQMC /CWT[CP /CWT[CP#TV #HVGTOCVJ QH


/CWT[C #FOKPKUVTCVKQP CPF#TEJKVGEVWTG /CWT[C

CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA (322-297 B.C.)


%JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[CYCUVJGHQWPFGTQH/CWT[CPF[PCUV[ #FJC[CMUJCU 9JQ OCKPVCKPGF EQTTGURQPFGPEG YKVJ VJG
*GVQQMCFXCPVCIGQHVJGITQYKPIYGCMPGUUCPFWPRQRWNCTKV[ /CPVTKRCTKUJCF
QHVJG0CPFCUKPVJGNCUVFC[UQHVJGKTTWNG9KVJVJGJGNRQH 6JGCFOKPKUVTCVKQPQH2CVNKRWVTCYCUECTTKGFD[UKZEQOOKVVGGU
%JCPCM[CJGFGHGCVGFVJG0CPFCUCPFGUVCDNKUJGFVJGTWNGQH GPVTWUVGF YKVJ UCPKVCVKQP ECTG QH HQTGKIPGTU TGIKUVTCVKQP QH
VJG/CWT[CF[PCUV[
DKTVJCPFFGCVJTGIWNCVKQPQHYGKIJVUCPFOGCUWTGUCPFUKOKNCT
%JCPFTCIWRVCGTGEVGFCDKIGORKTGYJKEJYCUPQVNKOKVGFKP
$KJCT DWV CNUQ GZVGPFGF VQ YGUVGTP CPF PQTVJYGUVGTP +PFKC QVJGTHWPEVKQPU%JCPFTCIWRVCUIQXGTPOGPVYCUFKXKFGFKPVQ
CPF VJG &GEECP 6JG /CWT[CU TWNGF QXGT VJG YJQNG QH VJG VYQRCTVUVJGCentral and the Provincial Governments. The
UWDEQPVKPGPV +P VJG PQTVJYGUV VJG[ RGPGVTCVGF QXGT EGTVCKP GORKTG YCU FKXKFGF KPVQ C PWODGT QH RTQXKPEGU YJKEJ YGTG
CTGCUYJKEJYGTGPQVKPENWFGFGXGPKPVJG$TKVKUJTWNG UWDFKXKFGF KPVQ FKUVTKEVU $WV VJG GZCEV PWODGT QH RTQXKPEGU
%JCPFTCIWRCVC YCU C LWUV MKPI *G JKOUGNH CVVGPFGF VJG CTGPQVMPQYP
EQWTVCPFICXGLWUVKEG*GCRRQKPVGFCNNVJGJKIJQHEKCNUQH #EEQTFKPIVQVJG,CKPCNKVGTCVWTGKPJKUNCUVFC[UChandragupta
the UVCVGUUWEJCUVJG5CEJKXCUQT#OCV[CU/CPVTKPUQT converted into Jainsim and giving up his throne in favour of
VJG*KIJ/KPKUVGTUVJG2WTQJKVCQTVJG*KIJ2TKGUV5RKGU JKUUQP$KPFWUCTCCPFDGECOGCOQPM
H-76 The Mauryan Empire

BINDUSARA (297273 B.C.)


%JCPFTCIWRVCYCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKUUQP$KPFWUCTC*GFGHGCVGFVJGTWNGTUQHMKPIFQOUCPFCFFGFVJGKTNCPFUVQJKUGORKTG7PFGT
JKOVJG/CWT[CP'ORKTGURTGCFCETQUUVJGYJQNGQH+PFKCPUWDEQPVKPGPV'ZEGRVHQT-CNKPIC
1TKUUC CPFCHGYMKPIFQOUKPVJGUQWVJ

ASHOKA (273232 B.C.)


#UJQMC YCU VJG OQUV HCOQWU /CWT[CP MKPI CPF QPG QH VJG 
ITGCVGUV TWNGTU 6JG $TKVish historian H.G Wells had this to
UC[ CDQWV #UJQMC#OKFUV VJG VGPU QH VJQWUCPFU PCOGU QH &JCOOC KU VJG 2TCMTKV YQTF HQTO QH VJG 5CPUMTKV VGTO
OQPCTEJU VJCV ETQYF VJG EQNWOPU QH JKUVQT[ VJG PCOG QH &JCTOC YJKEJ OGCPU TGNKIKQWU FWV[ #UJQMC ICXG WR VJG
#UJQMCUJKPGUCPFUJKPGUCNOQUVCNQPGNKMGCUVCT RQNKE[ QH EQPSWGUV VJTQWIJ YCT
FKIXKLC[C  CPF DGICP VQ
#UJQMC IQXGTPGF JKU MKPIFQO YGNN *KU PWOGTQWU TQEM CPF HQNNQYCRQNKE[QHEQPSWGUVVJTQWIJFJCTOC
FJCTOCXKLC[C 
pillar edict, spread over a large part of India, give a lot of #UJQMCU &JCOOCYCUTGNCVGFVQPQTOUQHUQEKCNDGJCXKQWT
KPHQTOCVKQPCDQWVVJKUITGCVTWNGT CPFCEVKXKVKGU+VUPQTOUCTGOGPVKQPGFKP#UJQMCUGFKVU&WG
VQVJKURQNKE[JKUPCOGUJKPGUYKVJWPKSWGDTKNNKCPEG
Kalinga War (261 B.C.):9JGP#UJQMCDGECOGVJGMKPI
-CNKPICYCUVJGQPN[MKPIFQOYJKEJYCUPQVWPFGT/CWT[CP Ashokas Contemporaries
EQPVTQN -CNKPIC YCU KORQTVCPV CU KV EQPVTQNNGF VJG NCPF #PKVQEJWU++6JGQU  5[TKC
CPF UGC TQWVGU VQ UQWVJ +PFKC CPF UQWVJGCUV #UKC #UJQMC
2VQNGO[++2JKNCFGNRWU  'I[RV
CVVCEMGF-CNKPICCPFEQPSWGTGFKVCHVGTCGTEGDCVVNG
/CICU   %[OG
6JG YCT YKVJ -CNKPIC YCU C VWTPKPI RQKPV KP VJG NKHG QH
#PVKIQPWU)QPCVCU  /CEGFQPKC
#UJQMC 6JG FGCVJ FGUVTWEVKQP CPF UWHHGTKPI VJCV JG UCY
KP VJG YCT OCFG JKO XGT[ UCF *G TGCNK\GF VJG HWVKNKV[ QH #NGZCPFGT  'RKTWU
IJVKPI C YCT CPF XQYGF PQV VQ IJV CP[ OQTG YCTU *G
devoted the rest of his life to serve his people.

.KMGJKURTGFGEGUUQTU#UJQMCCUWOGFVJGVKVNGQHPriyadarshi #EEQTFKPI VQ $WFFJKUV VGZVU #UJQMC TWNGF HQT VYGPV[UGXGP

RNGCUKPIVQNQQMCV CPF&GXCPCORTK[C
DGNQXGFQH)QFU +PVJG [GCTU 6JG UWDUGSWGPV JKUVQT[ QH VJG /CWT[CU WPFGT JKU
Sarnath inscription, he adopted the third title, i.e. Dharmshoka. UWEEGUUQTU KU XGT[ KPCFGSWCVGN[ MPQYP 6JKU KU DGECWUG C
UVCVGQHFKUKPVGITCVKQPUGGOGFVQJCXGUGVKPKOOGFKCVGN[CHVGT
 #UJQMCUFGCVJ6JGRQUV#UJQMCPRGTKQFKUCFCTMEJCRVGTKP
x /CLQT TQEM GFKEVU
C UGV QH  KPUETKRVKQP  HQWPF CV +PFKCPJKUVQT[CPFPQTUVTCVGUQWTEGOCVGTKCNKUCXCKNCDNGQP
HQNNQYKPI  RNCEGU &JCWNK )KXPCX ,CWIWFC -CNUK VJGRGTKQF2KNNCT'FKEV8++OGPVKQPU6KXCTCCUCUQPQH#UJQMC
/CPUGJTC5JCJDC\ICTJK5QRCTCCPF;GPCITFK 6JTGGQVJGTUQPU,WPCNC,CNWMCCPF/CJGPFTCCTGMPQYPVQ
x /KPQTTQEMGFKEVUHQWPFCVRNCEGU$CKTCV$TCJOCIKTK NKVGTCVWTG+VCRRGCTUQPVJGGXKFGPEGQHVJG8C[W2WTCPCVJCV
)CXKOCVJ )CLCTTC ,CVKPIC4COGUJYCT /CUMK ,WPCNCTWNGFHQTGKIJV[GCTUDWVVJGGZVGPVQHJKUFQOKPKQPUKU
2CNMKIWPFC /GCFCIKTK 4WRCPCVJ 5CUCTCO 5KFFJCRWT PQVKPFKECVGFVJGTGKP/QTGQXGT,CKPCPF$WFFJKUVYTKVGTUVGNN
Suvarnagiri and Verragudi. WUVJCV5CORTCVKVJGUQPQH,WPCNYJQYCUKPECRCDNGQHTWNKPI
DGECWUG QH DNKPFPGUU KOOGFKCVGN[ UWEEGGFGF #UJQMC VQ VJG
Contents of Rock Edicts throne of Patliputra.
1st Major Rock Edict2TQJKDKVKQPQHCPKOCNUCETKEG 6JGVGPVJCPFVJGNCUVQHVJG/CWT[CUYCUBrihadratha YJQ
2nd Major Rock Edict-4GNCVGFVQOGCUWTGUQHUQEKCNYGNHCTG CEEQTFKPI VQ VJG VGUVKOQP[ QH Banabhatta YCU OWTFGTGF
3rd Major Rock Edict-4GURGEVKPIQPGURCTGPVU D[ JKU IGPGTCN Pushyamitra CPF YJQ CUEGPFGF VJG VJTQPG
4th Major Rock Edict- +ORCEV QH &JCOOC 0QPXKQNGPEG KP$%6JGGORKTGHQWPFGFD[JKOKUMPQYPCUSunga
VQYCTFUCPKOCNU Dynasty 9KVJ $TKJCFTCVJCU FGCVJ
 $%  VJKU JKUVQTKE
5th Major Rock Edict- #RRQKPVOGPV QH &JCOOC TWNG QH VJG /CWT[CU ECOG VQ CP GPF YKVJKP NGUU VJCP JCNH C
/CJCOCPVTCUVQURTGCF&JCOOC EGPVWT[QH#UJQMCUFGCVJCPF[GCTUUKPEGKVUHQWPFCVKQP
6th Major Rock Edict- 9GNHCTG OGCUWTGU QH GHEKGPV D[%JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[C
administration. Decline of Mauryan Empire
7th Major Rock Edict- 2GCEG DCNCPEG QH OKPF CPF HCKVJ
tolerance.
K  *CTRTCUCF5JCUVTKJQNFUVJCV$TCJOCPKECNTGCEVKQPYCU
8th Major Rock Edict- &GVCKNUQH$QFJKVTGG&JCOOCUWVTCU TGURQPUKDNGHQTVJGFQYPHCNNQHVJG/CWT[CPGORKTG
9th /CLQT4QEM'FKEV%GTGOQP[QH&JCOOC
KK  &&-QUJCODKUC[UVJCVJGCX[GEQPQOKERTGUUWTGYCU
10th/CLQT4QEM'FKEV#UJQMCUFGUKTGVQ2QRWNCTKUG&JCOOC VJGEJKGHECWUGHQTVJGFQYPHCNNQHVJG/CWT[CPGORKTG
11th/CLQT 4QEM 'FKEV #RRTCKUCN QH &JCOOC 4GNKIKQWU
KKK  )JQUCN UC[U VJCV RTQRCICVKQP QH $WFFJKUO FWTKPI
tolerance. #UJQMCU RGTKQF FKUVWTDGF DTCJOCPKECN UQEKCN CPF
12th/CLQT4QEM'FKEV2TQOQVKPITGNKIKQPQHFKHHGTGPVHCKVJ TGNKIKQWUQTFGTYJKEJYGCMGPGFVJGUVCVG
13th/CLQT 4QEM 'FKEV -CNKPICU FGUVTWEVKQP OGPVKQP QH
KX  4QOKNC 6JCRCT UC[U VJCV PCVWTG QH QTICPKUCVKQP QT
)TGGMTWNGTU CFOKPKUVTCVKQP CPF VJG HCWNV[ EQPEGRVKQP QH UVCVG
th WNVKOCVGN[ECWUGFVJGFQYPHCNNQHVJGGORKTG
14 /CLQT4QEM'FKEV0CVWTGQHCNNQVJGTTQEMGFKEVU
The Mauryan Empire H-77

MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION
6JG/CWT[CPCFOKPKUVTCVKQPECPDGFKXKFGFKPVQHQWTFKXKUKQPU Army
central, provincial, district and village. The administration of /CWT[CUQYPGFCDKICTO[#EEQTFKPIVQ2NKPP[%JCPFTCIWRVC
VJGEKV[QH2CVCNKRWVTCYCUUGRCTCVG OCKPVCKPGF  HQQV UQNFKGTU   ECXCNT[ CPF
 GNGRJCPVU #EEQTFKPI VQ /GIJCUVJGPGUG VJG CTO[ YCU
 CFOKPKUVGTGF D[ UKZ EQOOKVVGGU EQPUKUVKPI QH XG OGODGTU
6JG MKPI YCU VJG UWRTGOG CWVJQTKV[ *G VQQM CNN KORQTVCPV GCEJVCMGPHTQOCDQCTFQHQHEGTU
FGEKUKQPUEQPEGTPKPIVJGGORKTG*GYCUCUUKUVGFD[CEQWPEKN
Espionage
QHOKPKUVGTU6JG[CEVGFCUVJGMKPIUCFXKUQTU
+VYCUKORQTVCPVRCTVQHVJG/CWT[CCFOKPKUVTCVKQPCPFYCU
 QH VYQ V[RGUSantha and Sanchar VJG HQTOGT YQTMGF D[
TGOCKPKPIUVCVKQPGFCVCRWDNKERNCEGCPFVJGNCVVGTD[OQXKPI
6JGGORKTGYCUFKXKFGFKPVQOCP[RTQXKPEGUGCEJJGCFGFD[C HTQORNCEGVQRNCEG6JGURKGUYGTGVJGGCTUCPFG[GUQHVJG
RTKPEG*GTWNGFVJGRTQXKPEGCUVJGTGRTGUGPVCVKXGQHVJGMKPI MKPI6JG[YGTGCNUQECNNGFCudhapurshas.
CPFYCUCUUKUVGFD[OCP[QHEGTU
Revenue Administration
 6JGTGYGTGXCTKQWUUQWTEGUQHUVCVGTGXGPWGUEKVKGU
FWTIC 
2TQXKPEGUYGTGHWTVJGTFKXKFGFKPVQFKUVTKEVU6JGPradishikas TWTCNCTGCU
TCUJVTC OKPGU
MJCP TQCFCPFVTCHE
XCPKMRCVJC 
YCUVJGJGCFQHVJGFKUVTKEV*GYCUCUUKUVGFD[VJG;WMVCU RCUVWTGU
8TCLC 2NCPVCVKQPU
UGVW CPFHQTGUVU
XCPC 
CPF VJG 4CLWMCU *G OGCUWTGF VJG NCPF EQNNGEVGF VCZ CPF
Import Duties
OCKPVCKPGFNCYCPFQTFGT
2TCDGUJ[CQTKORQTVFWVKGUYGTGZGFCVRGTEGPVQHVJGEQUV
 price. 2CP[CFJ[CMUJC and 2CVVCPCFJ[CMUJCYCUTGURGEVKXGN[
TGURQPUKDNGVQXGTKH[GXGT[KORQTVVQVJGUVCVG6JG[YGTGCNUQ
# PWODGT QH XKNNCIGU OCFG WR C FKUVTKEV 8KNNCIGTU CUUKUVGF TGURQPUKDNG HQT VJG GZRQTV QH GCEJ CTVKENG HTQO VJG UVCVG CPF
IQXGTPOGPV QHEKCN KP OCMKPI VJG XKNNCIG DQWPFCTKGU EQNNGEVGFVJGTGXGPWGMPQYPCUPKUJMTCO[C
maintaining land records and collecting taxes. Each village had Sales Tax:6CZGUYGTGKORQUGFQPGXGT[CTVKENGDGHQTGKVYCU
CJGCFOCPYJQYCUEJQUGPD[VJGXKNNCIGTUVJGOUGNXGU UQNF QT RWTEJCUGF D[ 5WNMCFJ[CMUJC  RGT EGPV QP KVGOU
Mauryan Mantriparishad UQNFQPVJGDCUKUQHECNEWNCVKQPRGTEGPVQPVJGKVGOUUQNFQP
VJGDCUKUQHOGCUWTGOGPVCPFRGTEGPVQPVJGIQQFUUQNF
/CPVTKP   %JKGH/KPKUVGT QPVJGDCUKUQHYGKIJV
2WTQJKVC   *KIJ2TKGUV $GUKFGU VJGUG VJGTG YGTG OCP[ QVJGT VCZGU EQNNGEVGF D[ VJG
5GPCRCVK   %QOOCPFGTKPEJCTIG state such as taxes on artisans and artist, taxes on animal
;WXCTCL   %TQYPGF2TKPEG UNCWIJVGTJQWUGU VCZGU QP OCPWHCEVWTKPI JQWUGU VCZGU QP
ICODNKPIJQWUGUQPRTQUVKVWVGUQPVJGKPEQOGQHVGORNGUCPF
5COCJCTVC  %QNNGEVQTQH4GXGPWG QPVJGCFFKVKQPCNKPEQOGUQHVJGYCIGGCTPGTU
;WMVC   5WDQTFKPCVG1HEGTKPEJCTIGQH4GXGPWGQH
VJGMKPI     
2TCUJCUVK  *GCFQH2TKUQPU 
5CPPKFCVC  *GCFQH6TGCUWT[ -CWVKN[CU#TVJCUJCUVTCCPF/GICUVJGPGU+PFKECIKXGCFGVCKNGF
XKGY CDQWV VJG UQEKGV[ CPF UQEKCN EQPFKVKQP QH VJG RGQRNG
0C[CMC   *GCFQH%KV[5GEWTKV[ 8CTPC QT VJG ECUVGU[UVGO CPF UVCIGU QH TGNKIKQWU FKUEKRNKPG
2CWT   %KV[2QNKEG VQQM C FGPKVG UJCRG YJKEJ EQTTGURQPFU VQ *KPFW ECUVG
$[CDJCTKMC  %JKGH,WFIG U[UVGO5NCXGT[YCUCPGUVCDNKUJGFKPUVKVWVKQPWomenYGTG
-CTOCPVKMC  *GCFQH+PFWUVTKGUCPF(CEVQTKGU RNCEGF KP JKIJ GUVGGO ;GV prostitution YCU KP GUVCDNKUJGF
KPUVKVWVKQP(GUVKXCNUCPFOGTT[ICVJGTKPIUYGTGEQOOQP6JG
&CPFCRCNC  *GCFQH2QNKEG people led simple and peCEGHWNNKHGCPFYGTGKPURKTGFD[VJG
&WTICRCNC  *GCFQH4Q[CN(QTV UGPUGQHOQTCNKV[CPFKFGCNKUO
#PPCRCNC  *GCFQHVJG(QQF)TCKPU&GRCTVOGPV 6JG ,CKPKUO CPF $WFFJKUO YGTG VJG OCKP TGNKIKQPU +P
4CLLWMCU   1HEGTU TGURQPUKDNG HQT NCPF OGCUWTGOGPV CFFKVKQPUGXGTCNOKPQTTGNKIKQPUKPENWFKPI#LKXKMCUYGTGCNUQ
CPFZKPIKVUDQWPFCT[ KP GZKUVGPEG 6JG /CWT[CP TWNGTU VQQM OWEJ RCKP VQ URTGCF
GFWECVKQP CPF VQ UGV WR NKVGTCT[ UVCPFCTF QH VJGKT UWDLGEVU CU
2TCFGUKMC  *GCFQH&KUVTKEV#FOKPKUVTCVKQP
YGNN 6JG WPKXGTUKVKGU QH 6CZKNC CPF $CPCTCU GCTPGF YQTNF
 HCOGHQTVGCEJKPI$TCJOCPKECNCPF$WFFJKUVNKVGTCVWTG
,WUVKEGYCURTQXKFGFD[VJGMKPI2TCFGUJKMCCPF4CLWMCUCV 
NQYGUVNGXGNYCUVJGXKNNCIGJGCFOCP6JGTGYGTGVYQV[RGU +V YCU OCKPN[ DCUGF QP CITKEWNVWTG CU EWNVKXCVQTU HQTOGF C
QHEQWTVU OCLQTKV[QHRQRWNCVKQPVJQWIJVTCFGYCUCNUQKORQTVCPV
(i) The civil courts redressing cases of marriage, contracts
GVEYGTGECNNGFDharmasthas, Agriculture
(ii) Kantakasodhana:VJGETKOKPCNEQWTVUYJKEJVTKGFETKOKPCN x 5QOGNCPFUYGTGQYPGFD[UVCVGECNNGF5KVC.CPFUYJKEJYGTG
cases and tax evasion. GKVJGTEWNVKXCVGFD[NCDQWTGTUQTNGCUGFQWVVQEWNVKXCVQTU
H-78 The Mauryan Empire

x PrKXCVG.CPFQYPGTUTGSWKTGFVQRC[VCZGUKPVJGHQTOQH x 6TCFGYCUCNUQKPVGTPCNCPFVQHQTGKIPEQWPVTKGU
bali, bhaga, shulka, kara, etc. x +VGZRQTVGFURKEGURGCTNUFKCOQPFUEQVVQPVGZVKNGUKXQT[
YQTMUVQ)TGGUCPF8GTOC

x 5VCVGYCUCNUQDKIVTCFGTU x It imported horses, gold, glass, linen, etc. from other countries.
x It also collectedVQNNUVJTQWIJQHEKCNU x $CNCPEGQHVTCFGYCUXGT[OWEJKPHCXQWTQH+PFKC

MAURYAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE


6JGRGTKQFQH/CWT[CUEQPVTKDWVGFUKIPKECPVN[KPVJGGNFQH x 5VWRCUYGTGDWKNVVJTQWIJQWVVJGGORKTGVQGPUJTKPGVJG
arts including architecture, sculpture, engineering, polishing, TGNKEUQH$WFFJC1HVJGUGVJGOQUVHCOQWUCTGCV5CPEJK
GVE6JGRCNCEGQH%JCPFTCIWRVCYCUOCFGQHYQQF#UJQMC CPF$CTJWV
FWTKPIJKUNQPITGKIPHWTVJGTKORTQXGFVJGYQQFGPYCNNUCPF
DWKNFKPIU QH VJG ECRKVCN CPF CFFGF OCP[ CVVTCEVKXG GFKEGU 
YJKEJ EQWNF DG VTCEGF HTQO VJG UKVG CV -WOTCJCT #UJQMC x Bhabru- %QPXGTUKQPVQ$WFFJKUO
EQPUVTWEVGF CU IQQF CU  UVWRCU 6JGUG DWKNFKPIU YGTG
x Barabar Hills 'PLQKPUVQNGTCVKQP
UQNKFCPFFQOKEOCFGQHTQEMQTDTKEMU6JGCTVQHUEWNRVWTG
QTTQEMEWVVKPICNUQTGCEJGFKVU\GPKVJFWTKPI#UJQMCUVKOG x Tarai Pillars 4GURGEVVQ$WFFJKUO
5GXGPTQEMEWVUUCPEVWCTKGUN[KPICDQWVOKNGUPQTVJQH)C[C x 14 Rock Edicts  #FOKPKUVTCVKQP CPF GVJKEU /KPQT
$KJCT HQWT QP VJG $CTCDCT JKNNU CPF VJTGG QP VJG 0CICTLWPC 4QEM 'FKEV +8 FGENCTGU &JCOOCIJQUJ CPF PQV VJG
JKNNU DGNQPI VQ VJG VKOG QH #UJQMC CPF JKU UWEEGUUQTU 6JG $JGTKIJQUJVQDGKFGCNQHJWOCPDGKPIU
ECXGUCTGPGGZCORNGQH/CWT[CPCTV6JGECXGUYGTGWUGF x Minor Rock Edicts 2GTUQPCNJKUVQT[QH#UJQMCCPF
HQTTGNKIKQWUEGTGOQPKGUCPFCNUQCUCUUGODN[JCNNU UWOOCT[QH&JCOOC
x 6JG/CWT[CPUKPVTQFWEGFUVQPGOCUQPT[QPNCTIGUECNG x 7 Pillar Rock Edicts #RRGPFKZVQ4QEM'FKEVU
x Fragments of stone pillars and stumps indicating the #PQVJGTTGOCTMCDNGHGCVWTGYCUVJGCTVQHRQNKUJKPIOQPWOGPVU
GZKUVGPEGQHCPRKNNCTGFJCNNJCXGDGGPFKUEQXGTGFCV pillars, caves made of harF TQEMU GVE #TV QH GPIKPGGTKPI
-WOTCJCTQPQWVUMKTVUQH2CVPC GSWCNN[QWTKUJGF%KXKN'PIKPGGTKPIYCUKPJKIJN[CFXCPEGF
x 6JGRKNNCTUTGRTGUGPVVJGOCUVGTRKGEGQH/CWT[CPUEWNRVWTG UVCVG CPF VJGTGHQTG UQ OCP[ URGEVCEWNCT DWKNFKPIU UVWRCU
'CEJRKNNCTKUOCFGQHUKPINGRKGEGQHUCPFUVQPGQPN[VJGKT RKNNCTU EQWNF DG EQPUVTWEVGF YKVJ RGTHGEVKQP CPF GHEKGPE[
ECRKVCNUYJKEJCTGDGCWVKHWNRKGEGUQHUEWNRVWTGKPVJGHQTO #NUQVJGCTVQHLGYGNNGT[CVVCKPGFCTGOCTMCDNGRTQITGUU
QHNKQPQTDWNNUCTGLQKPGFYKVJRKNNCTQPVJGVQR
The punched marked silver coinsQHVJG/CWT[CUYJKEJECTT[
x Single lionECRKVCNCV4CORWTXCCVLauriya Nandangarh. VJGU[ODQNUQHVJGpeacockCPFVJGJKNNCPFETGUEGPVYGTGCNUQ
x 5KPINGDWNNECRKVCNCV4WRWTXC CRCTVQH%QWTV#TV
x Four lion capital at Sarnath and Sanchi. TJG QVJGT V[RG QH CTVU KPENWFGF VJG HQNM VTCFKVKQP QH CTVU
x #ECTXGFGNGRJCPVCV&JCWNKCPFGPITCXGFGNGRJCPVCV-CNUK TGRTGUGPVGF D[ IWTGU QH ;CMUJC CPF ;CMUJKPKU HQWPF HTQO
x 6JG/CWT[CPCTVKUCPUCNUQUVCTVGFVJGRTCEVKEGQHJGYKPI $GUPCICT&CKFTICPLGVE6JGCDWPFCPEGQHDGCWVKHWNRQVVGT[
QWV ECXGU HTQO TQEMU HQT OQPMU VQ NKXG KP 6JG GCTNKGUV called Northern Black Polished Ware
0$29 CPFVGTTCEQVVC
GZCORNGKU$CTCDCTECXGUKP)C[C IWTKPGUYGTGCPQVJGTKVGOQHRQRWNCTCTV

AFTERMATH OF MAURYAS
The period YJKEJ UVCTVGF KP CDQWV  $% FKF PQV JCXG The SunICF[PCUV[QEEWRKGUCXGT[KORQTVCPVRNCEGKPVJGJKUVQT[
CP[ NCTIG GORKTG NKMG VJCV QH VJG /CWT[CU +P GCUVGTP +PFKC QH+PFKC6JGKTITGCVGUVCEJKGXGOGPVYCUVJGUCHGIWCTFKPIQH
EGPVTCN+PFKCCPFVJG&GEECPVJG/CWT[CUYGTGUWEEGGFGFD[ +PFKC HTQO VJG KPXCUKQP QH *WPCU 6JG 5WPIC -KPIU ITGCVN[
CPWODGTQHPCVKXGTWNGTUUWEJCUVJG5WPICUVJG-CPXCUCPF GPEQWTCIGFVJG$TCJOCPTGNKIKQPCPFNKVGTCVWTG
VJG5CVCXCJCPCU+PPQTVJYGUVGTP+PFKCVJG[YGTGUWEEGFGFD[
CPWODGTQHTWNKPIF[PCUVKGUHTQO%GPVTCN#UKC
*WPCUYGTGQPGQHVJGGTEGVTKDGUHTQO%GPVTCN#UKC6JG[
 JCXGDGGPRGTKQFKECNN[KPXCFKPI+PFKCUKPEGVJG5WPICRGTKQF
6JG5WPICF[PCUV[YCUHQWPFGFD[2WUJ[COKVTCYJQTWNGFHQT 6JG[YGTGTGUKUVGFD[VJGTWNGTUWRVKNVJGUGEQPFJCNHQHVJG
[GCTUCPFJKUTGKIPGPFGFKPQT$%2WUJ[COKVTC thEGPVWT[#&$WVVJGYGCMPGUUQH)WRVCGORKTGRTQXKFGF
YCU UWEEGGFGF D[JKUUQP#IPKOKVTC YJQYCU VJG IQXGTPQT VJGOYKVJCEJCPEGCPFD[#&VJG[YGTGCDNGVQQEEWR[
QH8KFKUJCFWTKPIJKUHCVJGTUTGKIP*GTWNGFHQTGKIJV[GCTU GCUVGTP/CNYCCPFCIQQFRQTVKQPQHEGPVTCN+PFKC
#IPKOKVTCYCUUWEEGGFGFD[,[GUJVJC6JGPGZVKORQTVCPVMKPI
QHVJKUF[PCUV[YCUVasumitraYJQYCUVJGUQPQH#IPKOKVTC 
#PQVJGTKORQTVCPVMKPIQHVJKUF[PCUV[YCUBhagabhadra. The 6JGTWNGQHVJG-CPXCUNCUVGFHQTCDQWV[GCTU(QWTMKPIU
PKPVJKORQTVCPVMKPIQHVJKUF[PCUV[YCU$JCIXCVCYJQTWNGF ruled during this period. Vasudeva ruled for a period of nine
HQT[GCTU6JGNCUVMKPIQHVJKUF[PCUV[YCUDevabhuti or [GCTUCPF$JWOKOKVTCHQT[GCTU0CTC[CPCJGNFVJGTGKIPU
Devabhumi *G YCU RWV VQ FGCVJ D[ JKU OKPKUVGT QT COCV[C of administration for alOQUV[GCTUShusarmaYCUVJGNCUV
ECNNGF8CUWFGXC-CPXC6JWUVJGMKPIFQOQH/CICFJCRCUUGF QH VJG -CPXCU &WTKPI VJG -CPXC F[PCUV[ VJG $TCJOCPKECN
fromVJG5WPICUVQ-CPXCU reaction persisted.
The Mauryan Empire H-79

 RWPEJOCTMGFEQKPUYGTGVJQWIJKPIQNFFGPKVGN[CVVTKDWVGF
VQ VJG MKPIU 6JG GCTNKGT EQKPU YGTG PQV GCU[ VQ DG CUUKIPGF
6JGJKUVQT[QH-CNKPICKUPQVMPQYPYKVJCP[FGITGGQHEGTVCKPV[
YKVJ CP[ F[PCUV[ 6JG +PFQ)TGGMU YGTG VJG TUV VQ KUUWG
VKNNVJGTUVEGPVWT[$%6JGXGKNQHQDUEWTKV[KUNKHVGFD[VJG
gold coins in India YJKEJ KPETGCUGF KP PWODGT WPFGT VJG
HCTHCOGFDWVFCOCIGFHatigumpha
KPVJG7FC[IKTKJKNNPGCT
-WUJCPU6JG)TGGMTWNGKUCNUQOGOQTCDNGQPCEEQWPVQHVJG
$JWDCPGUYCT KPUETKRVKQP+VTGEQTFUVJGGZRNQKVUQH-JCTCXGNC
KPVTQFWEVKQPQH*GNNGPKUVKEHGCVWTGUKPVJGPQTVJYGUVHTQPVKGTof
DGNQPIKPIVQVJG%JGVCQT%JGVKNKPGQHMKPIUHQWPFGFD[/CJC
+PFKCIKXKPITKUGVQVJG)CPFJCTCCTV
/GIJCXCJCPC#EEQTFKPIVQVJGVGUVKOQP[QHVJGKPUETKRVKQPQH
-JCTCXGNCCIGFCUEGPFGFVJGVJTQPGQH-CNKPICRTQDCDN[  
KP$%CHVGTJCXKPIUGTXGFCRRTGPVKEGUJKRCU;WXCTCLCHQT
6JG OQUV HCOQWU 5CMC TWNGT KP +PFKC YCU 4WFTCFCOCP+
GKIJV [GCTU 6JGKPUETKRVKQP YJKEJ CEEQWPVU HQTVJG [GCTU

#&   Rudradaman YCU C ITGCV NQXGT QH UCPUMTKV
QH -JCTCXGNCU TWNG FGUETKDGU KP FGVCKN VJG FKIXKLC[C QH VJG
#NVJQWIJCHQTGKIPGTUGVVNGFKP+PFKCJGKUUWGFVJGTUVGXGT
-CNKPICRTKPEG NQPIKPUETKRVKQPKPEJCUVG5CPUMTKV
 
ThG OQUV KORQTVCPV QH VJG PCVKXG UWEEGUUQTU QH VJG /CWT[CU 6JG5CMCMKPIFQOKPPQTVJYGUVGTP+PFKCYCUHQNNQYGFD[VJCV
KPVJG&GEECPCPFKPEGPVTCN+PFKCYGTGVJG5CVCXCJCPCU6JG QHVJG2CTVJKCPUCPFKPOCP[CPEKGPV+PFKCP5CPUMTKVVGZVUVJG
5CVXCJCPCUCNUQMPQYPCU#PFJTCUTWNGFVJG&GEECPHQT VYQRGQRNGUCTGVQIGVJGTOGPVKQPGUCU5CMC2CJNCXCU
[GCTU Pratisthana YCU VJGKT ECRKVCN 5QOG RQYGTHWN TWNGTU +PHCEVVJG[TWNGFQXGTVJKUEQWPVT[QPRCTCNNGNNKPGUHQTUQOG
YGTG5TK5CVCMCTPK, Vasishtaputra Palimahi, Yajunasri Sata- VKOG6JGOQUVHCOQWU2CTVJKCPMKPIYCUGondophernes.
Karni and )CWVOKRWVTC 5TK 5CVCMCTPK 6JG OQUV RQYGTHWN
COQPIVJGOCNNYCUUCVCXCJCPCU*GHQWIJVCICKPUVVJGQVJGT 
MKPIFQOUCPFGZRCPFGFJKUGORKTG 6JG2CTVJKCPUYGTGUWEEGGFGFD[VJG-WUJCPU6JG-WUJCPU
6JG 5CVCXCJCPCU GUVCDNKUJGF C RQYGTHWN GORKTG %QPVKPWQWU GUVCDNKUJGF C RQYGTHWN GORKTG KP PQTVJ +PFKC 6JG[ FGHGCVGF
OKNKVCT[ EQPKEVU GURGEKCNN[ CICKPUV VJG 5JCMCU JQYGXGT VJG+PFQ)TGGMUVJG2CJNCXCUCPFVJG5JCMCUCPFGUVCDNKUJGF
ITCFWCNN[ YGCMGPGF VJGO 'XGPVWCNN[ VJG GORKTG DTQMG WR VJGOUGNXGU KP VJG TGIKQP CTQWPF 6CMUJCUJKNC CPF 2GUJCYCT
KPVQOCP[UOCNNGTMKPIFQOU .CVGTVJG[QEEWRKGF-CUJOKT2WPLCDCPFRCTVUQHRTGUGPVFC[
6JG5CVCXCJCPCMKPIFQOJCFVJTGGITCFGUQHHGWFCVQTKGU6JG 4CLCUVJCPCPF7VVCT2TCFGUJ
JKIJGUVITCFGYCUHQTOGFD[VJGMKPIYJQYCUECNNGFTCLCYJQ 6JG ITGCVGUV QH VJG -WUJCPC TWNGTU YCU Kanishka. He
JCFVJGTKIJVVQUVTKMGEQKPU6JGUGEQPFITCFGYCUHQTOGFD[ GUVCDNKUJGFCXCUVGORKTGYJKEJKPENWFGFRCTVUQHEGPVTCN#UKC
VJG OCJCDJQLC CPF VJG VJKTF ITCFG D[ VJG UGPCRCVK +V UGGOU Purashapura
OQFGTP2GUJCYCT YCUVJGECRKVCNQHJKUGORKTG
VJCV VJGUG HGWFCVQTKGU CPF NCPFGF DGPGEKCTKGU GPLQ[GF UQOG /CVJWTCYCUCPQVJGTKORQTVCPVEKV[KPJKUGORKTG
CWVJQTKV[KPVJGKTTGURGEVKXGNQECNKVKGU 6JGTGYGTGVYQUWEEGUUKXGF[PCUVKGUQHVJG-WUJCPU6JGTUV
+PETGCUKPI ETCHV CPF EQOOGTEG KP VJKU RGTKQF DTQWIJV OCP[ F[PCUV[ YCU HQWPFGF D[ C JQWUG QH EJKGHU YJQ YGTG ECNNGF
OGTEJCPVU CPF CTVKUCPU VQ VJG HQTGHTQPV $QVJ CTVKUCPU CPF KadphisesCPFYJQTWNGFHQT[GCTUHTQOCDQWV#&+V
OGTEJCPVU OCFG IGPGTQWU FQPCVKQPU VQ VJG $WFFJKUV ECWUG JCFVYQMKPIU6JG(KTUVYCUKadphises+YJQKUUWGFEQKPU
6JG[UGVWRUOCNNOGOQTKCNVCDNGVU#OQPIVJGCTVKUCPUVJG KPVJGUQWVJQHVJG*KPFWMWUJ
ICPIJKMCUQTVJGRGTHWOGTUCTGTGRGCVGFN[OGPVKQPGFCUFQPQT 6JG JQWUG QH -CFRJKUGU YCU DKIIGT D[ VJCV QH -CPKUJMC +VU
#V C NCVGT UVCIG VJG VGTO ICPFJKMC DGECOG UQ IGPGTCN CU VQ MKPIFQOGZVGPFGFVJG-WUJCPRQYGTQXGTWRRGT+PFKCCPFVJG
FGPQVGCNNMKPFUQHUJQRMGGRGTU NQYGT+PFWUDCUKP6JGGCTN[-WUJCPMKPIUKUUWGFPWOGTQWUIQNF
/CP[VGORNGUCPFOQPCUVGTKGUYGTGEWVQWVQHVJGUQNKFTQEMKP EQKPUYKVJJKIJGTIQNFEQPVGPVVJCPKUHQWPFKPVJG)WRVCEQKPU.
VJGPQTVJYGUVGTP&GEECPQT/CJCTCUJVTCYKVJITGCVUMKNNCPF
RCVKGPEG6JGVYQEQOOQPUVTWEVWTGUYGTGVJGVGORNGYJKEJ Impact of Central Asian Contacts
YCUECNNGFchaitya vihara6JGEJCKV[CYCUCNCTIGJCNNYKVJC The imRCEV QH 5CMC-WUJCPC RGTKQF ECP DG YKVPGUUGF KP
PWODGTQHEQNWOPUCPFVJGXKJCTCEQPUKUVGFQHCEGPVTCNJCNN XCTKQWUGNFUUWEJCURQVVGT[VTCFGCPFVGEJPQNQI[RQNKV[
GPVGTGFD[CFQQTYC[HTQOCXGTCPFCJKPHTQPV TGNKIKQPCTVUEKGPEGCPFVGEJPQNQI[NKVGTCVWTGCPFNGCTPKPI
$WFFJKUVOKUUKQPCTKGUHQNNQYGFVJGOGTEJCPVUCPFFWGVQVJKU
Invasions from The Central Asia VJGEQOOWPKECVKQPCPFVTCFGYKVJ%JKPCKORTQXGF
6JG HQTGKIP TWNGTU GUVCDNKUJGF TGNCVKQPUJKR DGVYGGP %GPVTCN

 #UKCCPF+PFKC6JG%GPVTCN#UKCPEQPSWGTQTUKORNGOGPVGF
6JGTUVKPXCFGTUYGTGVJG)TGGMUYJQCTGECNNGFVJG+PFQ VJGKT TWNG QP XCTKQWU RGVV[ PCVKXG RTKPEGU 6JKU NGF VQ VJG
)TGGMU QT Bactrian Greeks. +P VJG $GIKPPKPI QH VJG UGEQPF FGXGNQROGPVQHCHGWFCVQT[QTICPK\CVKQP6JG5CMCUCPFVJG
EGPVWT[$%VJG+PFQ)TGGMUQEEWRKGFCNCTIGRCTVQHPQTVJ -WUJCPUUVTGPIVJGPGFVJGKFGCQHVJGFKXKPGQTKIKPQHMKPIUJKR
YGUVGTP+PFKCOWEJNCTIGTVJCPVJCVEQPSWGTGFD[#NGZCPFGT )TCFWCNN[ VJG )TGGMU VJG 5CMCU VJG 2CTVJKCPU CPF VJG
6YQ )TGGM F[PCUVKGU TWNGF PQTVJYGUVGTP +PFKC QP RCTCNNGN -WUJCPU NQUV VJGKT QYP KFGPVKV[ CPF DGECOG EQORNGVGN[
NKPGUCVQPGCPFVJGUCOGVKOG6JGOQUVHCOQWU+PFQ)TGGM +PFKCPK\GF 5QOG QH VJG HQTGKIP TWNGTU YGTG EQPXGTVGF VQ
TWNGTYCUMenander
$% YKVJJKUECRKVCNQHSakala 8CKUJPCXKUOCPFCHGYQVJGTCFQRVGF$WFFJKUO6JGTGYGTG
KP2WPLCD9GMPQYVJKUHTQOVJGHCOQWUVTGCVKUGMilinda CNUQUQOGEJCPIGUKP+PFKCPTGNKIKQPUKG$WFFJKUOYJKEJ
PanhaYTKVVGPD[0CICUGPC FGXGNQRGF C PGY HQTO ECNNGF VJG /CJC[CPC CPF *KPC[CPC
6JG +PFQ)TGGMU YGTG VJG TUV TWNGTU KP +PFKC VQ KUUWG EQKPU -CPKUJCMC CP KORQTVCPV -WUJCP TWNGT DGECOG C $WFFJKUV
YJKEJ ECP DG FGPKVGN[ CVVTKDWVGF VQ VJG MKPIU 6JG GCTNKGT EQPXGTVCPFJGNFVJGHQWTVJ$WFFJKUV%QWPEKN
H-80 The Mauryan Empire

+PFKCP ETCHVUOGP ECOG KPVQ EQPVCEV YKVJ VJG )TGGMU CPF )CPFJCTC KP VJG PQTVJYGUV #HVGT VJG )TGGM KPXCUKQP CPF
VJG4QOCPUYJKEJICXGTKUGVQCPGYCTVECNNGF Gandhara FWTKPIVJGRGTKQFQHVJG-WUJCPCUOCP[CTVKUVUHTQOYGUV#UKC
School of Art. The Mathura Schools of ArtQWTKUJGFKPVJG OKITCVGFVQPQTVJYGUV+PFKC6JKUFKUVKPEVKXGUV[NGYJKEJITGY
GCTN[EGPVWTKGUQHVJG%JTKUVKCPGTCCPFKVURTQFWEVUOCFGQH KPVJGTGIKQPQH)CPFJCTCKUMPQYPCUVJGGandhara School of
red sandstone are found evePQWVUKFG/CVJWTC+PVJGUQWVJ Art.5KPEG/CJC[CPC$WFFJKUOGPEQWTCIGFKOCIGYQTUJKR
Amravati ArtDGECOGHCOQWU CTVKUVUETGCVGFUEWNRVWTGUCFQRVKPIVJGOGUHTQO$WFFJCUNKHG
CPFVJG,CVCMCUVQTKGU6JGUEJQQNRTQFWEGFUGXGTCNRKGEGUQH
6JGHQTGKIPTWNGTURCVTQPK\GFCPFEWNVKXCVGF5CPUMTVKNKVGTCVWTG PGUEWNRVWTGKPYJKEJVJKUFKUVKPEVUV[NGKUENGCTN[XKUKDNG
AsvaghoshaYTQVGVJGBuddhacharitaCDKQITCRJ[QH$WFFJC
and composed SaundaranandaKP5CPUMTKVMCX[CHQTO6JG 'XKFGPEG QH )CPFJCTC CTV JCU DGGP HQWPF KP Taxila and in
RTQITGUU QH /CJC[CPC $WFFJKUO NGF VQ VJG EQORQUKVKQP CPEKGPVEKVKGUQH#HIJCPKUVCP
QH UGXGTCN CXCFCPCU 5QOG QH VJG KORQTVCPV DQQMU QH VJKU
IGPGTGYGTGVJGMahavastu and the Divyavadana. 
6JGUGHQTGKIPGTUKPVTQFWEGFVWTDCPVWPKEVTQWUGTUCPFJGCX[ #RCTV HTQO VJGUG CTVU VJGTG YCU VJG #OCTCXCVK UEJQQN QH
NQPIEQCVCNQPIYKVJECRJGNOGVUCPFDQQVUWUGFD[VJGYCTTKQTU $WFFJKUV CTV YJKEJ QWTKUJGF KP YGUVGTP #PFJTC 2TCFGUJ
under the patronages of Satavahana rulers.
+PFKCPCUVTQPQO[CPFCUVTQNQI[YGTGOQTGQWTKUJGFFWGVQVJG
EQPVCEVYKVJVJG)TGGMU+PFKCPCUVTQNQI[KP5CPUMTKVFGTKXGF  
the term horasastraHTQOVJG)TGGMVGTOhoroscope9G
CNUQPFVJCVVJG-WUJCPEQRRGTEQKPUKP+PFKCYGTGKOKVCVKQP +P CPEKGPV +PFKC VJG CIG QH VJG 5CMCU -WUJCPU 5CVCXCJCPU
QHVJG4QOCPEQKPU9QTMKPIQPINCUUFWTKPIVJKURGTKQFYCU
$%#& CPFVJGTUV6COKNUVCVGUYCUVJGOQUV
GURGEKCNN[KPWGPEGFD[HQTGKIPKFGCUCPFRTCEVKEGU QWTKUJKPI RGTKQF KP VJG JKUVQT[ QH ETCHVU CPF EQOOGTEG
6GEJPQNQIKECN MPQYNGFIG CDQWV VJG YQTM QH KTQP JCF OCFG
ITGCVRTQITGUU%NQVJOCMKPIUKNMYGCXKPICPFVJGOCMKPIQH
Art and Architecture CTOUCPFNWZWT[CTVKENGUCNUQOCFGRTQITGUU
6JGCTVCPFCTEJKVGEVWTGYGTGENQUGN[CUUQEKCVGFYKVJTGNKIKQP 6JGFGXGNQROGPVKPVJGGNFQHETCHVUCPFEQOOGTEGCPFVJG
KPETGCUKPIWUGQHOQPG[RTQOQVGFVJGRTQURGTKV[QHPWOGTQWU
 VQYPUFWTKPIVJKURGTKQF6JGKORQTVCPVVQYPUKPPQTVJ+PFKC
#U VJG UQEKGV[ YCU RTGFQOKPCPVN[ $WFFJKUV VJG DWKNFKPI QH UWEJCU8CKUJCNK2CVCNKRWVTC8CTCPCUK-CWUJCODK5JTCXCUVK
VGORNGU YCU NGCUV FQPG *QYGXGT YG PF OCP[ KORQTVCPV *CUVKPCRWT/CVJWTC+PFTCRTCUVJCCTGCNNOGPVKQPGFKPNKVGTCT[VGZVU
VGORNGUQHVJGRGTKQFUWEJCUCV,JCPFKCN6CZKNC4CLCUVJCP 6CICT
6GT 2CKVJCP&JCP[CMCVCMC#OCTCXCVK0CICTLWPCMQPFC
/CFJ[C2TCFGUJCPF#PFJTC2TCFGUJ6JG5CPMCTUJCPVGORNG $TQCEJ5QRCTC#TKMCOGFW-CXGTKRCVVCPCOYGTGRTQURGTQWU
at Nagari, Apsita temple at 0CICTLWPCMQPFCand the Besnagar VQYPUKPVJG5CVXCJCPCRGTKQFKPYGUVGTPCPFUQWVJ+PFKC
templeCTGYQTVJOGPVKQPKPI
Rock Cut Architecture :#EEQTFKPIVQ$TKVKUJJKUVQTKCP8# Points to remember
5OKVJThe art of polishing hard stone was carried out with x #TVJCUJCUVTC YTKVVGP D[ -CWVKN[C CPF +PFKEC D[
UWEJRGTHGEVKQPVJCVKVKUUCKFVQJCXGDGEQOGCNQUVCTVDG[QPF /GICUVJGPGUCTGVYQKORQTVCPVUQWTEGUQH/CWT[CPJKUVQT[
modern powers.
x /CWT[CP F[PCUV[ YCU HQWPFGF D[ %JCPFTC )WRVC
7FC[CIKTKECXGUCTGVJGOQUVHCOQWU,CKPECXGVGORNGUUKVWCVGFKP /CWT[C YJQ YKVJ VJG JGNR QH %JCPCM[C FGHGCVGF
VJGJKNNUQH-JCPFCIKTKCPF7FC[IKTKCPFDWKNVD[-JCTCXGNCVJG
,CKPTWNGTQH-CNKPIC1WVQHECXGUVJGHQWTOQUVKORQTVCPV 0CPFCUCPFGUVCDNKUJGF/CWT[CPGORKTG
7FC[IKTKECXGUCTGRani Gumpha, Hathi Gumpha, Bag Gumpha x /CWT[CPGORKTGYCUCXCUVGORKTGYJKEJYCUGZVGPFGF
and Machipuri Gumpha. The most important and distinct features VQYGUVGTPCPFPQTVJYGUVGTP+PFKCCPF&GEECP
QHVJG-CNKPIC4QEMEWVCTEJKVGEVWTGKUVJGEQORNGVGCDUGPEGQH x $KPFWUCTC
$% CPF#UJQMC
$% CTG
%JCKV[CUQTCUJTKPGEGNNYKVJCUVWRCKPVJGEGPVTG COQPIHCOQWU/CWT[CP-KPIU
x /CWT[CPGORKTGYGCMGPGFITCFWCNN[CHVGT#UJQMCCPF
 ECOG VQ CP GPF YKVJKP NGUU VJCP JCNH C EGPVWT[ CHVGT
5VWRCUYGTGPQTOCNN[DWKNVVQGPUJTKPGVJGUCETGFTGNKEUQHVJG #UJQMCFGCVJ
$WFFJCQT$QFJKUCVVCXCU6JGTCKNKPIUCPFICVGYC[QH5CPEJK
UVWRC YCU NCVGT GPNCTIGF D[ 5WPIC TWNGTU 1VJGT KORQTVCPV x /CWT[CPCFOKPKUVTCVKQPYCUFKXKFGFKPVQHQWTFKXKUKQP
UVWRCU QH VJG RGTKQF CTG $QFJ )C[C 6CZKNC #OTCXCVK central, provincial, district and village.
0CICTLWPCMQPFCGVE x /CWT[CP CFOKPKUVTCVKQP KPENWFG MKPI 2TCFGUJKMC CPF
4CLWMCU
Schools of Art x /CWT[CPQYPGFCDKICTO[YJKEJEQPUKUVGF
HQQVUQNFKGTUECXCNT[CPFGNGRJCPVU
 x 'URKQPCIG YCU CP KORQTVCPV RCTV QH /CWT[CP
(TQO VJG DGIKPPKPI QH VJG %JTKUVKCP GTC /CVJWTC DGECOG CFOKPKUVTCVKQPCPFYCUQHVYQV[RGU5CPVJCCPF5CPEJCT
CP KORQTVCPV EGPVTG QH CTVKUVKE CEVKXKV[ 6JG XG EGPVWTKGU QH x 1VJGT KORQTVCPV TWNGTU CHVGT VJG /CWT[CU YGTG VJG
KPFKIGPQWU CTV VTCFKVKQPU YGTG RTGUGTXGF CPF KORTQXGF WRQP
D[ VJG /CVJWTC UEWNRVQTU #TVKUV CV /CVJWTC WUGF C RWTGN[ 5WPICU
$% VJU*WPCUVJGMCPXCUVJG%JGVCU
KPFKIGPQWUUV[NG6JG[WUGFURQVVGFTGFUCPFUVQPG#RCTVHTQO the Satvahanas.
$WFFJKUO VJG CTVKUVU CNUQ OCFG UVCVWGU QH *KPFW CPF ,CKP x /CP[KPXCFGTUHTQOEGPVTCN#UKCCNUQTWNGF+PFKCVJG
FGKVKGU6JGKOCIGURTQFWEGFCV/CVJWTCDGECOGOQFGNUHQT +PFQ)TGGM
$% VJG5CMC
$%UV#& 6JG
succeeding generations of artists. 2CTVJKCPU
#& VJG-WUJCPCU
$%#&
x 6JGTGJCUDGGPCEQPUKFGTCDNGKORCEVQHEGPVTG#UKCP

 EQPVCEVKPXCTKQWUGNFUGSRQVVGT[VTCFGVGEJPQNQI[
$GUKFGU /CVJWTC CTVU CP KORQTVCPV CTV YCU CUUQEKCVGF YKVJ RQNKV[CTVTGNKIKQPRCKPVKPICTEJKVGEVWTGGVE
The Mauryan Empire H-81


Exercise -
-WOCTC)WRVC+YCUUWEEGFGFD[
1 
C  6JGTUVUGTOQPRTGCEJGFD[VJG$WFFJCCVVJG&GGT

C  %JCPFTCIWRVC++
D  $WFJCIWRVC 2CTMCV5CTPCVJ

E  5COWPFTCIWRVC
F  5MCPFCIWRVC 
D  6JGRTCEVKEGQHUGVVKPIVJGYJGGNNKPOQVKQPGXGT[FC[
 (QT VJG TUV VKOG KP +PFKCP *KUVQT[ VJG FGUETKRVKQP QH in the morning in the sanghas
VJG5VCVG#FOKPKUVTCVKQPYCUHQWPFHQTYJKEJCOQPIVJG 
E  6JGGZVKPEVKQPQHMCTOCNGCFKPIVQVJGCEJKGXGOGPV
HQNNQYKPIRGTKQFU! of nirvana

C  )WRVC2GTKQF
D  /CWT[C2GTKQF 
F  6JGEQPVKPWQWUGZKUVGPEGQHJWOCPDGKPIUNKMGVJG
(c) Shunga Period (d) Saatvahana Period YJGGNQHECWUGUCPFGHHGEVU
 9JCV YCU VJG HWPEVKQP QH 5COCJCTVC KP /CWT[CP  6JGTGKIPQHVJG-WUJCPCOQPCTEJ-CPKUJMCYCUCVWTPKPI
#FOKPKUVTCVKQP! RQKPVKPVJGJKUVQT[QH$WFFJKUODGECWUG

C  6Q%QNNGEV4GXGPWG 
C  +VYKVPGUUGFVJGTKUGQH/CJC[CPKUO

D  6Q9QTMCUC,WFIG 
D  $WFFJKUOYCUKPVTQFWEGFKP%JKPCCPF%GPVTCN#UKC

E  .GCFGTUJKRQH#TO[ in his time

F  &GNKXGTKPI,WUVKEG 
E  $QVJ
C CPF
D
 9JKEJ COQPI VJG HQNNQYKPI YCU VJG TUV KPXGUVKICVGF 
F  6JGKOCIGUQH$WFFJCCPF$QFJKUCVVXCUDGICPVQDG
RKNNCTQH#UJMQC! carved out during this period

C  &GNJK/GGTWV2KNNCT
D  $CTCDCTECXG  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVQPGQHVJGEQOOQPRQKPVU

E  &JCWNK
F  5CTPCVJ QHUKIPKECPEGQHDQVJ4CLCITKJCCPF8CKUJCNK!
 2WUJ[COKVTC 5JWPIC YJQ YCU QTKIKPCNN[ C 5GPCRCVK QH 
C  $QVJRNCEGUCTGCUUQEKCVGFYKVJVJGOKTCENGURTGHQTOGF
VJG /CWT[CP GORKTG CPF CUUCUUKPCVGF VJG NCUV /CWT[CP D[VJG$WFFJC
'ORGTQT$TKJCFTCVJKP$%YCUCAAAA 
D  #VDQVJRNCEGUQPGQHVJG$WFFJKUVEQWPEKNUYCUJGNF

C  $TCJCOCP
D  -UJCVTK[C 
E  #V DQVJ RNCEGU C UVWRC YCU DWKNV YKVJ VJG OQTVCN

E  8CKUJ[C
F  5JWFTC TGOCKPUQHVJG$WFFJCGPUJTKPGFKPVJGO
 6JGTGKUQPN[QPGGFKEVKPYJKEJ#UJQMCTGHGTUJKOUGNH 
F  $QVJRNCEGUYGTGKORQTVCPVEGPVTGUQH$WFFJKUVCTV
CU-KPIQH/CICFJC
.CLC/CICFJG +FGPVKH[VJGGFKEV  6JGOCLQTKV[QHVJG$WFFJKUVXCUGUKP+PFKCCTGHQWPFKP
HTQOVJGHQNNQYKPI 9GUVGTP/CJCTCUJVTCDGECWUG

C  /KPQT4QEM'FKEVQH/CUMK 
C  6JG5CJ[CFTKOQWPVCKPKPYGUVGTP/CJCTCUJVTCYKVJ

D  6JG3WGGPU'FKEV KVUJCTFVTCRYCUDGUVUWKVGFHQTTQEMEWVCTEJKVGEVWTG

E  $JCDJTW'FKEV 
D  6JGTGYCUCNQPIUVCPFKPIVTCFKVKQPKPVJKUTGIKQPQH

F  &JCWNK2KNNCT+PUETKRVKQP TQ[CNRCVTQPCIGVQTQEMEWVCTEJKVGEVWTG
 #V YJKEJ COQPI VJG HQNNQYKPI RNCEGU %JCPFTCIWRVC 
E  6JGECXGUKPVJKUTGIKQPRTQXKFGFCUCHGUCPEVWCT[
/CWT[CURGPVJKUNCUVFC[U! CYC[HTQOHQTGKIPKPXCFGTU

C  0CNCPFC
D  7LLCKP 
F  /CP[QHVJGTQ[CNF[PCUVKGUQH9GUVGTP+PFKCYGTG

E  5JTCXCPC$GNIQNC
F  -CUJK RCVTQPUQH$WFFJKUO
 %G[NQP DGECOG C UVTQPIJQNF QH YJKEJ COQPI VJG  6JG#NNCJCDCF2KNNCTKPUETKRVKQPKUCUUQEKCVGFYKVJYJKEJ
HQNNQYKPIDTCPEJGUQH$WFFJKUO! QPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPI!

C  /CJC[CP
D  *KPC[CP 
C  /CJCRCFOC0CPFC
D  %JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[C

E  /CJGPFTC
F  6JGTCXCFC 
E  #UJQMC
F  5COWFTCIWRVC
 #UJXCIJQUJC YJQ JCU YTKVVGP VJG OCTXGNQWU YQTM  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUVJGEQTTGEVEJTQPQNQIKECN
$WFFJCEJCTKVC YCU C EQWTV RQGV QH YJKEJ COQPI VJG order of the given rulers of ancient India?
HQNNQYKPIMKPIU! 
C  #UJQMC-CPKUJMC/KNKPFC

C  #UJQMC
D  -CPKUJMC 
D  /KNKPFC#UJQMC-CPKUJMC

E  5COWFTCIWRVC
F  #LCVUJCVTW 
E  #UJQMC/KNKPFC-CPKUJMC
 9JQCOQPIVJGHQNNQYKPIMKPIUYCUCEQPVGORQTCT[QH 
F  /KNKPFC-CPKUJMC#UJQMC
DQVJ/CJCXKTCCPF$WFFJC!  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPINCPIWCIGUYCUWUGFKP#UJQMCU

C  #LCVUJCVTW
D  0CPFKXCTFJCPC Edicts?

E  $KODKUCTC
F  #UJQMC 
C  8CUWFGXC
D  2CNK
 6JGHQNNQYGTUQHYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUGEVUYQTUJKRRGF 
E  $TCJOK
F  5CPUMTKV
VJG#UJQMC6TGGCU)QFCPFECTTKGFKPVJGKTJCPFUCDWPEJ  #HVGTVJG-CNKPICYCT#UJQMC
QHRGCEQEMHGCVJGTU! 
C  TGUVQTGFCNNVJGMKPIFQOUJGJCFEQPSWGTGF

D  CDCPFQPGFVJGRQNKE[QHRJ[UKECNEQPSWGUVUKPHCXQWT

C  5JCMVC
D  2CUJWRCVC
of cultural conquests.

E  #LKXKMC
F  &KICODCT,CKP

E  TGPQWPEGFJKUMKPIFQOCPFDGECOGCUCFJW
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUMPQYPCUVJG6WTPKPIQHVJG 
F  HQNNQYGF VJG RQNKE[ QH RJ[UKECN QEEWRCVKQP OQTG
9JGGNQH.CY
&JCTOC%JCMTCRTCXCTVCPC ! TKIQTQWUN[
H-82 The Mauryan Empire

 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI OGVCNU YGTG OQUVN[ WUGF  HQT 
E  6CMKPIVJGFGCFDQFKGUHQTETGOCVKQPQTDWTKCNCNQPI
OKPVKPIEQKPUFWTKPIVJG/CWT[CPRGTKQF! paths not meant for the purpose

C  $TQP\GCPFIQNF
D  )QNFCPFNGCF 
F  6TGCVKPIRCVKGPVUCPFUGNNKPIJGTDUCPFFTWIUYKVJQWV

E  5KNXGTCPFEQRRGT
F  .GCFCPFUKNXGT securing registration
 4KPIYGNNUCTGKFGPVKGFHQTVJGTUVVKOGKP!  9JQ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI QHHKEGTU YGTG EJCTIGF YKVJ

C  .CVGT8GFKECIG
D  2TGOCWT[CPCIG UWRGTKPVGPFGPEGQHYQOGP!

E  /CWT[CPRGTKQF
F  2QUV/CWT[CP 
C  &JCOOCOCJCOCVVCU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIDQQMUUGTXGUCUCUQWTEGHQTVJG 
D  +VJKLJCMJCOCJCOCVVCU
/CWT[CPRGTKQF! 
E  #PVCOCJCOCVVCU

C  *KUVQTKEC
D  +PFKEC 
F  #PVCJRWTCFJ[CMUJCU

E  5WVVCRKVCMC
F  ,CKP2WTXCU  1PG QH VJG HQNNQYKPI /CWT[CP RTQXKPEGU YJKEJ JCF C
 6JG IQXGTPQT WPFGT %JCPFTCIWRVC /CWT[C YJQ HQTGKIP
;CXCPC)TGGM )QXGTPQTYCU
EQPUVTWEVGFVJG5WFCTUJCPC.CMGKU! 
C  5QWVJGTPRTQXKPEG5WXCTPIKTK

C  2CTPCFCVVC
D  6WUCURC 
D  'CUVGTPRTQXKPEG6QUCNK

E  2WUJCIWRVC
F  %JCMTCRCNKVC

E  9GUVGTPRTQXKPEG7LLCKP
 9JQ RCVTQPK\GF VJG VJKTF $WFFJKUV EQWPEKN JGNF CV

F  5CWTCUJVTC,WPCICTJ
Pataliputra?
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU CDQWV VJG QHEGTU

C  -CPKUJMC
D  #UJQMC
FGUKIPCVGF CU OCJCOCVVCU KP /CWT[CP CFOKPUVTCVKQP KU

E  -CNCUQMC
F  #LCVCUJCVTW
 6JG OQUV KPHQTOCVKXG UQWTEG CDQWV /CWT[CP correct?
administration is? 
C  6JGUGQHEGTUYGTGEJCTIGFYKVJVJGTGURQPUKDKNKV[

C  +PFKEC
D  #TVJCUJCUVTC QHRTQRCICVKPI$WFFJKUO

E  #UJQMCP+PUETKRVKQPU
F  $WFFJKUV%JTQPKENGU 
D  6JG[YGTGCRRQKPVGFCUXKEGTQ[UQHXCTKQWURTQXKPEGU
 6JG /CWT[CP UVCVG JCF OQPQRQN[ QXGT YJKEJ QH VJG 
E  6JGVGTOYCUWUGFHQTCP[UGPKQTQHEKCNKTTGURGEVKXG
HQNNQYKPIUGEVQTU! of the duties assigned to him

C  /KPKPICPF/GVCNNWTI[ 
F  +VKUC2TCMTKVGZRTGUUKQPHQTVJG5CPUMTKVYQTFCOCV[C

D  %QKPUCPFEWTTGPE[  (QWT OCLQT RTQXKPEGU QH VJG /CWT[CP GORKTG YGTG VJG

E  #TOCOGPVUCPFUJKRDWKNFKPI 0QTVJGTP'CUVGTP9GUVGTPCPF5QWVJGTPRTQXKPEGUGCEJ

F  #NNVJGCDQXG WPFGTVJGXKEGTQ[CNV[QHCRTKPEGQTCOGODGTQHVJGTQ[CN
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI F[PCUVKGU JCF C TQNG KP VJG HCOKN[9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIRTQXKPEKCNECRKVCNUQHVJG
construction and maintenance of the Sanchi Stupa? /CWT[CPGORKTGYCUVJGECRKVCNQHVJG0QTVJGTPRTQXKPEG!

C  /CWT[CU
D  5WPICU (a) Suvarnagiri
D  6QUCNK

E  -CPXCU
F  5CVCXCJCPCU 
E  7LLCKP
F  6CZKNC
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIRCKTUKUEQTTGEVN[OCVEJGF!  (TQO YJKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI OQPVJU FKF VJG /CWT[CP

C  ,CVCMCU/CWT[CPEJTQPQNQI[CPFIGPGCNQI[ UECN[GCTWUGVQDGIKP!

D  2WTCPCU  #UJQMCU GHHQTVU VQ URTGCF $WFFJKUO VQ

C  2JCNIWP
/CTEJ
5TK.CPMC

D  #UCFJC
,WN[

E  &KRCXCOUC  5QEKQGEQPQOKE EQPFKVKQPU QH VJG
/CWT[CPRGTKQF 
E  ,[GUVJC
,WPG

F  &KIJC PKMC[C  +PWGPEG QH $WFFJKUV KFGCU QP 
F  2CWUC/CIJC
,CPWCT[(GDTWCT[
/CWT[CPRQNKV[  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGEJGEMUQPVJG
 6JGNQYGUVQTFGTKPVJGUQEKCNUECNGQH/CWT[CPUQEKGV[ RQYGTUQHVJG/CWT[CPMKngs?
YCUPQVCUNCXGDWVVJGQWVECUVG9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPI 
C  %WUVQOUQHVJGNCPF 
D  )WKNFU
UVCVGOGPVUCDQWVVJGQWVECUVGUKUPQVEQTTGEV! 
E  $TCJOKPU  
F  /CPVTKRCTKUJCF

C  6JGKTECUVGPCOGUTGHGTTGFFKTGEVN[VQVJGKTRTQHGUUKQP  9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI YQWNF DG VJG OQUV CEEWTCVG
QTYQTM
FGUETKRVKQPQHVJG/CWT[CPOQPCTEJ[WPFGT#UJQMC!

D  6JG[CEEGRVGFVJGRQUKVKQPQHUQEKCNQUVTCEKUO

E  6JG[ NKXGF VQIGVJGT YKVJ VJGKT HCOKNKGU QWVUKFG VJG (a) Enlightened despotism
VQYPU 
D  %GPVTCNKUGFCWVQETCE[

F  6JG[YGTGPQVCNNQYGFVQRGTHQTOCP[TKVWCNU (c) Paternal despotism
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVCUVCVGOQPQRQN[FWTKPI 
F  )WKFGFFGOQETCE[
VJG/CWT[CPRGTKQF!  9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU CDQWV VJG /CWT[CP

C  /KPGUCPFHQTGUVU MKPIUKUPQVEQTTGEV!

D  2GCTNCPFUJGTKGU
(a) 6JG[ JCF GZVGPUKXG RQYGTU GPEQORCUUKPI

E  (GTTKGUCPFDTKFIGU

F  5NCWIJVGTJQWUGUCPFICODNKPIJQWUGU CFOKPKUVTCVKXGLWFKEKCNCPFlegislative functions
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIRWDNKEJGCNVJOGCUWTGUYCUPQV 
D  6JG[NCKFENCKOVQFKXKPKV[
RWPKUJCDNGWPFGTVJG/CWT[CPRWDNKEJGCNVJNCYU! 
E  #RRQKPVOGPVU VQ VJG OQUV KORQTVCPV QHEGU YGTG

C  6JTQYKPI FKTV OWF QT FGCF DQFKGU QP RWDNKE OCFGD[VJGTWNGT himself
thoroughfares 
F  6JGMKPIUQHVGPNCKFFQYPEQFGUQHTGIWNCVKQPHQTVJG

D  2QNNWVKPIVJGYCVGTVCPMUQTUQWTEGUQHYCVGT IWKFCPEGQHVJGKTQHEGTUCPFVJGRGQRNG
The Mauryan Empire H-83

 2WUJ[COKVTC 5WPIC YJQ MKNNGF VJG NCUV /CWT[CP TWNGT  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUWRRQUGFECWUGUQHFGENKPGCPF
$TKJCFTCVJCCPFHQWPFGFVJG5WPICF[PCUV[YCUC FKUKPVGITCVKQPQHVJG/CWT[CP'ORKTGKUVJGNGCUVNKMGN[!

C  2TKOG/KPKUVGTQHVJG/CWT[CU 
C  5WEEGUUKQP QH YGCM MKPIU CHVGT #UJQMC CPF VJG

D  )GPGTCNQHVJG/CWT[CU RCTVKVKQPQHVJGGORKTGCHVGT#UJQMC

E  $QVJ
C CPF
D CDQXG 
D  /KNKVCT[ KPCEVKXKV[ QP CEEQWPV QH #UJQMCU RCEKUV

F  (GWFCVQT[TWNGT policies
 6JGQHEGTQHVJG%GPVTCN)QXGTPOGPVYJQYCUKPEJCTIG 
E  $TCJOCPKECNTGXQNVCICKPUVVJGRTQ$WFFJKUVRQNKE[
QHEQNNGEVKQPQHTGXGPWGYCU QH#UJQMC

C  #FJ[CMUJCQT5WRGTKPVGPFGPVQH&GRCTVOGPVU 
F  #DUGPEGQHPCVKQPCNEQPUEKQWUPGUUCPFTGRTGUGPVCVKVKXG

D  5CPPKFJCVCQT*KIJ6TGCUWTGT institutions

E  5COCJCTVCQT%QNNGEVQT)GPGTCN  9JQ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI FGFKECVGF VJG ECXGU KP 0CICTLWPK

F  -CTOKMCQT%NGTM *KNNUVQVJG#LKXKMCU!
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU CDQWV VJG /CWT[CP 
C  -WPCNC
D  &CUJCTCVJC
%QWPEKNQH/KPKUVGTU
OCPVTKRCTKUJCF KUPQVEQTTGEV! (c) Samprati (d) Indrapalit

C  6JGOGODGTUQHVJGEQWPEKNYGTGRGTUQPCNN[UGNGEVGF  *QYNQPIFKFVJGGPVKTG/CWT[CPF[PCUV[NCUVCEEQTFKPI
D[VJGMKPI to the Puranas?

D  6JGPWODGTQHOGODGTUQHVJGEQWPEKNYCUZGFCPF 
C  [GCTU
D  [GCTU
KVEQPUKUVGFQHVJTGGEQWPEKNNQTUCPFC%JKGH/KPKUVGT 
E  [GCTU
F  [GCTU

E  +VYCUURGEKCNN[EQPUWNVGFKPVKOGUQHGOGTIGPE[
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUCOGCUWTGCFQRVGFD[VJGNCVGT

F  +VOC[JCXGCEVGFCUCRQNKVKECNEJGEMQPVJGMKPI
/CWT[CUVQOGGVVJGPGGFUQHCFGRNGVGFVTGCUWT[!
 9JQQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGNCVGT/CWT[CU
(a) Increase in taxes
YJQUWEEGGFGF#UJQMC!

D  +ORQUKVKQPQHPGYVCZGU

C  &CUJCTCVJC
D  5CORTCVK

E  FGDCUGOGPVQHEWTTGPE[

E  5JCNKUJWMC
F  5JWDJCICUGPC
(d) Increase of exports
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQH*GNNGPKEMKPIUVQ
YJQOFKRNQOCVKEOKUUKQPUYGTGUGPVD[#UJQMC!  #EEQTFKPIVQYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUQWTEGUKU#UJQMC

C  :GTZGUQH/CEGFQPKC UCKFVQJCXGDWKNVVJGEKV[QH5TKPCICT!

D  #PVKQEJWU++6JGQUQH5[TKC 
C  $WFFJKUVVTCFKVKQP
D  ,CKPVTCFKVKQP

E  2VQNGO[++2JKNCFGNRJQUQH'I[RV 
E  6KDGVCPVTCFKVKQP
F  -CNJCPCU4CLCVCTCPIKPK

F  #PVKIQPWU)QPCVCUQH/CEGFQPKC  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGUQH+PFKCFKFPQVHQTORCTV
 6JGOQUVUVTKMKPIGZCORNGQHVJGCTEJKVGEVWTCNENQUGPGUU QHVJG/CWT[CPGORKTG!
DGVYGGP#EJCGOGPKF+TCPCPF/CWT[CP+PFKCYCU 
C  -GTCNC

C  6JGUVQPGGNGRJCPVCV&JCWNK 
D  6COKN0CFW

D  6JGNKQPECRKVCNCV5CTPCVJ 
E  $QVJ
C CPF
D CDQXG

E  6JGTQ[CNRCNCEGCV2CVCNKRWVTC 
F  -CUJOKT

F  6GTTCEQVVCQDLGEVUHQWPFCVXCTKQWU/CWT[CPUKVGU  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGTGCUQPUYJ[
 6QYCTFUJGCNVJECTGVJGOQUVKORQTVCPVOGCUWTGUVCMGP VJG EQPSWGUV QH -CNKPIC YCU QH UVTCVGIKE CPF GEQPQOKE
D[#UJQMCYCUYGTG KORQTVCPEGVQVJG/CWT[CPGORKTG!

C  *G QRGPGF FKURGPUCTKGU HQT VJG VTGCVOGPV QH DQVJ 
C  +VUVQQFKPVJGYC[QHVJGUQWVJGTPTQWVGUHTQOVJG
JWOCPDGKPIUCPFCPKOCNU )CPIGUXCNNG[

D  *G IQV VJG JGTDU CPF RNCPVU PGGFGF HQT OGFKECN 
D  +VYCUCNUQCRQYGTHWNOCTKVKOGUVCVGCPFVJGTGHQTG
purposes, cultivated a convenient source of income

E  $QVJ
C CPF
D CDQXG 
E  +VU TKEJ CPF HGTVKNG NCPF EQWNF EQPVTKDWVG VQ VJG

F  *GOCFGCTTCPIGOGPVUHQTUCHGFTKPMKPIYCVGTKPVJG GEQPQOKERTQURGTKV[QHVJGGORKTG
YJQNGQHJKUGORKTG 
F  +VRTQXKFGFEQPIKIWKV[VQVJG/CWT[CPVGTTKVQTKGUQH
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI YCU PQV QPG QH VJG TGCUQPU HQT #PFJTCCPF$GPICN
ITCFWCNYGCMGPKPIQHVJG/CWT[CPPCPEGU!  #EEQTFKPIVQYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUQWTEGUFKF#UJQMC

C  0GGFHQTXCUVTGXGPWGUVQOCKPVCKPCJWIGDWVKPCEVKXG KPJKUQNFCIGCDFKECVGVJGVJTQPGKPHCXQWTQHJKUITCPFUQP
CTO[ Samprati?

D  0GGFHQTPCPEGUVQOCKPVCKPCXGT[NCTIGDWTGCWETCE[ 
C  #UJQMCXCFCPC
D  &KX[CXCFCPC

E  7PHCXQWTCDNGDCNCPEGQHVTCFGYKVJHQTGKIPEQWPVTKGU 
E  /CJCXCOUC
F  )CTIK5COJKVC

F  6JGUVTCKPQPVJGGZEJGSWGTQH#UJQMCUEJCTKVCDNG  9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI KU PQV QPG QH VJG UQWTEGU HQT
RWDNKEYQTMs FGVGTOKPKPIVJGIGQITCRJKECNGZVGPVQHVJG/CWT[CPGORKTG
 9JQ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI YCU VJG NCUV QH VJG /CWT[CU FWTKPIVJGTGKIPQH#UJQMC!
CUUCUUKPCVGFD[JKUEQOOCPFGTKPEJKGH2WUJ[COKVTCVJG 
C  6JGFKUVTKDWVKQPQHJKUTQEMCPFRKNNCTGFKEVU
HQWPFGTQHVJG5JWPICF[PCUV[! 
D  6JGEQPVGPVs of his inscriptions

C  5CORTCVK
D  &GXCXCTOCP 
E  6JGNKVGTCT[CPFTGNKIKQWUVTCFKVKQPU

E  5JCVCFJCPXCP
F  $TKJCFTCVJC (d) Numismatic evidence
H-84 The Mauryan Empire

 6JG/CWT[CPMKPIYJQKUUWGFVJG0CICTLWPK*KNN%CXG  9JCVYCUVJGUWDLGEVQH4QEM'FKEV+KUUWGFD[#UJQMC!


Inscriptions and aUUWOGFVJGTQ[CNVKVNGQH&GXCPCORTK[C (a) 2TQJKDKVKQPQHCPKOCNUCETKEGCPFHGUVKXGOGGVKPIU
YCU
UCOCLC

C  #UJQMC
D  &CUJCTCVJC 
D  /GCUWTGUQHUQEKCNYGNHCTGWPFGTVCMGPHQTVJGDGPGV

E  $KPFWUCTC
F  $TKJCFTCVJC of the people
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUVJGEQPVTKDWVKQPQHVJG/CWT[CU 
E  .KDGTCNKV[VQ$TCJOKPUCPF5TCOCPCU
to the Tamil culture? 
F  8KUKVVQ$QFJ)C[C

C  $TCJOKUETKRV  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVVJGTGUWNVQHVJG-CNKPIC

D  #TVQHGPITCXKPIUVQPGKPUETKRVKQPU 9CT!

E  2TCMTKVNCPIWCIG 
C  6JG PWODGT QH ECUWCNVKGU QH EQODCVCPVU CPF PQP

F  6JGCTVQHUVQPGEWVVKPICPFUEWNRVWTG EQODCVCPVUKUUVCVGFVQJCXGDGGPCTQWPFHQWTNCMJU

D  6JG ETWGN EQPUGSWGPEGU QH YCT TGXQNWVKQPK\GF VJG
 1PYJCVDCUKUKUKVJGNFVJCVQPVJGGCUVVJGRTQXKPEGQH
RGTUQPCNKV[CPFRWDNKERQNKEKGUQH#UJQMC
8CPIC
RCTVQHOQFGTP$GPICN HQTOGFRCTVQHVJG/CWT[CP

E  *GYCIGUPQYCTUCHVGTVJG-CNKPIC9CT
empire?

F  6JGUVTGPIVJQHVJG/CWT[CPCTO[YCUEWTVCKNGF

C  &KUEQXGT[QH#UJQMCPGFKEVUKPVJKURCTVQH$GPICN
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUCDQWVVJGEQPXGTUKQPQH

D  6COTCNKRVKVJGRTKPEKRCNRQTVQHVJGCTGCYCUQPG
#UJQMCVQ$WFFJKUOKUIGPGTCNN[DGNKGXGFVQDGEQTTGEV!
of the most important maritime centres during the 
C  +VVQQMRNCEGCUCFTCOCVKEGXGPVUQQPCHVGTVJG-CNKPIC
/CWT[CPRGTKQF 9CT

E  /GICUVJGPGU +PFKEC OGPVKQPU %JCPFTCIWRVCU 
D  #UJQMCYCUPGXGTEQPXGTVGFVQ$WFFJKUOJGQPN[
conquest of the region DQTTQYGFUQOGKHKVUKFGCUVQRTQRQWPFJKUFQEVTKPG

F  $WFFJKUVVTCFKVKQPUCUUQEKCVG#UJQMCYKVJRTQRCICVKQP of dhamma
QH$WFFJKUOKP$GPICN 
E  *KUEQPXGTUKQPVQ$WFFJKUOYCUCITCFWCNRTQEGUU
 9JKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI UVCVGOGPVU CDQWV VJG /CWT[CP 
F  *GDGECOGCEQPXGTVVQ$WFFJKUOWPFGTVJGKPWGPEG
TGNCVKQPUYKVJ5TK.CPMCKUPQVEQTTGEV! QH7RCIWRVC

C  6JG EQOKPI QH /CJGPFTC CPF 5CPIJOKVTC VQ 5TK  1PGQHVJGUVTQPIGUVCTIWOGPVUKPUWRRQTVQHVJGXKGYVJCV
.CPMCYCUVJG(KTUVQHEKCNEQPVCEVDGVYGGPVJGVYQ #UJQMCUFJCOOCYCUPQVCTGNKIKQWURQNKE[DWVCUGEWNCT
countries EQPEGRVKUVJG

D  6JG MKPI QH 5TK .CPMC 6KUUC CFQRVGF VJG VKVNG QH 
C  #RRQKPVOGPVQHFJCOOCOCJCOCVVCU
&GXCPCORKT[CCPFCRRGCTUVQJCXGOQFGNNGFJKOUGNH 
D  'ORJCUKUNCKFD[JKOQPTGURGEVHQTVJGGNFGTU
QP#UJQMC 
E  5VTGUUNCKFQPVJGKORQTVCPEGQHVJGHCOKN[

E  6JGTGYGTGHTGSWGPVGZEJCPIGUQHIKHVUCPFGPXQ[U 
F  5VTGUUQPVJGOCKPVGPCPEGQHEQPEQTFYKVJCNNUGEVU

F  6KUCU VJG 5KPJCNGUG MKPI CEEGRVGF $WFFJKUO CPF  6JGFJCOOCOCJCOCVVCU
FJCTOCOCJCOCVTCU CRRQKPVGF
appears to have made it the state religion D[#UJQMCYGTGGPVTWUVGFYKVJVJGLQDQH
 4QEM 'FKEV :+++
CNUQ MPQYP CU 5GRCTCVG 4QEM 'FKEV 
C  %JGEMKPIVJGCDWUGUKPVJGCFOKPKUVTCVKQPQHLWUVKEG
DGECWUGKVKUPQVHQWPFGNUGYJGTG KUTGICTFGFCUQPGQHVJG 
D  6JGOQTCNWRNKHVQHVJGRGQRNGVJTQWIJRTQRCICVKQP
of dhamma
OQUVKORQTVCPVFQEWOGPVUQH#UJQMCPJKUVQT[DGECWUG

E  /CPCIGOGPVQHVJGYGNHCTGCEVKXKVKGUQHVJGUVCVG
(a) It expresses his regret and remorse at the suffering

F  #NNVJGCDQXG
ECWUGFD[VJG-CNKPIC9CT  9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGTGCUQPUHQTVJG

D  +VGZRTGUUGUCPGYKFGCQHEQPSWGUVVJCVQHFJCOOC failure of dhamma?
XKLC[CKPUVGCFQHXKEVQT[D[YCTCPFXKQNGPEG 
C  #UJQMCUGZEGUUKXGGPVJWUKCUORTQFWEGFCTGCEVKQP

E  +VKUVJGNQPIGUVQHVJGHQWTVGGPOCLQT4QEM'FKEVU against it
and is recorded in a tone of recapitulation 
D  +VHCKNGFVQRTQXKFGCUQNWVKQPVQVJGRTQDNGOUYJKEJ

F  #NNVJGCDQXG it set out to solve
 +PYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPI/CLQT4QEM'FKEVUFQGU#UJQMC 
E  +VYCUVQQXCIWGCUQNWVKQPDGECWUGVJGRTQDNGOUNC[
KPVTQFWEGVJGKPUVKVWVKQPQHFJCOOCOCJCOCVVCHQTVJGTUV CVVJGXGT[TQQVUQHVJGU[UVGO
time? 
F  +VYCUVQQKFGCNKUVKECEQPEGRVYJKEJEQWNFPQVDTGCM

C  4QEM'FKEV++
D  4QEM'FKEV+++ VJGUQEKCNCPFUGEVCTKCPDCTTKGTU

E  4QEM'FKEV+8
F  4QEM'FKEV8  #UJQMCJKOUGNHEQPUKFGTGFJKURQNKE[QHFJCOOCCU
 9JKEJGFKEVQH#UJQMCEQPVCKPUVJGHCOQWURTQPQWPEGOGPV 
C  6JGGUUGPEGQHQTKIKPCN$WFFJKUOCURTGCEJGFD[VJG
CVCNNVKOGUYJGVJGT+COGCVKPIQT+COKPVJGYQOGPU $WFFJC
CRCTVOGPVUQTKPO[KPPGTCRCTVOGPVUQTCVVJGECVVNGUJGF 
D  #YC[QHNKHGYJKEJYCUDQVJRTCEVKECNCPFEQPXGPKGPV
QT KP O[ ECTTKCIG QT KP O[ ICTFGPUYJGTGXGT + OC[ CUYGNNCUJKIJN[OQTCN
DGO[OCJCOCVVCUJQWNFMGGROGKPVQWEJYKVJRWDNKE 
E  6JGKFGCNQHXKTVWQWUNKHGDCUGFQPOQTCNVGCEJKPIU
DWUKPGUU! of various thiPMGTU

C  4QEM'FKEV++
D  4QEM'FKEV+8 (d) The essence of all religions or the common religion

E  4QEM'FKEV8+
F  4QEM'FKEV8+++ QHOCPMKPF
The Mauryan Empire H-85

 +P UQEKCN OCVVGTU #UJQMCU OQUV TGXQNWVKQPCT[ EQPEGRV 


C  *GGTGEVGFCEQOOGOQTCVKXGRKNNCTCVVJGRNCEGYJGTG
YCU VJG$WFFJCYCUUCKFVQJCXGDGGPDQTP

C  2TQRGTDGJCXKQTVQUNCXGUUGTXCPVUGNFGTUGVE 
D  .WODKPKYCUOCFGHTGGQHTGNKIKQWUEGUUCPFTGXGPWG

D  *KU QRRQUKVKQP VQ YCUVGHWN UQEKCN TKVWCNU CPF YCUTGFWEGFVQQPN[QPGGKIJVJUJCTG
QHVJGRTQFWEG
EGTGOQPKGUCVOCTTKCIGUDKTVJULQWTPG[UGVE 
E  *GIQVVJQWUCPFUQHFKUUGPVGTOQPMUGZRGNNGFHTQO
(c) His opposition to social entertainments, such as the VJG#UJQMCTCOCOQPCUVGT[
UCOCLCU 
F  *G VQQMC C ITGCV FGCN QH RGTUQPCN KPVGTGUV KP VJG

F  #NNVJGCDQXG YGNHCTGQHVJGOQPMUCPFVJGPWPU
 6QRTQOQVGEQOOWPCNJCTOQP[#UJQMCCUMGFVJGRGQRNG  6JGHCOKN[OGODGTQH#UJQMCOGPVKQPGFKPJKUGFKEVU
(a) To attend to the essential elements of their religions KU
TCVJGTVJCPVJGPQPGUUGPVKCNQPGU 
C  *KUUGEQPFYKHG-CTWXCMK

D  0QVVQINQTKH[VJGKTQYPUGEVCPFDGNKVVNGCPQVJGTUUGEV 
D  *KUUQP6KXCTC

E  6QOCKPVCKPEQPEQTF
UCOXC[C YKVJCNNETGGFU 
E  *KUYKHG#UCPFJCOKVTC

F  #NNVJGCDQXG (d) His daughter Sanghamitra
 6JGGFKEVUQH#UJQMCYJKEJTGXGCNJKUKPPGTUQTTQYQP  6JG OCLQT EQPVTKDWVKQP QH VJG 6JKTF $WFFJKUV %QWPEKN
CEEQWPVQHYCTCPFXKQNGPEGCTG EQPXGPGFD[#UJQMCYCU

C  &JCWNKCPF,CWICFC 
C  +VRWTIGFVJG$WFFJKUVUCPIJCQHKVUFKUUGPVGTU

D  5JCJDC\ICTJKCPF5QRCTC 
D  #VVJKUEQPHGTGPEGMCVJCXCVVJWYCUEQORKNGFD[KVU

E  /CUMKCPF$JCDTC 2TGUKFGPV/QIICNKRWVVC6KUUC

E  +VFGEKFGFVQFKURCVEJ$WFFJKUVOKUUKQPUVQXCTKQWU

F  /CPUGJTCCPF)KTPCT
parts of India and foreign countries
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIYCUPQVQPGQHVJGEQPVTKDWVKQPU

F  #NNVJGCDQXG
QH#UJQMCVQ+PFKCRQNKV[CPFEWNVWTG!
 +P YJKEJ QH VJG HQNNQYKPI GFKEVU FKF #UJQMC QTFGT VJCV

C  2QNKVKECNCPFEWNVWTCNWPKECVKQPQHVJGEQWPVT[
YJQUQGXGT OQPM QT PWP DTGCMU WR VJG 5CPIJC CHVGT

D  4GNKIKQWU VQNGTCVKQP CPF RTQOQVKQP QH EQOOWPCN
DGKPIENQVJGFKPYJKVGICTOGPVUUJCNNVCMGWRCDQFGKPC
JCTOQP[
RNCEGQVJGTVJCPCOQPCUVGT[!

E  # PQPCITGUUKXG HQTGKIP RQNKE[ DCUGF QP GSWCNKV[

C  5CTPCVJ'FKEV
D  -CWUCODK'FKEV
DGVYGGPVJGDKICPFUOCNNUVCVGU
(c) Sanchi Edict (d) The Queens Edict

F  4GHQTOKPETKOKPCNLWUVKEGCPFTGXQNWVKQPCT[EJCPIGU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPICFOKPKUVTCVKXGOGCUWTGUYCUPQV
KPVJGUQEKCNU[UVGO
WPFGTVCMGPD[#UJQMC!
 +PURKVGQHJKUEQPXGTUKQPVQ$WFFJKUOCPFVJGEQPEGRVQH

C  6JGOQPCTEJUVCTVGFVJGRTCEVKEGQHTQ[CNVQWTUCPF
FJCOOCXKLC[C#UJQMCYCUPQVCVQVCNRCEKUV9JKEJ
KPUVKVWVGFSWKPSWGPPKCNEKTEWKVUQHQHEGTU
QHVJGHQNNQYKPIFQGUPQVEQPTOVJKUXKGY!

D  *GKUUWGFCEQFGQHEQPFWEVVQJKUQHEKCNU

C  *GHGNVUQTT[HQTVJGUWHHGTKPIECWUGFD[-CNKPIC9CT 
E  *GVTKGFVQUCXGRGQRNGHTQOOKUECTTKCIGQHLWUVKEG
DWVFKFPQVIKXGWRVJGEQPSWGTGFVGTTKVQT[ 
F  4GNGCUGQHVJGEQPXKEVUQPVJGOGTE[RGVKVKQPOQXGF

D  #HVGTVJGEQPSWGUVQH-CNKPIC#UJQMCEQPUQNKFCVGF D[JKUOKPKUVGTU
his southern conquests  9JCVKUVJGOQUVUKIPKECPVFKHHGTGPEGKPVJGOGUUCIGQH

E  +PFGCNKPIYKVJVJGVTQWDNGUQOGHQTGUVVTKDGUJGENGCTN[ VJGRKNNCT'FKEVUCUEQORCTGFVQVJG4QEM'FKEVU!
TGEQIPK\GFVJGRQUUKDKNKV[QHVJGWUGQHHQTEG 
C  6JGOCKPUVTGUUKPVJG2KNNCT'FKEVUKUQPUQEKCNYGNHCTG

F  *GFKFPQVCDQNKUJECRKVCNRWPKUJOGPVCPFITCPVGF measure
QPN[CDTKGHTGRTKGXGVQVJGEQPFGOPGFRTKUQPGTU 
D  6JGTGKUCJKPVQHHCPCVKEKUOCDQWVFJCOOCCPFQH
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIGFKEVUKPUETKRVKQPUFQGUPQVDGNQPI megalomania in the Pillar Edicts
VQVJGECVGIQT[FKTGEVGFVQVJGUCPIJC! 
E  6JG 2KNNCT 'FKEVU CTG OCKPN[ FGXQVGF VQ VJG OQTCN

C  -CPFCJCT+PUETKRVKQP CURGEVU QH FJCOOC CPF #UJQMCU CVVCEJOGPV VQ

D  $JCDTC'FKEV $WFFJKUO
(c) Schism Edict 
F  4QEM 'FKEVU CTG CFFTGUUGF VQ EQOOQP RGQRNG CPF
(d) Nigalisagar Inscription 2KNNCT'FKEVUVQVJG$WFFJKUVQTFGT
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUPQVQPGQHVJGDTQCFECVGIQTKGU  +PYJKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPITGURGEVFQVJG#UJQMCPGRKITCRJU
KPVQYJKEJVJGGFKEVUKUUWGFD[#UJQMCECPDGFKXKFGF! PQVJGNRWUVQFTCYJKUVQTKECNKPHGTGPEGU!

C  2WDNKERTQPQWPEGOGPVUOGCPVHQTJKUUWDLGEVU 
C  +PFGNKPGCVKPIVJGDQWPFCT[QHVJG/CWT[CPGORKTG

D  2GTUQPCNGRKUVNGUFKTGEVGFVQVJG5CPIJC 
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(d) Edicts issued for the propagation of dhamma EQODCVCPVU
 9JKEJQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVGRUYCUPQVVCMGPD[#UJQMCVQ 
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H-86 The Mauryan Empire

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D  .CWTK[CKP0CPFCPICTJ
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(a) Schism Edict 
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(d) The social, religious and economic life of the people  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIEJTQPQNQIKECNQTFGTUQHVJG
of his time IKXGPF[PCUVKGUQH+PFKCKUEQTTGEV!
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F  /CWT[C0CPFC5WPIC-CPXC

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edicts is correct? 
E  #UJQMC
F  2WUJ[COKVTC5WPIC

C  6JG2KNNCTGFKEVUYGTGNQECVGFKPCNNRCTVUQHVJGGORKTG  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIKUVJGEQTTGEVEJTQPQNQIKECN

D  6JGGFKEVUIKXGFGVCKNUQHJKURGTUQPCNEQPEGTPUDWV order of the given rulers of ancient India?
are silent on events of the empire 
C  #UJQMC-CPKUJMC/KNKPFC

E  6JGUWDLGEVQHKPUETKDGFOCVVGTQP4QEMGFKEVUFKHHGTU 
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E  #UJQMC/KNKPFC-CPKUJMC

F  6JG )TGGM QT #TCOCKE GFKEVU CTG XGTUKQPU QT 
F  /KNKPFC-CPKUJMC#UJQMC
translations of the texts used in other edicts  9JKEJQPGQHVJGHQNNQYKPIUVCVGOGPVUCDQWV%JCPFTCIWRVC
 #UJQMCPKPUETKRVKQPUQH/CPUGJTCCPF5JCJDC\ICFJKCTG II is not correct ?
YTKVVGPKP    
C  -CNKFCUCPF#OCTUKPIJYGTGHCOQWUUEJQNCTUKPJKU

C  2TCMTKVNCPIWCIG-JCTQUJVJKUETKRV court

D  2TCMTKVNCPIWCIG$TCJOKUETKRV 
D  *GGZRCPFGFJKUGORKTGDQVJVJTQWIJOCVTKOQPKCN

E  2TCMTKV#TCOCKENCPIWCIG$TCJOKUETKRV alliances and conquests

F  #TCOCKENCPIWCIG-JCTQUJVJKUETKRV 
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F  *G OCTTKGF JKU FCWIJVGT 2TCDJCYCVK VQ CP #JQO

C  VJGVGPGVUQH$WFFJKUO prince

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%JCTXCMCU 
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of the sects of the time VJG-WUJCPUGURGEKCNN[-CPKUJMC

F  VJGTGNKIKQWURQNKE[QHVJGUVCVG 
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FTGUUCMKPVQVTQWUGTUKU   sculpture

C  %JCPFTCIWRVC
D  #UJQMC 
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E  -CPKUJMC
F  5COWFTCIWRVC UVTWEVWTGQHVJG$WFFJKUV5VWRCU
 9JKEJ COQPI VJG HQNNQYKPI OCVGTKCNU YGTG WUGF HQT 
F  6JG CTVKUVU QH VJG #OTCXCVK 5EJQQN QH #TVU OCKPN[
OKPVKPIEQKPUFWTKPIVJGTWNGQHVJG/CWT[CU! WUGFYJKVGOCTDNG
The Mauryan Empire H-87

Exercise - 2
 9Jich one is the cQTTGEV EJTQPQNQIKECN QTFGT KP YJKEJ
Statement Based MCQ
VJGIKXGPTWNGTUTWNGFQXGT/CICFJC!
  $TKJCFTCVJC$KODKUCTC5KUWPCIC$KPFWUCTC
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&JCOOCKUPQVEQTTGEV!   $TKJCFTCVJC$KPFWUCTC5KUWPCIC$KODKUCTC
  /CLQT4QEM'FKEV:+++KUQHRCTCOQWPVKORQTVCPEG   5KUWPCIC$KODKUCTC$TKJCFTCVJC$KPFWUCTC
KPWPFGTUVCPFKPIVJG#UJQMCPRQNKE[QH&JCOOC 
C  CPF
D  QPN[
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E  CPF
F  QPN[
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OGCUWTGU NKMG OGFKECN EGPVTGU HQT CPKOCNU CU YGNN   6JG #TVJCUJCUVTC RTQXKFGF VJG UVCVG OCPCIGOGPV
as men, road construction and planting of medicinal QH NCTIG UECNG VTCFG CPF KPFWUVT[ CPF GZGTEKUG QH
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C  CPF
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JKU$TCJOCPOKPKUVGT8CUWFGXC-CPXCYJQWUWTRGF 1. $rahmanical revolt
the throne.   -KPI#UJQMCURCEKUVRQNKEKGU

C  QPN[
D  QPN[ 3. Invasions from outside

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reference to the production of commercial goods in the

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E  CPF
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reached in the production of commercial goods. in terms of their arrival in India
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  6JGIWKNFUWUGFJKTGFNCDQWTHQTRTQFWEVKQP 
C  CPF
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F  CPF

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-KPIU
Codes:
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C  QPN[
D  CPF
fame.

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E  $QVJCPF
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H-88 The Mauryan Empire

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Directions
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VYQ UVCVGOGPVU Statement I and Statement II ;QW CTG VQ   # $ % &
GZCOKPGVJGUGVYQUVCVGOGPVUECTGHWNN[CPFUGNGEVVJGCPUYGTU

C     
VQVJGUGSWGUVKQPUWUKPIVJGEQFGUIKXGPDGNQY%QFGU

D     

C  $QVJ VJG UVCVGOGPVU CTG VTWG CPF 5VCVGOGPV ++ KU VJG
correct explanation of Statement I 
E     

D  $QVJVJGUVCVGOGPVUCTGVTWGDWV5VCVGOGPV++KUPQVVJG 
F     
correct explanation of Statement I  List-I List-II

E  5VCVGOGPV+KUVTWGDWV5VCVGOGPV++KUHCNUG  # %JCPFTCIWRVC  #OKVTQEJCVGU

F  5VCVGOGPV+KUHCNUGDWV5VCVGOGPV++KUVTWG   /CWT[C
11. Statement I: 6JGTG YCU ITGCV GZQFWU QH ,CKPC OQPMU  $ $KPFWUCT  5CPFTQEQVVU
WPFGT VJG NGCFGTUJKR QH $JCFTCDCJW VQ VJG &GEECP
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Statement II:%JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[CLQKPGFVJG,CKPC Codes:
  # $ % &
QTFGTCUCOQPM
Matching Based MCQ 
C     

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#  5JWPICF[PCUV[
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F  #$%& Codes:
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13. List-I List-II 
C     

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D     
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E     
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F     
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Codes:  & 8CMCVCMC  $JCIDJCFTC
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C      Codes:

D        # $ % &

E      
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The Mauryan Empire H-89

EXERCISE-1 
E  -CPKUJMC YCU VJG TUV +PFKCP TWNGT YJQ JCU DGGP
UJQYPKPKOCIGUCUYGCTKPICFTGUUCMKPVQVTQWUGTU
1. (d) 
D  
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C  
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F   
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F   
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in her court.

E   
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100. (c)

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D  
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88. (a)
empire through matrimonial relationship and

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E
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C  
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D  
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rather than religious practices or the philosophical
8. (c)
FKOGPUKQP QH $WFFJKUO /CLQT VJGOGU CTG
#UJQMCU EQPXGTUKQP VQ $WFFJKUO VJG FGUETKRVKQP 
F  2WU[COKVTC 5WPIC KU UCKF VQ JCXG RGTHQTOGF VJG
QH JKU GHHQTVU VQ URTGCF $WFFJKUO JKU OQTCN CPF #UJXCOGFJCTKVGCHVGTJGVQRRNGF/CWT[CPTWNGKP
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programs. VJG#UJXCOGFJCKUFWTKPIVJGTGKIPQH5COWFTCIWRVC

F  /CPUGJTCCPF5JCJDC\ICFJKKPUETKRVKQPUQHCUJQMC +
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%GPVWT[ th %GPVWT[ #&  YCU
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ideals in order to lead a succeUUHWNNKHG*GYCPVGF F[PCUV[ KP VJG YGUVGTP &GEECP TGIKQP
GXGT[QPG VQ NKXG RGCEGHWNN[ CPF EQGZKUV KP C 2WNCMGUKP RGTHQTOGF UCETKEGU NKMG #UXCOGFJC
harmonious environment. *KTCP[CICTDJC#IPKUVQOC8CLCRG[C$CJWUWXCTPC
H-90 The Mauryan Empire

CPF 2CWPFCTKMC 6JGUG FGVCKNU CTG RTQXKFGF D[ JKU *KUVQTKCPUPFVJCVCNNVJGUGTWNGTUYGTGVJWUDGHQTG


$CFCOK%NKHHKPUETKRVKQPFCVGF5CMC
%'  $%6JGTWNGTQH#RKTCPFKGFKP$%

D  6JG$CTCDCTTQEMEWVECXGUCTGVJGQNFGUVTQEMEWV DWVKVPFUOGPVKQPKP#UJQMCUKPUETKRVKQP
ECXGU6JG[YGTGQTKIKPCNN[OCFGHQTVJG#LKXKMCU 
D  6JG /CWT[CP GORKTG YCU FKXKFGF KPVQ RTQXKPEGU
FWTKPI VJG /CWT[CP RGTKQF
 $%'  6JG and the provinces divided into districts. Provinces
'NNQTC ECXGU YGTG DWKNV DGVYGGP th EGPVWT[ CPF FWTKPI VJG /CWT[CP CIG YKVJ VJGKT ECRKVCN YGTG
10thEGPVWT[6JGTGYGTGECXGUQWVQHYJKEJ 7VVCTCRCVJC6CZKNC &CMUJKPCRCVJC5WXCTPCIKTK
YGTG $WFFJKUV ECXGU  YGTG *KPFW ECXGU CPF  2TCEJ[C2CVCNKRWVTC -CNKPIC6QUCNK #XCPVKTCVJC
YGTG,CKPECXGU6JGRTQZKOKV[QHVJGECXGUENGCTN[ 7LLCKP #UJQMC CRRQKPVGF C TGRTGUGPVCVKXG KP GCEJ
FGOQPUVTCVGUVJGTGNKIKQWUJCTOQP[RTGXCNGPVCVVJCV RTQXKPEG 6JG TGRTGUGPVCVKXGU YGTG EJQUGP HQT
period of time. VJGKT CDKNKV[ CPF PQV QP VJG DCUKU QH DKTVJ QT JKIJ

C  6JGKORQTVCPVQEECUKQPQH%JCPFTCIWRVC/CWT[CU EQPPGEVKQPU6JG[GPLQ[GFEQPUKFGTCDNGHTGGFQOKP
TGKIPYCUVJGHQTGECUVQHCVYGNXG[GCTUHCOKPG#V the administration of their provinces.
VJCVVKOG#EJCT[C$JCFTCDCJWYCUVJGJGCFQHVJG 
D  +PHQTGKIP)TGGMCPF.CVKPCEEQWPVU%JCPFTCIWRVC
,CKP EJWTEJ #EEQTFKPI VQ VJG ,CKP VGZV 4CLXCNK[C KU MPQYP CU 5CPFTQEQVVQU CPF #PFTQEQVVWU *G
-CVJC VJG MKPI UCY UKZVGGP FTGCOU *G TGSWGUVGF DGECOG YGNN MPQYP KP VJG *GNNGPKUVKE YQTNF HQT
$JCFTCDCJW VQ KPVGTRTGV VJG FTGCOU 6JG NCVVGT EQPSWGTKPI #NGZCPFGT VJG )TGCVU GCUVGTPOQUV
explained all the dreams and according to the
UCVTCRKGU CPF HQT FGHGCVKPI VJG OQUV RQYGTHWN QH
NCUV QPG JG RTGFKEVGF C HCOKPG QH VYGNXG [GCTU
#NGZCPFGTU UWEEGUUQTU 5GNGWEWU + 0KECVQT KP
%JCPFTCIWRVCYJQYCUCHQNNQYGTQH$JCFTCDCJW
DCVVNG
ICXG WR JKU VJTQPG *G PCNN[ GPFGF JKU NKHG
HQNNQYKPIVJG,CKPHCUJKQP   $KPFWUCTC /CWT[C
E  $%   $%  YCU
GORGTQT QH VJG /CWT[C 'ORKTG HTQO  $% 

E 
 $% &WTKPI JKU TGKIP VJG GORKTG GZRCPFGF

F  6JGEQTTGEVOCVEJNKUVKU UQWVJYCTFU6JG )TGGMU ECNNGF JKO #OKVTQEJCVGU
Rulers Country QT#NNKVTQEJCFGUVJG)TGGMVTCPUNKVGTCVKQPHQTVJG
  #PVK[QMC 5[TKC 5CPUMTKVYQTF#OKVTCIJCVC
5NC[GTQHGPGOKGU 
  #PVKMKPK /CEGFQPKC   +P VJG VJKTF EGPVWT[ $%' -KPI #UJQMC QH VJG
  /CMC %[TGPC /CWT[C F[PCUV[ UWRRQTVGF CPF RTQVGEVGF $WFFJKUO
and erected stupas and stone pillars at sites associated
  6WTOC[C 'I[RV
YKVJ5JCM[COWPK$WFFJC
  +P JKU VJKTVGGPVJ KPUETKRVKQP #UJQMC OGPVKQPU XG
  &CUCTCVJCKUMPQYPVQJCXGFGFKECVGFVJTGGECXGUKP
)TGGMEQPVGORQTCT[MKPIU#PVK[QMC
5[TKC
$% 6WTCOC[C
'I[RVWRVQ$% -CKTKPC VJG0CICTLWPK*KNNUVQVJG#LKXKMCU6JTGGKPUETKRVKQPU
-COCT
$% #NKMC5WPFCTC
#RKTCP CVVJGECXGTGHGTVQJKOCU&GXCPCORK[C&CUCTCVJC
 $%   #WVMKPC
/CEGFQPKC  $%  
E   
F
 


8
Chapter

Introduction
5CPUMTKVYQTF5CPIJCOGCPUCITQWRQHRGTUQPUQTCPCUUQEKCVKQP6JG6COKN5CPICOYCUCPCECFGO[QHRQGVUCPFDCTFU
YJQ QWTKUJGF KP VJTGG FKHHGTGPV RGTKQFU CPF KP FKHHGTGPV RNCEGU WPFGT VJG RCVTQPCIG QH VJG RCPF[CP MKPIU 6JG 5CPICO
NKVGTCVWTGURGCMUJKIJN[QHVJTGGUQWVJ+PFKCP-KPIFQOU%JQNC2CPF[CCPF%JGTC6JGGCTNKGUVTGHGTGPEGVJCVYGPFCDQWV
VJKUGTCKURTGUGTXGFKPVJTGGHQTOU#UJQMCPKPUETKRVKQPU5CPICONKVGTCVWTGCPF/CICUVJGPGUGCEEQWPVU
6JGVJTGGKORQTVCPVMKPIFQOUQHVJG%JQNCUVJG2CPF[CUCPFVJG%JGTCUEQODKPGFN[YCUMPQYPCUTamilakam6JG#T[CP
KPWGPEGFKFPQVRGPGVTCVGVQVJKUFKUVCPEGTGIKQPVKNNVJGHQWTVJEGPVWT[$%DWVQWTMPQYNGFIGQHVJGEQWPVT[CPFKVURGQRNG
DGNQPIKPIVQVJGRTG%JTKUVKCPGTCKUOGCIGTCPFKPFKTGEV6JGCPEKGPVNKVGTCVWTGQH6COKNUMPQYPCUVJGSangam literature,
KUXGT[OCUUKXGDWVKVJCTFN[HWNNKUVJGFGOCPFUQHJKUVQT[CPFEJTQPQNQI[

DG[QPFVJGUQWVJGTPDQTFGTQHVJG/CWT[CGORKTG#2CPF[C
THE CHOLAS MKPIKUCNUQMPQYPVQJCXGUGPVCUGODCUU[VQVJGEQWTVQHVJG
4QOCPGORGTQTAugustusCPF6TQLCP
6JGMKPIFQOQHVJG%JQNCUYKVJKVUECRKVCNCVKaveripattanam
YCU UVCTVGF HTQO -CXGT[ FGNVC VQ VJG CFLQKPKPI TGIKQP QH 
OQFGTP 6CPLQTG CPF 6TKEJKPQRQN[ 1PG QH VJGKT GCTN[ MKPIU
-CTKMCNC
#& YJQIWTGUXGT[RTQOKPGPVN[KPCPEKGPV Kingdoms Capital Emblems Famous port
NKVGTCVWTG KU ETGFKVGF YKVJ XKEVQTKGU QXGT VJG TWNGTU QH VJG
PGKIJDQWTKPI2CPF[CCPF%JGTCMKPIFQOUCPFKUDGNKGXGFVQ %JQNCU 7TCK[WT NCVG Tiger Puhar
JCXG GXGP GZVGPFGF JKU CWVJQTKV[ QXGT Ceylon 6QYCTFU VJG Puhar
-CXGTKRCVVCPCO
DGIKPPKPIQHVJGHQWTVJEGPVWT[#&VJGRQYGTQHVJG%JQNCU %JGTCU 8CPLK QT $QY /W\TKU 6QPFK
DGICPVQFGENKPGOCKPN[DGECWUGQHVJGTKUGQH2CNNCXCUQPQPG -CTWT $CPFCT
JCPFCPFVJGEQPVKPWQWUYCTUYCIGFD[VJG2CPF[CUCPFVJG 2CPFC[CU /CFWTCK %CTR -QTMCK5CNK[WT
%JGTCUQPVJGQVJGT

THE PANDAYAS THE CHERAS


The earliest reHGTGPEGVQVJG%JGTC
-GTCNCRWVTC MKPIFQOECP
6JGMKPIFQOQHVJG2CPF[CUYKVJKVUECRKVCNCVMadurai extended
DGVTCEGFKPVJG#UJQMCPKPUETKRVKQPU+VEQORTKUGFVJGOQFGTP
VQ VJG OQFGTP FKUVTKEVU QH /CFWTC 4COPCF 6KPPGXGNN[ CPF
FKUVTKEVU QH /CNCDCT %QEJKP CPF 0QTVJGTO 6TCXCPEQTG +VU
VJGUQWVJGTPRCTVUQH6TCXCPEQTG4GHGTGPEGUVQVJG2CPF[CU
ocEWTKPCPEKGPVNKVGTCT[YQTMUNKMGVJGMahabharata and the ECRKVCNYCUVanjiYJKEJKUKFGPVKGFD[UQOGYKVJCUKVGQH
Jatakas CU YGNN CU KP +PFKEC QH /GICUVJGPGU #EEQTFKPI VQ 2GTK[CT4KXGTD[QVJGTUYKVJ-CTWTQT-CTWXWTNQECVGFKPVJG
#UJQMCP GFKEVU VJG 2CPF[CU YGTG KPFGRGPFGPV RGQRNG NKXKPI YGUVGTPOQUV6CNWSQHVJG6TKEJKPQRQN[FKUVTKEV
H-92 The Sangam Age

The peQRNGQH%JGTC-KPIFQOUYGTGCUGCHCTKPIRGQRNGYJQ Sangam Terms


GUVCDNKUJGFENQUGEQOOGTEKCNTGNCVKQPUJKRYKVJ'I[RVCPFVJG
4QOCP 'ORKTG 6QPFK /WUKTK -CXGTKRCVJCPCO CPF -QTMCK 'PCFK  %CRVCKPQHCTO[
YGTGCOQPIVJGYGNNMPQYPVTCFGEGPVTGUQH2GPKPUWNCT+PFKC 8CNNCNCU  4KEJRGCUCPVU
#TCUCT  4WNKPIENCUU
1TTCT  5RKGU
SANGAM LITERATURE #XCK  5OCNNXKNNCIGCUUGODN[
5CPICO YCU CP CUUQEKCVKQP QT CUUGODN[ QH 6COKN RQGVU JGNF +TCK-CTCK  .CPFVCZ
RTQDCDN[WPFGTEJKG[QTTQ[CNRCVTQPCIG$WVYGFQPQVMPQY 7NIWUWPICO  6QNNUCPFEWUVQOFWVKGU
VJGPWODGTQH5CPICOUQTVJGRGTKQFHQTYJKEJVJG[YGTGJGNF 0CICT  6GORNG
6JG5CPICONKVGTCVWTGYCUEQORKNGF KPEKTEC#& 2GTWPFCTCO  *KIJGTQHEKCNU
$WV RCTVU QH VJKU NKVGTCVWTG NQQM DCEM VQ CV NGCUV VJG UGEQPF 5KTWVCTCO  .QYGTQHEKCNU
EGPVWT[ #& 6JG 5CPICO NKVGTCVWTG ECP TQWIJN[ DG FKXKFGF #XCPCO  /CTMGVRNCEG
KPVQVYQITQWRUnarrative and didactic. The narrative texts 2CPCT  $KTFU
CTG EQPUKFGTGF YQTMU QH heroic poetry KP YJKEJ JGTQGU CTG 8GFCTU  *WPVGTU
INQTKGF CPF RGTRGVWCN YCTU CPF ECVVNG TCKFU HTGSWGPVN[ /CTCMMJFK  9CTTKQTENCUU
OGPVKQPGF 6JG FKFCEVKE VGZVU EQXGT VJG GCTN[ EGPVWTKGU QH -WTCXCT  *KNNVTKDGU
VJG %JTKUVKCP GTC CPF RTGUETKDG C EQFG QH EQPFWEV PQV QPN[ 8CTCNKU  &CPEKPIIKTNU
.COCTCO  /KUUKNG
HQT VJG MKPI CPF JKU EQWTV DWV CNUQ HQT XCTKous social groups
CPFQEEWRCVKQPU#NNVJKUEQWNFJCXGDGGPRQUUKDNGQPN[CHVGT -CNCXW  5CETGFOCTTKCIG
VJG HQWTVJ EGPVWT[ #& YJGP $TCJOCPCU CRRGCTGF KP IQQF 7OCPCT  5CNVOCMGT
PWODGTUWPFGTVJG2CNNCXCU -QTTCXCK  )QFFGUUQHXKEVQT[
-CFWTCK  &KGV[QHHQTGUV
5CPICO NKVGTCVWTG EQPUKUVU QH VJG GCTNKGUV 6COKN YQTMU 'TKRCVVK  6CPM
(such as Tolkappiyam), the Ettutogai
'KIJV#PVJQNQIKGU 
the Pattuppattu
6GP +F[NNU  VJG Padenenkilkanakku SANGAM POLITY

'KIJVVGP/KPQTYQTMU CPFVJGVJTGGGRKEU The 6COKNUFWTKPIVJG5CPICORGTKQFYGTGTWNGFD[RQYGTHWN
'CTNKGUV 6COKN 9QTMU YGTG VJG Agattiyam
C YQTM MKPIU 6JG MKPIU YGTG TGICTFGF CU Vendar YJKNG VJG NQECN
QP ITCOOCT QH NGVVGTU CPF NKHG  D[ 4KUJK #ICUV[C EJKGHVCKPUYGTGECNNGFMannar.
6JGHQTOQHIQXGTPOGPVYCUJGTGFKVCT[OQPCTEJ[6JGGNFGUV
2CPPKTWRCFCNCO
C ITCOOCVKECN YQTM QP RWTCO NKVGTCVWTG  UQPWUWCNN[UWEEGGFGFVJGHCVJGT
D[  FKUEKRNGU QH #ICUV[C VJG -CMMKRCFKPK[CO
C YQTM 6JGETQYPGFMKPIJGNFKORTGUUKXGEQWTVUVQYJKEJVJGUWDLGEVU
QP RTQUQF[  CPF 6QNMCRRK[CO
C VTGCVKUG QP ITCOOCT CPF YGTGCNNQYGF6JGTGYCUEQPURKEWQWUCDUGPEGQH2TKX[%QWPEKN
RQGVT[  +V KU FKXKFGF KPVQ VJTGG UGEVKQPU GCEJ EQPUKUVKPI QTC%QWPEKN%JCODGTThe king was regarded as God. The
VJGQT[ QH FKXKPG TKIJV QH MKPIUJKR YCU CEEGRVGF $WV JG YCU
QH PKPG UWD EJCRVGTU CPF JCU C VQVCN QH  UWVTCU  D[ CNYC[UCUUKUVGFCPFIWKFGFD[YKUGOGPYJGVJGTCOKPKUVGT
6CNMCRRK[C
 QT C RQGV QT C RWTQJKVCT 6JGUG YKUG OGP YGTG FKXKFGF KPVQ
The three epicsYGTGSilappadikaram, Mianimekalai and VYQ ECVGIQTKGUAimperukulu consisting of Purohita, the
CTO[EJKGHVJGCODCUUCFQTVJGURKGUCPFVJGOKPKUVGTUCPF
Sivaga Sidamanai.
Enperayam EQPUKUVKPI QH CEEQWPVCPVU GZGEWVKXG QHEKCNU
6JG NCUV GRKE UJQYU VJG FQOKPCPEG QH 5CPUMTKV UV[NG QXGT VTGCUWT[QHEKCNURCNCEGIWCTFUCPFVJGNGCFKPIOGPCOQPI
VJGKPFKIGPQWUUV[NGQHVJGRTGXKQWUGRKEU JKUUWDLGEVU9CTUQEEWTTGFQPVJGRTGVGZVQHECVVNGNKHVKPI
#RCTVHTQO5CPICOVGZVUYGJCXGCVGZVECNNGFTolkkappiyam, 
YTKVVGPD[6QNMCRRKCTYJKEJFGCNUYKVJITCOOCTCPFRQGVKEU+V  2WTQJKVCT 2TKGUV
KUVJGQPN[YQTMYJKEJJCUUWTXKXGFHTQOVJGUGEQPF5CPICO  5GPCRCVK[CT #TO[%JKGH
#PQVJGTKORQTVCPV6COKNVGZVUFGCNUYKVJRJKNQUQRJ[CPFYKUG  #OCKEJJCT /KPKUVGT
OCZKOUVJKUVGZVKUECNNGFTirukkural#FFKVKQPVQVJKUYGJCXG  &WVCT #ODCUUCFQT
 1TTCT 5R[
VJGVYKP6COKNGRKEUQH5KNCRRCFKMCTCO and /CKPOGMCNCK. The
 'PCFK %CRVCKPQHVJGCTO[
TUVFGCNUYKVJCNQXGUVQT[KPYJKEJCFKIPKVCT[ECNNGF-QXCNCP  7OCPEJCVJC %QNNGEVQTQHOGTEJCPFKUGHTQOFKHHGTGPV
RTGHGTUCEQWTVGUCPECNNGF/CFJCXKQH-CXGTKRCVVCPCOVQJKU regions
PQDNGYGFFGFYKHG-CPPCIK6JGCWVJQTCRRCTGPVN[UGGOUVQ  /CMCOCVVQT /GODGTUQHCIWKNF
DGC,CKPCCPFVTKGUVQNQECVGVJGUEGPGUQHVJGUVQT[KPCNNVJG  8GGNNCNCT 4KEJRGCUCPVU
MKPIFQOUQHVJG6COKNEQWPVT[6JGQVJGTGRKE/CPKOGMCNCK

FGCNU YKVJ VJG CFXGPVWTGU QH VJG FCWIJVGT DQTP QH VJG WPKQP
QH-QXCNCPCPF/CFJCXKVJQWIJVJKUGRKEKUQHOQTGTGNKIKQWU  -CTCPCVVK[CNCXCT #EEQWPVCPV
 -CTWOCMCTCT 'ZGEWVKXGQHEKCNU
VJCP NKVGTCT[ KPVGTGUV 6JQWIJ VJG GRKEU ECPPQV DG FCVGF UQ  -CPCUCUUWTTCO 6TGCUWT[1HEKCNU
GCTN[VJG[VJTQYNKIht on the social and economic life of the  -FCKMCRRCNCT 2CNCEGIWCTFU
6COKNUWRVQCDQWVVJGUKZVJEGPVWT[#&
The Sangam Age H-93

NagarCOCPFCT .GCFKPIOGPCOQPIVJGMKPIUUWDLGEVU
 2CFCKVVCNCKXCT %JKGHUQHVJGKPHCPVT[ RELIGION
 ;CPCK8KTCT %JKGHUQHGNGRJCPVT[
 +XWNK %JKGHUQHECXCNT[ 5CPICO TGNKIKQP KU DCUGF QP VJG U[PVJGUKU QH VJG PQP#T[CP
6COKNU CPF VJG #T[CP XGFKE FGKVKGU 6JG RGQRNG QH 5CPICO
LAW AND JUSTICE 6COKNIGPGTCNN[YQTUJKRGFUVQPGUYCVGTUVCTUCPFRNCPGVU6JG
5CPICOTGNKIKQWUYQTUJKRKUENCUUKGFKPVQVJTGGECVGIQTKGU
SanICO NKVGTCVWTG FQGU PQV FGUETKDG CP[ RQUVU QH ,WFIG
K  9QTUJKRQHKPFKIGPQWU)QFU
FKURWVGU YGTG UGVVNGF D[ NGCTPGF OGP QH JKIJ EJCTCEVGT CPF
KK  9QTUJKRQHGZQVKE*KPFW)QFU
VJG LWFIGOGPV YCU DCUGF QP KPVGITKV[ CPF KORCTVKCNKV[  6JG
KKK  9QTUJKRQTHCKVJKPVJGGZQVKEPQP*KPFWTKVWCNU
%JQNCUJCXGICKPGFITGCVTGURGEVDGECWUGQHVJKU6JGMKPIYCU 6JG RGQRNG YQTUJKRRGF Murugan, Tirumal, Balram and
VJGUWRTGOGOCIKUVTCVG6JGVQYPEQWTVYCUECNNGFAvai and Indra KP VJG VGORNG MPQYP CU 0CICT -QKN -QVVCO 2WTCK
VJGXKNNCIGEQWTVYCUMPQPYCUManramsYJKEJOKIJVJCXG QT &GXCNC[CO 6JG YQTUJKR QH 8GFKE FGKVKGU YCU CNUQ PQV
DGGPRCEJC[CVUYGTGFKUVTKDWVGFCETQUUMandalam
MKPIFQO 
WPEQOOQP6JG8GFKERTCEVKEGQH;CIPC
8GNXK 5TCFFJCCPF
in Nadu (districts) and Ur
VQYP 
2CPFC YGTG RTCEVKUGF D[ VJG 5CPICO RGQRNG 8CTPCU[UVGO
VQQM TQQVU GXGP KP VJG 5QWVJ 6JG KPWGPEG QH $WFFJKUO
SOCIAL LIFE ,CKPKUOCPF#LKXKMCUYCURCTCOQWPV
6JG5CPICOUQEKGV[YCUDCUGFQPDKPCT[UUKQPKG
 8[CTPVQE
JKIJDQTPRGQRNG  ART AND ARCHITECTURE
 +NKRKTCRRCNCT
NQYDQTPRGQRNG
*QYGXGT6JQNMCRRK[CPOGPVKQPUCDQWVHQWTECVGIQTKGUQHECUVGU 6JG VGORNGU QH 5QWVJ +PFKC JCF C FKUVKPEV &TCXKFKCP UV[NG

K  #PFCPCT
$TCJOCPCU 
KK  #TCUCT
MKPIU YJKEJKUFKHHGTGPVHTQOVJG0CICTCUV[NGQHVJG0QTVJ+PFKCP

KKK  8CKUK[CT
6TCFGTU 
KX  8GNCNCT
(CTOGTU VGORNGU 6JG -CKNCUJ 6GORNG CV 'NNQTC *Q[UCNC VGORNG
/QTGQXGTVJGUGYGTGEQOOWPKVKGUECNNGFRCTEK[CUGZRGTKGPEGF CV $GNWT CPF *CNGDKF %JGPPCMGUCXC VGORNG CV $GNWT VJG
WPVQWEJCDKNKV[COQPIJKIJGTENCUUGU *Q[UCNGUYCTCVGORNGCV*CNGDKF4CVJCCPFShore temple at
 Mahabalipuram$TKJCFGUJYCTCVGORNGCV6CPLCXWT8KVJCNC
VGORNGCV*CORKCPF/GGPCMUJK6GORNGCV/CFWTCKCTGPG
9QOGPVQQMRCTVKPXCTKQWUGNFUNKMG
examples of architecture.
 6JG[EQPVTKDWVGFKPNKVGTCVWTGGXKFGPEGKUHTQOVJGKTRQGVT[
 9QOGPYGTGCNNQYGFVQEJQQUGVJGKTNKHGRCTVPGTUKG Points to Remember
love-marriageYCURGTOKVVGF x The 5CPICO NKVGTCVWTG URGCMU JKIJN[ QH VJTGG 5QWVJ
 Widows NKXGF C OKUGTCDNG NKHG CPF sati U[UVGO YCU +PFKCP-KPIFQOU%JQNC2CPFC[CCPF%JGTC
RTCEVKEGFKPJKIJGTENCUUGUQHUQEKGV[
 6JG MKPIU CPF PQDNGU RCVTQPKUGF FCPEGTU HQT VJGKT x 6JG MKPIFQO QH %JQNC UVCTVGF HTQO -CXGT[ FGNVC VQ
entertainment. CFLQKPKPI CTGCU QH OQFGTP 6CPLQTG CPF Trichinopoly
KaveripattanamYCUKVUECRKVCN
Karikala
#& YCUCPKORQTVCPV%JQNCTWNGTYJQ
ECONOMY x
GZVGPFGFJKUCWVJQTKV[QXGT%G[NQP
6JG 5CPICO GEQPQO[ YCU OQUV RTQURGTQWU 6JG EQOOQP x 6JG2CPFC[CUYGTGKPFGRGPFGPVRGQRNGNKXKPIDG[QPF
RGQRNG YGTG KPENWFGF CITKEWNVWTKUVU QT EQYJGTFGTU JWPVGTU VJGUQWVJGTPDQTFGTQH/CWT[CPGORKTG
CPFUJGTOCP+PFKIGPQWUKPFWUVTKGUUWEJCUVGZVKNGYGCRQP x The Kingdom of Pandayas YCU GZVGPFGF VQ OQFGTP
OCMKPIUJKRDWKNFKPIECTRGPVCT[OGVCNUOGNVKPIGVE6JGTG FKUVTKEVUQH/CFWTC4COPCF6KPPGXGNN[CPFRCTVUQH
YGTG CNUQ C NCTIG PWODGT QH OGTEJCPVU YJQ KPFWNIGF KP Travancore. MaduraiYCUKVUECRKVCN
EQORTGJGPUKXG VTCFG YKVJ HQTGKIP EQWPVTKGU RCTVKEWNCTN[ YKVJ
x The Chera kingdom comprised modern districts of
4QOG4QOCPEQKPUQH#WIWUVWU%CGUCTURGTKQFJCXGDGGP
/CNCDCT %QEJKP CPFPQTVJGTP6TCXCPEQTG+VUECRKVCN
HQWPFKPCNCTIGPWODGTKP5QWVJ+PFKC
$WV5QWVJ+PFKCPUFKFPQVJCXGCU[UVGOQHEQKPCIGCPFVJG[ YCU 8CPLK 6JKU MKPIFQO JCF C ENQUG EQOOGTEKCN
DCTVGTGFVJGKTIQQFU'ZCORNGUQHJQPG[CPFTQQVUGZEJCPIGF TGNCVKQPUJKRYKVJ'I[RVCPF4QOCPGORKTG
HQT UJQKN CPF QH UWICTECPG CPF EQTPCMGU HQT XGPKUQP CPF x 5CPICONKVGTCVWTGYCUEQORKNGFKP#&
VQFF[PFKVUOGPVKQP x 5CPICO NKVGTCVWTG ECP DG FKXKFGF KPVQ VYQ ITQWRU 
narrative and didactic.

 x 6JG 6COKNU FWTKPI VJG 5CPICO RGTKQF YGTG TWNGF
Group Work D[ RQYGTHWN MKPIU 6JG HQTO QH IQXGTPOGPV YCU
(i) -WTCXCT Practicing shifting agriculture JGTGFKVCT[OQPCTEJ[
(ii) +FCK[CT TGCTKPICPFMGGRKPIECVVNGU x 5CPICONKVGTCVWTGFQGUPQVFGUETKDGCP[RQUVQH,WFIG
(iii) Vetar hunting and gathering foods 6JGMKPIYCUVJGUWRTGOGOCIKUVTCVG
(iv) 7NCXCT ploughing land for crops x 6JG 5CPICO GEQPQO[ YCU RTQURGTQWU 6JG EQOOQP
(v) -CNNCT plundering i.e., cattle lifting RGQRNG YGTG GPICIGF KP CITKEWNVWTG EQYJGTFKPI
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(vi) Panar YCPFGTKPIDCTFU
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(vii) Paratavar UJKPI
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(viii) 7OPCT UCNVOCPWHCEVWTKPI
uncommon.
H-94 The Sangam Age

1.
Exercise - 1
Consider the folORZLQJSDVVDJHDQGLGHQWLI\WKHWKUHHWULEDO  D  3DQG\D E  3DOODYD
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,Q WKH HDUO\ KLVWRU\ RI WKH IDU 6RXWK LQ ,QGLD WKUHH WULEDO  7KH*UHFR5RPDQPHUFKDQWVYLVLWLQJ6RXWK,QGLDGXULQJ
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 D  9DNDWDNDV&KRODVDQG6DWYDKDQDV  :KLFK RI WKH IROORZLQJ SURGXFWV RI WKH 6DQJDP$JH LV
 E  &KRODV3DQG\DVDQG&KHUDV considered to be the greatest monument of ancient Tamil
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2. Which of the following statement about the institution of  F  (WWXWRJDL G  3DWWXSDWWX
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 F  7KHFURZQSULQFHZDVFDOOHG.RPDKDQ Greco-Roman accounts on trade
 G  ,QWKH6DQJDPOLWHUDWXUHZHFRPHDFURVVQXPHURXV (c) Both (a) and (b)
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 7KHODVWDQWKRORJ\RUJURXSRI6DQJDPOLWHUDWXUHNQRZQ Ashokan edicts
DV7HQ,G\OOVLV  7KHFHQWUHRI6DQJDPOLWHUDWXUHDQGWKHSDWURQVRI6DQJDP
 D  7RONDSSL\DP E  .XUDO SRHWVZHUH
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 7KHZRUG6DQJDPLVDVVRFLDWHGLQ7DPLOKLVWRU\ZLWK  E  7KH&KRODVRI8UDL\XU
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3DOODYDG\QDVW\RI.DQFKL (d) All of the above
 E  7KHSRHPVZULWWHQLQSUDLVHRIWKH3DQG\DQNLQJVRI 14. The current Tamil designation of the ministers during the
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 F  7KHFRXUWSRHWU\RI&KRODNLQJVZKRZHUHIDPRXVIRU (a) Amaichchan or Amaichchar
SDWURQL]LQJDUWLVWV (b) Mantri
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VFKRODUVKHOGXQGHUWKHUR\DOSDWURQDJHRI3DQG\DQ  G  6XUUDP
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 :KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJZDVQRWRQHRIWKHLGHDVRI6DQVNULW (a) Revenue-free villages granted to Brahmanas
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 D  :RUVKLSRI,QGUDDVWKHSULQFLSDOGHLW\ F  2IFHULQFKDUJHFROOHFWLQJWKHODQGUHYHQXH
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$U\DQFXOWXUHRQWKH6DQJDP$JH" known as:
 D  ,QFRUSRUDWLRQRI6DQVNULWLGHDVLQWR6DQJDPOLWHUDWXUH (a) Manaram (b) Ambalam
 E  7KH DQ[LHW\ WR FRQQHFW WKH ORFDO G\QDVWLHV ZLWK WKH  F  $YDL G  3RGL\LO
events of Mahabharata 19. Which of the following was not one of the conventional
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 G  7KHFRQFHSWRIPDUULDJHDVDVDFUDPHQWDWWHQGHGZLWK (a) Customs
rituals (b) Maxims of the wise
8. To which of the following G\QDVWLHV GLG .DULNDOD WKH (c) Occasional intercessions of the ministers
IDPRXVNLQJRIWKLVSHULRGEHORQJ"  G  'LFWDWHVRIWKHSULHVts
(a) Chera (b) Chola  7KH SURYLQFHV GXULQJ WKH 6DQJDP$JH ZHUH NQRZQ DV
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 :KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJZDVQRWRQHRIWKHUR\DOG\QDVWLHV (a) Nadu (b) Kurram
of the TaPLOFRXQWU\GXULQJWKH6DQJDP$JH" (c) Kottam (d) Ur
The Sangam Age H-95

21. DurLQJ WKH 6DQJDP$JH ZDU ZDV XVXDOO\ GHFODUHG RU  7KHFKLHIFHQWUHRUPHHWLQJSRLQWRIWKH,QGR5RPDQWUDGH
SURYRNHGE\ was:
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IHHWRIHOHSKDQWV (a) Brahmanas (b) Velas
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6DEKDRIWKLVSHULRGLVQRWFRUUHFW" 31. Which of the following statements regarding the collections
 D  ,WZDVWKHFRPPRQPHHWLQJSODFHLQWKHYLOODJH RIUHYHQXHLVQRWFRUUHFW"
(b) It was the highest court of justice  D  7KHOHDGLQJPHPEHUVRIWKHFRZKHUGVFRPPXQLW\SDLG
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 G  ,WZDVDJHQHUDODVVHPEO\GHDOLQJZLWKDOODIIDLUV  E  2UUDUZDVLQFKDUJHRIWKH5HYHQXH'HSDUWPHQW
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NLQJLVQRWFRUUHFW" trade and transit duties
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of Enadi .DYHULWKHZDWHURIZKLFKQRZDGD\VGUDZQRIIWKURXJK
(c) The soldiers wounded in battle were well attended a new channel called Vennar. Which of the following
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because: (a) Wheat (b) Rice
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town  ,W LV VDLG WKDW LQ &KROD WHUULWRU\ ZDWHUHG E\ .DYHUL WKH
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25. Which of the following is not one of the sources from domesticated animals
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Indian coast 35. Which of the following was not one of the methods of
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in great demand in foreign markets DUWLFLDOKDUERXU"
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(c) There was a direct trade route between Tamil land and (b) Tondi
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been given in : 39. The Chera king who is said to have gone to North India
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H-96 The Sangam Age

40. Which of the following institutions did not exist during the  F  7KHUH ZHUH IRXU FDVWHV QDPHO\ 7XGL\DQ 3DQDQ
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(a) Augustus (b) Claudius  F  ,QGUD G  6YDPLPDODL
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E  ,PSRUWRIJROGE\,QGLDLQUHWXUQIRUKHUH[SRUWV Age was:
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(d) Better business sense of Indian traders (c) Tirumal (d) Varuna
 $7DPLONLQJZKRLVVDLGWRKDYHVHQWWKHHDUOLHVWHPEDVV\  :KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJVWDWHPHQWVDERXWWKHSRVLWLRQRI
to Augustus at Athens about 20 BC was a _________ king: ZRPHQLQWKH6DQJDP$JHLVQRWFRUUHFW"
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the Indian Ocean  :KLFKRIWKHIROORZLQJ6DQJDPZRUNVWULHVWRH[SRXQG
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RIWKHGLVFRYHU\RI 58. The increased commercial intercourse between India and
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 E  0RQVRRQZLQGVEORZLQJUHJXODUO\DFURVVWKH,QGLDQ western authors on India and on Indian ____________.
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(a) Nadukul (b) Virakkal astronomers
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(a) The difference in the status and economic conditions UHFRQVWUXFWLRQRIWKHKLVWRU\RI6RXWK,QGLD,WZDVZULWWHQ
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The Sangam Age H-97

Exercise - 2
Codes:
Statement Based MCQ  D   E  
 F   G  
1. Consider the following statements 5. Given below are the two statements one labelled as
  7KH WKUHH OLWHUDU\ DFDGHPLFV RI 6DQJDP OLWHUDWXUH Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R) :
were at Madurai Assertion (A) :$GYDQFHGIDUPLQJGXULQJWKH6DQJDP$JH
  7KHDNDPJHQUHRI7DPLOSRHWLFVGHDOWZLWKWKHSUDLVH UHPDLQHGDEVROXWHO\FRQQHGWRVPDOOSRFNHWVRIZHWODQG
of kings. LQ WKH YDOOH\VRI .DYHUL9DLJDL7DPUDSDUQLDQG SHUL\DU
  7KH SRHPV RI WKH 3XUDQ JHQUH KDG WKHLURZQ WLQDLV ZLWKRXWDQ\UHPDUNDEOHSURJUHVVWLOOWKHWKWKFHQWXULHV
and turais. Reason (R) : 6HWWLQJUHWRVWDQGLQJFURSVDQGGHVWLQDWLRQ
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In the context of the above two statements which one of
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H-98 The Sangam Age

EXERCISE-1 37. (b) 38. (a) 39. (b) 40. (a) 41. (d)

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9
Chapter

Introduction
$[VJGGPFQHVJKTFEGPVWT[#&VJGRQYGTHWNGORKTGUGUVCDNKUJGFD[VJG-WUJCPCUKPVJGPQTVJCPF5CVXCJCPCUKPVJG&GEECP
JCFEQOGVQGPF+VYCUCICKPUVVJKUDCEMITQWPFVJCVVJG)WRVCUGOGTIGFVQFQOKPCVGVJGJKUVQT[QH+PFKCHQTVJGPGZVHQWT
centuries.
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NKVGTCT[UQWTEGUKPENWFGVJGYQTMUQHKalidasa and these accounts of Fa-Hien and It-sing.
H-100 The Gupta Empire

RULERS OF GUPTA EMPIRE


Chandragupta I (A.D. 320-335) Kumaragupta I Maheraditya
%JCPFTCIWRVC+ITCPFUQPQH5TK)WRVCCPFUQPQH)JQVQVMCEJC (415-455 A.D.)
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alliance and conquests. He married KumaradeviVJG.KEJJCXK
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adopted the title if Maharajadhiraj. TGKIP 6QYCTFU VJG GPF QH JKU TGKIP VJG )WRVC RQYGT YCU
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5COWFTCIWRVC UQP QH %JCPFTCIWRVC + CUEGPFGF VJG VJTQPG
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KPUETKRVKQPGPITCXGFQPCRKNNCTCV#NNCJCDCFRQRWNCTN[ECNNGF (455-467 A.D.)
Allahabad Pillar inscription or the 2TC[CI2TCUJCUVK is the main
source of information on his reign. The PrashastiYCUEQORQUGF 5MCPFCIWRVCVJGNCUVRQYGTHWNMKPIQHVJG)WRVCF[PCUV[ECOG
D[5COWFTCIWRVCUEQWTVRQGVHarisenaYJKEJIKXGUCFGVCKNGF VQVJGVJTQPGYJGPVJGYCTYKVJ2WUJ[COKVTCYCUUVKNNIQKPI
account of the conquests of Samudragupta. This account contains QP *KU XKEVQT[ UCXGF VJG )WRVC GORKTG DWV KV YCU KPXCFGF
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assumption of the title 8KMTCOCFKV[C. The decline of the empire
Chandragupta II (380-414 A.D.) DGICPUQQPCHVGTJKUFGCVJ6JG*WPCUNCVGTDGECOGVJGTWNGTU
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REVENUE AND TRADE


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the income of the state. %CODC[YGTGVJGKORQTVCPVRQTVUQHVJG5QWVJ

GUPTA ADMINISTRATION
1RRQUKVGVQVJG/CWT[CUVJG)WRVCMKPIUCFQRVGFRQORQWUVKVNG 6JG )WRVC DWTGCWETCE[ YCU PQV CU GHEKGPV CU VJCV QH VJG
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CDUGPEG QH C TO RTCEVKEG QH RTKOQIGPKVWTG 6JG VJTQPG FKF into divisions (DJWMVKU CPFGCEJDJWMVKYCURNCEGFWPFGTVJG
PQVCNYC[UIQVQVJGGNFGUVUQP charge of an WRCTKMC6JGDJWMVKUYGTGFKXKFGFKPVQFKUVTKEVU
The Gupta Empire H-101

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granted land called Agrahara.

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,PSRUWDQW2IFLDOVDWWKH&HQWUDO/HYHO GNGRJCPVT[

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ART AND ARCHITECTURE


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Ajanta caves, Bagh cave in Gwalior, Settannavasal temple at
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$CFCOKCUCNUQCVAihole. )WRVCRGriod artists.

LITERATURE
&WTKPIVJGRGTKQFQH)WRVCF[PCUV[5CPUMTKVNKVGTCVWTGITGCVN[ Dramas
QWTKUJGF+VYQWNFPQVDGWPHCKTVQUC[VJCVVJGTGYCUPGXGT
8KMTCOQXCTUJK[C/CNXKMCIPKOKVTCCPF  -CNKFCUC
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2TQUG CPF RQGVT[ DQVJ YGTG YTKVVGP FWTKPI VJKU RGTKQF 6JG 5YCRPCXCUCXCFCVVC%JCTWFCVVCCPF
#NNCJCDCF 2KNNCT +PUETKRVKQP UJQYU VJCV *CTKUGPC YCU C RQGV
2TCVKIPC[CWICPFJCTC[CPC  $JCUC
QHITGCVGOKPGPEG6JGOCPPGTKPYJKEJJGJCUFGUETKDGFVJG
/WFTCTCMUJCUCCPF&GXKEJCPFTCIWRVCO  8KUCMJCFCVVC
CEJKGXGOGPV QH 5COWFTCIWRVC D[ %JCPFTCIWRVC UKIPKGU JG
YCUCRQGVQHITGCVECNKDTG Eulogy
2T[CI2TCUCUVK  *CTKUGPC
Important Literary works during the Gupata
Philosophy
period
5CPMJ[CMCTKMC
DCUGQP5CPMJ[C  +UJYCT-TKUJPC
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DCUGFQP;QICRJKNQUQRJ[  #EJCT[C8[CUC
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H-102 The Gupta Empire

Religious Works Miscellaneous Works


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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


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+PVJGGNFQHOCVJGOCVKEUYGEQOGCETQUUFWTKPIVJKURGTKQF
not gatherGF CP[ TWUV KP VJG UWDUGSWGPV  EGPVWTKGU YJKEJ
CYQTMECNNGF#T[CDJCVK[CYTKVVGPD[#T[CDJCVCYJQDGNQPIGF
KUCITGCVVTKDWVGVQVJGVGEJPQNQIKECNUMKNNQHVJGETCHVUOGP+V
VQ2CVCNKRWVTC+VUGGOUVJCVVJKUOCVJGOCVKEKCPYCUYGNNXGTUGF
YCU KORQUUKDNG VQ RTQFWEG UWEJ C RKNNCT KP CP[ KTQP HQWPFT[
KPXCTKQWUMKPFUQHECNEWNCVKQPU#)WRVCKPUETKRVKQPQH#NNJCDCF
KPVJGYGUVWPVKNCDQWVCEGPVWT[CIQ+VKUCRKV[VJCVVJGNCVGT
UWIIGUVU VJCV VJG FGEKOCN U[UVGO YCU MPQYP KP +PFKC CV VJG
ETCHVUOGPEQWNFPQVFGXGNQRVJKUMPQYNGFIGHWTVJGT
DGIKPPKPIQHVJGHVJEGPVWT[#&+PVJGGNFQHCUVTQPQO[C
DQQMECNNGF4QOCMC SidhantaYCUEQORKNGF+VYCUKPWGPEGF
D[)TGGMKFGCUCUECPDGKPHGTTGFHTQOKVUPCOG Astronomy
#T[CDJCVVC YCU VJG TUV VQ WUG VJG FGEKOCN U[UVGO. He +PVJGGNFQHCUVTQPQO[VJKURGTKQFCNUQYKVPGUUGFGZEGNNGPV
HQTOWNCVGFVJGTWNGHQTPFKPIQWVVJGCTGCQHVTKCPINGYJKEJ YQTM#T[CDJCVVC and VarahmihirYGTGRTQOKPGPVCUVTQPQOGTU
led to the origin of VTKIQPQOGVT[ and calculated the value of 6JGHQTOGTHQWPFQWVVJGECWUGFQHNWPCTCPFUQNCTGENKRUGU
RKG
*GNCKFVJGHQWPFCVKQPQHCNIGDTCKPJKUCT[CDJCVK[C ECNEWNCVGFVJGEKTEWOHGTGPEGQHGCTVJYCUTUVVQTGXGCNVJCV
6JG OQUV HCOQWU YQTM QH VJKU VKOG YCU 5WT[CUKFJCPVC. VJG UWP KU UVCVKQPCT[ CPF VJG GCTVJ TGXQNXGF TQWPF VJG UWP
$TCJOCIWRVC KP VJ EGPVWT[ #& DGICP VQ CRRN[ CNIGDTC VQ 8CTCJCOKJKTUYGNNMPQYPYQTMUCTGBrihatsamhita and Panch
CUVTQPQOKECN RTQDNGOU 6JG VJTGG OCLQT EQPVTKDWVKQPU KP VJG 5KFJJCPVKMC$TCJOCIWRVCYTQVGVJGBrahma Sphutic Siddhata
GNF QH OCVJGOCVKEU CTG VJG PQVCVKQPCN U[UVGO VJG FGEKOCN KPXGTUGCPFNCKFVJGHQWPFCVKQPQHVJGNCYQHITCXKVCVKQP
U[UVGOCPFVJGWUGQH\GTQ
Medicine
Metallurgy Sushruta and %JCTCM YGTG VJG VYQ ITGCV RJ[UKEKCPU QH VJKU
6JG)WRVCETCHVUOGPFKUVKPIWKUJGFVJGOUGNXGUD[VJGKTYQTM period. The Sushruta Samhita FGUETKDGU VJG OGVJQFU QH
KP KTQP CPF DTQP\G 9G MPQY QH UGXGTCN DTQP\G KOCIGU QH operating cataracts, stone diseases and various other ailments.
VJG $WFFJC YJKEJ DGICP VQ DG RTQFWEGF QP C EQPUKFGTCDNG %JCTCMC KU EQPUKFGTGF VQ DG VJG HCVJGT QH +PFKCP /GFKEKPG
UECNGDGECWUGQHVJGMPQYNGFIGQHCFXCPEGFOGVCNVGEJPQNQI[ Vrihad Vagabhatta C YGNNMPQPY RJ[UKEKCP IWKFGF D[ VJG
+PVJGECUGQHKTQPQDLGEVUVJGDGUVGZCORNGKUVJGKTQPRKNNCT YQTMQH%JCTCMCYTQVG#UVCPIJTKFC[C.

THE POST GUPTA AGE


Northern India CPFKVUECRKVCN2CVCNKRWVTCYJKEJUKPEGVJGUKZVJEGPVWT[$%
JCF DGGP VJG EGPVTG QH RQNKVKECN CEVKXKV[ KP 0QTVJ +PFKC NQUV
$[ VJG GPF QH HVJ EGPVWT[ VJG XCUV )WRVC GORKTG DTQMG WR
KPVQ UGXGTCN KPFGRGPFGPV UVCVGU +V YCU FWG VQ VJG TGRGCVGF VJGKTKORQTVCPEGYJGP*CTUJCWPKVGFJKUCPEGUVTCNMKPIFQOQH
KPXCUKQPU QH VJG *WPCU VJG PQOCFKE VTKDGUOCP QH EGPVTCN 6JCPGUYCTYKVJVJG/CWMJCTKMKPIFQOQH-CPPCWLCPFUJKHVGF
#UKC CPF KPVGTPCN FKUTWRVKQP QH RTQXKPEKCN IQXGTPOGPVU YJQ JKUECRKVCNVQ-CTPPWL(TQOPQY
#& QPYCTFUVKNNVJG
GUVCDNKUJGFKPFGRGPFGPVUVCVGUKPFKHHGTGPVRCTVUQHVJGPQTVJGTP 6WTMKUJEQPSWGUVUCVVJGENQUGQHVJGVYGNHVJEGPVWT[-CPCWL
RCTVQH+PFKC9KVJVJGFGENKPGQHVJGKORGTKCN)WRVC/CICFJC TGOCKPGFVJGEGPVTGQHRQNKVKECNCEVKXKV[KP0Qrth India.
The Gupta Empire H-103

  Harsha-A Patron of Arts


6JGTGYCUCDCTDCTQWUTCEGYJKEJECOGVQ+PFKCHTQO%GPVTCN *CTUJCYCUCRCVTQPQHCTVUCPFNGCTPKPI*GJKOUGNHYCU
#UKC*WPCUKPXCFGF+PFKCHQTVJGTUVVKOGFWTKPIVJGTGKIP CIQQFYTKVGT*GYTQVGVJTGGRNC[UKP5CPUMTKVRatnavali,
QH-WOCTCIWRVCDWVVJGKTHWTVJGTRTQITGUUYCUEJGEMGFD[VJG 2TK[CFCTUJKMC and Nagananda 5EJQNCTU NKMG $CPCDJCVVC
)WRVCMKPIYJQKPKEVGFCETWUJKPIFGHGCVWRQPVJGOKPCDQWV 5WDCPFJWCPF&CPFKCPNKXGFKPJKUEQWTV+PJKUGCTN[[GCTU
#&#HVGTHQWTVGGP[GCTUQHVJKUKPXCUKQP*WPCUFGHGCVGF *CTUJC YCU C YQTUJKRRGT QH 5JKXC DWV NCVGT JG DGECOG C
(KTQ\MKPIQH2GTUKCCPFDGECOGVJGOCUVGTUQH2GTUKC6JKU $WFFJKUV*GYCUVQNGTCPVQHQVJGTTGNKIKQPU*GQTICPK\GF
UWEEGUU DQQUVGF VJGKT RQYGT CPF D[ VJG GPF QH HVJ EGPVWT[ C ITCPF CUUGODN[ CV -CPPCWL *G CNUQ ICXG OQPG[ VQ VJG
#&VJG[TWNGFQXGTCXCUVGORKTG(TQOVJKUVKOGQPYCTFU 7PKXGTUKV[QH0CNCPFC6JKUWPKXGTUKV[RTQURGTGFCPFDGECOG
VJGKPXCUKQPUQH*WPCUQXGT+PFKCDGECOGOQTGHTGSWGPV C HCOQWU EGPVTG QH NGCTPKPI *KWGP 6UCPI URGPV OCP[ [GCTU
UVWF[KPI$WFFJKUVVGZVCVVJKU0CNCPFC7PKXGTUKV[

*CTUJC TWNGF HQT CDQWV HQTV[QPG [GCTU VKNN JKU FGCVJ KP
6JGDTGCMWRQHVJG)WRVC'ORKTGYCUHQNNQYGFD[CRGTKQFQH #&*KUFGCVJHCEKNKVCVGFVJGITQYVJQHRGVV[VGTTKVQTKGU
FKUQTFGT5OCNNMKPIFQOUHQWIJVCICKPUVQPGCPQVJGT(KPCNN[ VQDGEQOGUVCVGU*GCNUQFQGUPQVUGGOVQJCXGNGHVCP[JGKT
*CTUJCXCTFJCPCEQPSWGTGFVJGUGMKPIFQOUCPFGUVCDNKUJGFC VQVJGVJTQPGQH-CPCWLYJKEJYCUWUWTRGFCHVGTJKUFGCVJ
RQYGTHWNGORKTG D[JKUOKPKUVGT

9GEQOGVQMPQYCDQWV*CTUJCCPFVJGFGXGNQROGPVUFWTKPI Southern India
JKUTGKIPHTQOVYQOCKP UQWTEGU1PGKU Harshacharita, the 6JGRGTKQFFWTKPI#&VQ#&YKVPGUUGUVJGUGEQPF
DKQITCRJ[ QH VJG MKPI YTKVVGP KP 5CPUMTKV D[ JKU EQWTV RQGV JKUVQTKECNRJCUGKPVJGTGIKQPUUQWVJQHVJG8KPFJC[CU$[VJG
Banabhatta6JGDQQMNKUVUOKNKVCT[CPFEWNVWTCNCEJKGXGOGPVU DGIKPPKPIQHVJGUGXGPVJEGPVWT[VJG2CNNCXCUQH-CPEJKVJG
of Harsha. The other is the account of Hiuen TsangYJQXKUKVGF %JCNWM[CUQH$CFCOKCPFVJG2CPF[CUQH/CFWTCKCRRGCTGFVQ
DGVJGVJTGGOCLQTUVCVGU
+PFKCFWTKPI*CTUJCUTGKIP*GURGPVGKIJV[GCTUKPVJGEQWTV
QH *CTUJC *G JCU YTKVVGP KP FGVCKN CDQWV VJG FGXGNQROGPVU 
FWTKPI VJGUG [GCTU $GUKFGU VJGUG UQWTEGU KPUETKRVKQPU CPF 6JG5CVXCJCPCUYGTGUWEEGGFGFD[VJG8CMCVCMCUCNQECNRQYGT
EQKPUQHVJKURGTKQFCNUQVGNNWUCDQWV*CTUJC KPPQTVJGTP/CJCTCUJVTCCPF8KFCTDJC
$GTCT 6JG8CMCVCMCU
YJQ YGTG $TCJOCPCU VJGOUGNXGU CTG MPQYP HTQO C NCTIG

PWODGT QH EQRRGTRNCVG CPF ITCPVU KUUWGF VQ VJG $TCJOCPCU
Harshavardhan shifted his capital from Thanesvar to Kannauj 6JG[ YGTG ITGCV EJCORKQPU QH VJG $TCJOCPKECN TGNKIKQP CPF
YJKEJ YCU UKVWCVGF QP VJG DCPM QH )CPIC *G EQPXGTVGF KV RGTHQTOGFUGXGTGN8GFKEUCETKEGU6JGKTRQNKVKECNJKUVQT[KUQH
KPVQCOCIPKEGPVYGCNVJ[CPFYGNNHQTVKGFEKV[PGCTN[HQWT OQTGKORQTVCPEGVQPQTVJ+PFKCVJCPVQUQWVJ+PFKC%WNVWTCNN[
OKNGU NQPI CPF C OKNG DTQCF HWTPKUJGF YKVJ PWOGTQWU NQHV[ VJG 8CMCVCMC MKPIFQO DGECOG C EJCPPGN HQT VTCPUOKVVKPI
DWKNFKPIUCPFCFQTPGFYKVJOCP[VCPMUCPFICTFGPU DTCJOCPKECNKFGCUCPFUQEKCNKPUVKVWVKQPUVQVJGUQWVJ
)GPGTCNN[JGKUTGICTFGFCUVJGNCUVRQYGTHWN*KPFWGORGTQT 6JG HQWPFGT QH VJKU F[PCUV[ YCU Vidya Shakti DWV JKU UQP
QH+PFKCDWVJGYCUPGKVJGTCUVCWPEJ*KPFWPQTVJGTWNGTQH 2TCXCTUGPC EQWNF DG KVU TGCN HQWPFGT KP YGUVGTP CPF EGPVTCN
VJGYJQNGEQWPVT[*KUCWVJQTKV[YCUNKOKVGFVQVJGPQTVJ+PFKC +PFKC%JCPFTCIWRVC++TGCNKUGFVJGKORQTVCPEGQHVJKUGORKTG
GZEGRV-CUJOKT4CLCUVJCP2WPLCD7VVCT2TCFGUJ$KJCTCPF and formed alliance through marriage of his daughter into
1TKUUCYGTGWPFGTJKUFKTGEVEQPVTQNDWVJKUURJGTGQHKPWGPEG 8CMCVCMCHCOKN[
URTGCFQXGTCOWEJYKFGTCTGC/QUVN[VJGHGWFCVQTKGUUGGOU +P VJ EGPVWT[ #& 8CMCVCMCU GZVGPFGF VJGKT RQYGT KP
VQJCXGCEEGRVGFJKUUW\GTCKPV[ /CNYC*CTKUGPCYCUVJGNCUVKORQTVCPVOQPCTEJEQPVTQNNKPI
CNNVJGEGPVTCN&GEECP
 6JG8CMCVCMCUEQPVTKDWVGFVQYCTFUVJGCTVUCPFCTEJKVGEVWTG
5GXGTCNECXGUQH#LCPVCCTGETGFKVGFVQVJGTQ[CNRCVTQPCIGQH
*CTUJCTWNGFJKUMKPIFQOQPVJGUCOGNKPGUCUVJG)WRVCUFKF
VJG8CMCVCMCU
GZEGRV VJCV JKU CFOKPKUVTCVKQP JCF DGEQOG OQTG HGWFCN CPF
6JG[ YGTG WRTQQVGF D[ VJG ITQYKPI RQYGT QH %JCNWM[CU QH
FGEGPVTCNKUGF+VKUUVCVGFVJCV*CTUJCJCFUQNFKGTUPWODGTKPI $CFCOK2CNNCXCUQH-CPEJKRWTCOCPF2CPF[[CUQH/CFWTCK
QXGTQPGNCMJCPFECXCNT[CPFGNGRJCPVU*CTUJC 6JG8CMCVCMCUJCFDGGPKPRQYGTHQTCDQWVVYQEGPVWTKGU
EQWNFOQDKNK\GVJCVUWRRQTVQHCNNJKUHGWFCVQTKGUCVVJGVKOGQH
YCT'XKFGPVN[GXGT[HGWFCVQT[EQPVTKDWVGFJKUSWQVCQHHQQV 
UQNFKGTUCPFJQTUGCPFVJWUOCFGVJGCTO[XCUVKPPWODGTU (a) Chalukyas of Badami
.CPFITCPVUEQPVKPWGFVQDGOCFGVQRTKGUVUHQTURGEKCNUGTXKEGU 6JGOQUVPQVCDNGQHVJGGCTN[OGFKGXCNF[PCUVKGUQHVJG
TGPFGTGFVQVJGUVCVG+PCFFKVKQP*CTUJCKUETGFKVGFYKVJVJG &GEECPYCUVJCVQHVJG%JCNWM[CU,C[CUKOJCYCUVJGTUV
ITCPVQHNCPFVQVJGQHEGTUD[EJCTVGTU6JGUGITCPVUCNNQYGF %JCNWM[CPMKPI$WV2WNCMGUJKP+KUIGPGTCNN[CVVTKDWVGF
OQTG EQPEGUUKQPU VQ RTKGUVU CPF QHEGTU VJCP VJQUG D[ VJG VQ DG VJG TUV %JCNWM[CP MKPI *G YCU UWEEGGFGF D[
GCTNKGT ITCPVU 6JWU VJG HGWFCN RTCEVKEG QH TGYCTFKPI CPF /CJCTCLC -KTVKXCTOCP KP  #& 2WNCMGUJKP ++ YCU
RC[KPIQHEGTUYKVJITCPVUQH land on a large scale seems to VJGOQUVRTQOKPGPVTWNGTQHVJGF[PCUV[YJQTWNGFHTQO
JCXGDGIWPWPFGT*CTUJC #&CPFYCUCEQPVGORQTCT[QH*CTUJCXCTFJCP
H-104 The Gupta Empire

*KUHCOGYCUHCTGZVGPFGFGXGPWRVQ2GTUKCYKVJYJQO %JCNWM[CUUWRRQTVGF$TCJOCPKUORGTHQTOGF8GFKEUCETKEGU
JGGZEJCPIGFGODCUUKGU*GYCUFGHGCVGFCPFMKNNGFD[ CPF OCFG ITCPVU VQ VJG $TCJOCPCU VJG VYQ SWCTTGNGF YKVJ
VJG2CNNCXCTWNGT0CTUKOXCTOCP[GCTUNCVGTKP GCEJQVJGTHQTRTGUVKIGCPFVGTTKVQTKCNTGUQWTEGU$QVJVTKGFVQ
QPG QH 2WNCMGUJKPU UQP CXGPIGF JKU HCVJGTU FGCVJ CPF GUVCDNKUJUWRTGOCE[QXGTVJGNCPFN[KPIDGVYGGPVJG-TKUJPC
ECRVWTGF-CPEJK CPFVJG6WPICDJCFTC
(b) Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi 6JGTUVKORQTVCPVGXGPVKPVJKUNQPIUVTWIINGVQQMRNCEGKPVJG
2WNMGUJKP++UDTQVJGTKubja Vishnu VardhanGUVCDNKUJGF reign of 2WNCMGUJKP++
 VJGOQUVRTQOKPGPV%JCNWM[C
CPGYF[PCUV[YKVJKVUECRKVCNCVVJGCPEKGPVEKV[QH8GPIK MKPI *G QXGTVJTGY VJG -CFCODC ECRKVCN CV Banavasi and
$WVUQQPKVURQYGTYCUFGENKPGFCPFKPCDQWVVJEGPVWT[ EQORGNNGFVJG)CPIGUQH/[UQTGVQCEEGRVJKUUW\GTCKPV[*G
VJG[CNNKGFVJG%JQNCUDWVVJG%JQNCMKPIFKFPQVOCKPVCKP also defeated HCTUJCUCTO[QPVJG0CTOCFCCPFEJGEMGFJKU
VJGCNNKCPEGCPFCPPGZGFVJGMKPFQOKP#& OCTEJVQYCTFUVJG&GEECP+PJKUEQPKEVYKVJVJG2CNNCXCUJG
(c) Western Chalukyas of Kalyani CNOQUVTGCEJGFVJG2CNNCXCECRKVCNDWVVJG2CNNCXCURWTEJCUGF
6JGMKPIFQOHQWPFGFD[6CKNC++KPCHVGTFGHGCVKPI RGCEGD[EGFKPIVJGKTPQTVJGTPRTQXKPEGUVQ2WNCMGUJKP++
#OQIJCXCTUJC+8VJGNCUV4CUJVTCMWVCTWNGT*GGZVGPFGF 2WNCMGUJKPUUGEQPFKPXCUKQPQHVJG2CNNCXCVGTTKVQT[GPFGFKP
JKUMKPIFQOWRVQUQWVJGTPRCTVQH2QTOGTCMKPIFQOQH HCKNWTG 6JG 2CNNCXC MKPI Narasimhavarman
#&  
/CNYC8KMTCOCFKV[C++6TKDJWXCPOCNN
 YCU QEEWRKGF VJG %JCNWM[C ECRKVCN CV Vatapi KP CDQWV #& 
VJGITGCVGUVTWNGTQHVJKUF[PCUV[CPFJGYCUTGICTFGFCU YJGP 2WNCMGUJKP ++ YCU RTQDCDN[ MKNNGF KP IJV CICKPUV VJG
VJGJGTQQH$KNJCPCU8KMTCOCPMCFGXCEJCTKVC. He is the 2CNNCXCU0CTUKOJCXCTOCPCFQRVGFVJGVKVNGQH8CVCRKMQPFCQT
HQWPFGTQHVJG8KMCTO5COXCV'TC,CICFGMCOCNN++YCU the conqueror of Vatapi. He is also said to have defeated the
VJG NCUV TWNGT CHVGT YJQUG FGCVJ JKU -CNCEJWTK OKPKUVGT %JQNCUVJG%JGTCUVJG2CPF[CUCPFVJG-CNCDJTCU
8KLLCNCWUWTRGFJKUVJTQPG $[VJGGPFQHVJGUGXGPVJEGPVWT[VJGEQPKEVYCUUWDUKFGF
DWVKVYCUCICKPTGUWOGFKPVJGTUVJCNHQHVJGGKIJVJEGPVWT[
Art and Architecture
#& 6JG %JCNWM[C MKPI 8KMTCOCFKV[C ++
#&   KU
 #TVOCFGITGCVRTQITGUUWPFGTVJGKTRCVTQPCIG6JGVGORNG
UCKF VQ JCXG QXGTTWP -CPEJK VJTGG VKOGU +P  #& JG
CTEJKVGEVWTGYCUCDNGPFQH&TCXKFCCPF0CICTCUV[NGU
EQORNGVGN[ QXGTVJTQY VJG 2CNNCXCU *KU XKEVQT[ GPFGF VJG
6JG[ DWKNV CDQWV  VGORNGU CV #KJQNG YJKEJ KU TKIJVN[
2CNNCXCUWRTGOCE[KPVJGHCTUQWVJCNVJQWIJVJGTWNKPIJQWUG
regarded as the cradle of Indian temple architecture.
EQPVKPWGFHQTOQTGVJCPCEGPVWT[CHVGTYCTFU*QYGXGTVJG
1VJGT HCOQWU VGORNGU KPENWFG VJG 8KTWRCMUJC VGORNG
%JCNWM[CUEQWNFPQVGPLQ[VJGHTWKVUQHVJGKTXKEVQT[QXGTVJG
CV 2CVVCFCMCN VJG 8KUJPW VGORNG QH $CFCOK VJG 5JKXC
2CNNCXCUHQTNQPIHQTVJGKTQYPJGIGOQP[YCUDTQWIJVVQCP
VGORNG QH /CIWVK CPF VJG -CUK 8KUJXGUXCTC VGORNG
GPFKP#&D[VJG4CUJVTCMWVCU
QH .CMJWPFK 6JG[ ICXG RCVTQPCIG VQ *KPFWKUO CPF
,CKPKUO6JGKTGORKTGECOGVQCPGPFD[#&YJGP 
VJGKTHGWFCVQT[4CUVTCMWVCUFGHGCVGF-KTVKXCTOCP 6JGVGTO4CUJVTCMWVCUOGCPUQHEGTUKPEJCTIGQHVGTTKVQTKCN
FKXKUKQPU ECNNGF TCUJVT 6JG 4CUJVTCMWVCU QTKIKPCNN[ DGNQPIGF
to Lattalura OQFGTP .CVWT QH /CJCTCUJVTC 6JG[ YGTG QH
1PVJGFGENKPGQHVJG5CVXCJCPCRQYGTKPVJGGCUVGTPRCTVQH -CPPCFCQTKIKPCPF-CPPCFCYCUVJGKTOQVJGTVQPIWG
VJGRGPKPUWNCVJGTGCTQUGVJG+MUJCXCMWUKPVJGKrishna Guntur 6JG HQWPFGT QH VJG 4CUJVTCMWVC YCU Dantidurga *G YCU
TGIKQP6JG[UGGOVQJCXGDGGPCNQECNVTKDGYJQCFQRVGFVJG EQPVGORQTCT[QH%JCNWM[CMKPI2WNMGUJKP++&CPVKFWTICYCU
FKIPKGFPCOGQHVJG+MUJCXCMWUKPQTFGTVQUJQYVJGCPVKSWKV[ UWEEGGFGF D[ JKU WPENG -TKUJPCTCLC
  *G FGHGCVGF
QHVJGKTNKPGCIG6JG[CTGOQUVN[TGECNNGFHQTOQPWOGPVUNKMG VJGVGTTKVQTKGUVJCVYGTGUVKNNWPFGTVJG%JCNWM[CUCPFVJGTGD[
0CICTLWPCMQPFC and &JCTCPKMQVC6JG[YGTGQXGTVJTQYPD[ EQORNGVGF EQPSWGUV QH VJG %JCNWM[C VGTTKVQTKGU %JCNWM[CTCL
the Pallavas. 8KUJPWXCTFJCPC+8QH8GPIKCPFVJG)CPICMKPIQH/[UQTGYGTG
 QXGTVJTQYPD[VJG4CUJVTCMWVC-KPI-TKUJPCTCLCKrishanraja
DWKNVVJGKailash temple of ElloraYJKEJYCUUWRGTDGZCORNG
&WTKPIVJGthEGPVWT[VQNCVGthEGPVWT[VJG2CNNCXCUYGTG
QHVJG4CUJVTCMWVCCTVCPFCTEJKVGEVWTG-TKUJPCTCLCUGXGPVHWN
VJGFQOKPCPVRQYGTKPVJG&GEECPYJQYGTGVJGKPFKIGPQWU
RGTKQF ECOG VQ CP GPF YKVJKP C XGT[ UJQTV VKOG CPF JG YCU
UWDQTFKPCVGUQHVJG5CVCXCJCPCU6JG[OCTEJGFVQ#PFJTCCPF
UWEEGGFGF D[ JKU UQP )QXKPFTCL YJQ TWNGF HQT UQOGVKOG CU
VJGPVQ-CPEJKYJGTGVJG[GUVCDNKUJGFVJGOKIJV[2CNNCXC'ORKTG
)QXKPFC++*KUYQTVJNGUUPGUUCUCTWNGTCPFJKUNCEMQHKPVGTGUV
2CNNCXCU YGTG TGNKIKQWU VQNGTCPV CPF UWRRQTVGF $WFFJKUO
KPCFOKPKUVTCVKQPNGFVQJKUFGRQUKVKQPD[JKUDTQVJGT&JTWXCYJQ
,CKPKUOCPFVJG$TCJOKPKECNHCKVJCPFYGTGRCVTQPUQHOWUKE
CUEGPFGFVJGVJTQPGJKOUGNH&JTWXCYCUUWEEGGFGFD[)QXKPFC
paintings and literature. Their greatest monuments are at
+++JKUUQPCPFYKVJCNOQUVGSWCNXKIQWTCUQHJKUHCVJGT.
/CJCDCNKRWTCO 6JG ENCUJ DGVYGGP VJG 2CNNCXCU CPF VJG
%JCNWM[CU EQPVKPWGF HQT OCP[ EGPVWTKGU  6JG NCUV 2CNNCXC 6JG4CUJVTCMWVCUMGRVQPVJGDGUVQHVGTOUYKVJVJG#TCDCUQH
TWNGT#RCTCLKVCXCTOCYCUFGHGCVGFD[VJG%JQNCU 5KPFJCPFGPTKEJGFVJGKTUWDLGEVUD[GPEQWTCIKPIEQOOGTEG
Struggle Between The Pallavas and the Chalukyas 6JG[GPEQWTCIGF*KPFWKUOCPF&KIJCODCTC,CKPKUO
6JGOCKPECWUGQHVJGUVTWIINGDGVYGGP2CNNCXCUCPF%JCNWM[CU 6JGKTECRKVCNYCUCV/CP[CMJGVC
YCU VJG UWRTGOCE[ 6JG 2CPF[CU YJQ YGTG KP EQPVTQN QH .KVGTCVWTG YCU GPEQWTCIGF 6JG MKPI #OQIJCXCTUJC +
/CFWTCK CPF 6KPPGXGNN[ FKUVTKEV QH 6COKN 0CFW LQKPGF VJKU JKOUGNH CWVJQTGF C RCTV QH -CXKTCLCOCTIC VJG GCTNKGUV
EQPKEV CU C RQQT VJKTF #NVJQWIJ DQVJ VJG 2CNNCXCU CPF VJG MPQYP-CPPCFCRQGO
The Gupta Empire H-105

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UGVWRCPGYECRKVCNCV/CNMJGFQT/CP[CMJGVCCPFFWTKPIJKU Provincial Adminstration: 6JG GORKTG YCU FKXKFGF KPVQ
TGKIP$TQCEJDGECOGVJGDGUVRQTVQHJKUMKPIFQO principalities (under vassal chiefs ) and mandalams (provinces
#OQIJCXCTUJC TWNGF HQT  [GCTU CPF JG YCU UWEEGGFGF D[ WPFGT XKEGTQ[U YJQ YGTG OQUVN[ TQ[CN RTKPEGU  YKVJ HWTVJGT
JKU UQP -TKUJPC ++ YJQ KP JKU VWTP YCU UWEEGGFGF D[ +PFTC division of the provinces into Valanadus (divisions), Nadus
++++PFTC+++YCUCRQYGTHWNMKPI*GFGHGCVGFCPFFGRQUGF
FKUVTKEVU CPF-WTTCOU
XKNNCIGU 
/CJKRCNC 6JG 4CUVTMWVC -KPI #OQIJCXCTUJC ++ )QXKPFC Achievement of Cholas: 6JG %JQNC GORKTG FWTKPI 4CLCTCLC
+8 CPF #OQIJCXCTUJC +++ YGTG YGCM CPF YQTVJNGUU MKPIU + KPENWFGF 6COKN 0CFW )QQTI 5TKNCPMC CPF OCP[ KUNCPFU
6JG NCUV RQYGTHWN CPF GHEKGPV MKPI QH VJG 4CUVTCMWVCU YCU KPENWFKPI.CUMUYCFGGRCPF/CNFKXGU
-TKUJPC+++ 4CLGPFTC %JQNC CUUWOGF VJG VKVNG QH )CPICKMQPFC CHVGT
EQPUQNKFCVKPIJKUVGTTKVQTKGUTKIJVWRVQTKXGT)CPIC
 Chola art and Literature: 6JG %JQNCU ITGCVN[ GPEQWTCIGF
6JGHQWPFGTQHVJG%JQNCF[PCUV[YCUVijayalaCHGWFCVQT[QH UEWNRVWTG CTEJKVGTEWVG CPF RCKPVKPI 6JG %JQNCU GUVCDNKUJGF
VJG2CNNCXCU*KUF[PCUV[TQUGVQJKIJGOKPGPEGCPFNCUVGFHQT PGY EKVKGU CPF EQPUVTWEVGF OCP[ RCNCVKCN DWKNFKPIU 6JG[
OQTGVJCPVYQEGPVWTKGU8KLC[CNCTQUGVQRQYGTPGCT7TCK[CT, DGCWVKHWNN[GTGEVGFVGORNGUUGTXGFCUVJGEQPHGTGPEGJQWUGUHQT
VJGECRKVCNQHVJG%JQNCUQHVJG5CPICO#IG#PKPUETKRVKQP VJGCUUGODNKGU6JG5JKXCVGORNGQHRajrajeshwarCV6CPLQTGKU
at Tiruchirapalli district records a gift of land in accordance CRGTHGEVGZCORNGQH%JQNCCTVYJKEJKUHGGVJKIJCPFJCU
YKVJVJGQTFGTUQHVJG2CTCMGUCTK8KLC[CNC%JNCFGXC6JGVKVNGU VJKTVGGP UVQTG[U 6JG $TKJCFGUXCTC VGORNG CV 6JCPLQTG KU VJG
QH2CTCMGUCTKCPF4CLCMGUCTKYGTGCNVGTPCVGN[CUUWOGFD[VJG PGUVURGEKOGPQH%JQNCCTEJKVGEVWTG
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Central Administration: 6JG GORGTQT QT MKPI YCU CV VJG 6JG%JGTCUJCFVTCFGTGNCVKQPUYKVJ4QOGKPVJGTUVEGPVWT[
apex of the administration. He had an WFCPMWVVCO, immediate #&VJGFGUETKRVKQPQHVJG%JGTCUQHGCTN[VKOGUKUHQWPFKPVJG
attendants, a group of ministers representing all the chief GFKEVUQH#UJQMCKPYJKEJVJG[JCXGDGGPECNNGFD[VJGPCOG
departments of administration to advise him on the disposal QH-GTCNC2WVTCU'PQWIJJKUVQTKECNOCVGTKCNCDQWVVJGJKUVQT[
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KPUQEKGV[QTICPK\GFKPVYQTCPMUCPupper perundanam and 
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H-106 The Gupta Empire

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F[PCUV[KPVQGOKPGPEGIQGUVQVishnu Vardhan. He improved the political condition of those regions and extended his rule
RQNKVKECN RQUKVKQP QH JKU MKPIFQO D[ JKU XKEVQTKGU 9KVJ VJG KPCNNVJGHQWTEQTPGTUQHJKUMKPIFQO6JGHCEVKUVJCVJGYCU
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Balla II*GFGHGCVGFVJG%JCNWM[CUCPFVJG;CFCXCUVQQ6JG 
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/CNKM-CHWT, the chief general of Alauddin Khilji in 1311. He PQTVJ -CTPCVCMC YKVJ JKU ECRKVCN CV Banavasi after defeating
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6JGUGRGQRNGCEMPQYNGFIGFDGKPIEJCPFTCXCPUK
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6JGKT ITGCV TWNGTU YGTG $JKNNCOC 5KOJCPC 4COCEJCPFTC coins.
etc. BhillamaYCUVJGTUVKORQTVCPVMKPIQHVJKUF[PCUV[*G x 2TQOKPGPVTWNGTUQH)WRVCGORKTG%JCPFTCIWRVC+

TGKIPGFHTQOVQ*GEQPSWGTGFVJG*Q[CUCNCUCPF #& 5COWFTCIWRVC
#& %JCPFTCIWRVC
made Devagiri JKU ECRKVCN 6JG OQUV RTQOKPGPV MKPI QH VJKU ++
 #&  -WOCTCIWRVC + /CJGTCFKV[C

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of architecture, sculpture, painting and terracotta.
upto the river Narmada.
6JKU RGTKQF KU CNUQ MPQYP CU Golden Age of Ancient
 India.
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independent in the territories of Telingana and Warrangal, 2JKNQUQRJKECN NKVGTCVWTG YCU CNUQ YTKVVGP FWTKPI VJKU
YJGTGVJG[HQWPFGFVJGKTQYPMKPIFQO5QOGQHVJGRQYGTHWN period.
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Pratap Rudra Deo,GVE2TQNCTCLCFGHGCVGFVJG%JCNWM[CUCPF /CVJGOCVKEU /GVCNNWTI[ #UVTQPQO[ CPF OGFKEKPG
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The Gupta Empire H-107

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H-108 The Gupta Empire

23. The rR\DOVHDORIWKH*XSWDVERUHWKHHPEOHPRI 35. The word Vishti means


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25. Which one of the following is not related to the feudal  F  &KDUDND6DPKLWD
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10
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Introduction
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their rule froO )WLCTCV CPF UQWVJ YGUVGTP 4CLCUVJCP .CVGT JCUDGGPKPEQTRQTCVGFCUNGIGPFQPUQOGQHJKUEQKPU&WTKPI
VJG[TWNGFHTQO-CPPCWLNagabhata+YCUVJGTUVITGCVTWNGT the reign of Mahendrapala+UQPCPFUWEEGUUQTQH$JQLC+VJG
QHVJGF[PCUV[*GFGHGCVGFVJG/WUNKOHQTEGUQH#TCDBhoja 2TCVKJCTCGORGTQTGZVGPFGFCNOQUVHTQOVJG*KOCNC[CUKPVJG
+
#& YCUCPQVJGTRTQOKPGPVTWNGTQHVJKUF[PCUV[ PQTVJVQVJG8KPFJ[CUKPVJGUQWVJCPFHTQO$GPICNKPVJGGCUV
*GUWEEGGFGFKPTGUVQTKPIVJGVGTTKVQTKGUQHVJGMKPIFQOYJKEJ VQ)WLCTCVKPVJGYGUV
H-120 India After Harsha

The Pratiharas ruled over north India for more than three hundred RTQXGFVGORQTCT[CPFUJQTVNKXGF1PEGCICKPVJG4CUJVTCMWVC
[GCTU 6JG Arab travelers such as Sulaiman and Al Masudi, MKPIGovinda IIIWRUGVVJGUEJGOGUQHVJG2TCVKJCTCMKPI
YJQXKUKVGF+PFKCKPVJGPKPVJCPFVGPVJEGPVWTKGU#&YTQVG NagabhattaYCUUWEEGGFGFD[RamabhadraYJQTWNGFHQTC
CDQWV VJG RQYGT CPF RTGUVKIG QH VJG 2TCVKJCT TWNGTU CPF VJG XGT[UJQTVRGTKQF*GYCUCYGCMTWNGTCPFFWTKPIJKUVKOGUVJG
vastness of their empire. EQWPVT[ YCU HTGSWGPVN[ KPXCFGF 4COCDJCFTC YCU UWEEGGFGF
6JG 2TCVKJCTCU YGTG RCVTQPU QH CTVU ETCHVU NGCTPKPI CPF D[ JKU UQP Bhoja. He YCU RTQDCDN[ VJG ITGCVGUV CPF OQUV
NKVGTCVWTG 6JGITGCV5CPUMTKV poet 4CLCUJGMJCTC adorned the KNNWUVTKQWU MKPI QH 2TCVKJCTC F[PCUV[ $JQLC TGUVQTGF VJG NQUV
court of Mahendrapala +*KUHCOQWUYQTMKU-CX[COKOCPUC. INQT[CPFRTGUVKIGQH2TCVKJCT'ORKTG+PQTFGTVQTGICKPVJG
6JG 2TCVKJCTCU GODGNNKUJGF -CPCWL YKVJ PG DWKNFKPIU CPF NQUVRQYGTJGJCFVQYCIGYCTCICKPUVVJG2CNCU6JG2CNCMKPI
temples. CVVJCVVKOGYCU&GXCRCNC$JQLCNGFCPGZRGFKVKQPVQYCTFUVJG
Palas UQWVJ6JGEJKGHCVVTCEVKQPKPUQWVJYCUVJGVQVVGTKPIEQPFKVKQP
QH 4CUJVTCMWVC F[PCUV[ (TQO 4CUJVTMWVC KPUETKRVKQPU YG
6JGHQWPFGTQH2CNCUF[PCUV[YCUGopala +YJQYCUGNGEVGFCU NGCTPVJCVJGTGVQQ4CLC$JQLCUWHHGTGFCFGHGCV
VJGMKPID[VJGRGQRNG*GYCUCDNGVQEQPUQNKFCVGJKUMKPIFQO +P URKVG QH VJGUG TGUKUVCPEGU $JQLC FKF PQV NQUG JGCTV (TQO
CPFGUVCDNKUJGFCRQYGTHWNGORKTGQH2CNCF[PCUV[ CP KPUETKRVKQP YG NGCTP VJCV JG TGUQNXGF VQ EQPSWGT CNN VJG
Dharmapala and Devapala YGTGVJGOQUVRQYGTHWNTWNGTUQH VJTGG YQTNFU CPF UQ JG TGPGYGF JKU CIITGUUKXG ECTGGT
VJKUF[PCUV[6JG[GZVGPFGFCPFEQPUQNKFCVGFVJG2CNC'ORKTG $[ VJCV VKOG &GXCRCNC VJG RQYGTHWN MKPI QH 2CNC F[PCUV[
6JG 2CNCU TWNGF QXGT $KJCT $GPICN CPF RCTVU QH 1TKUUC CPF
JCF GZRKTGF CPF JKU UWEEGUQTU YGTG YGCM CPF RGCEGNQXKPI
#UUCOYKVJOCP[WRUCPFFQYPUKPVJGKTHQTVWPGHQTQXGTHQWT
/QTGQXGTJKUEQPVGORQTCT[4CUJVTCMWVCMKPICVVJKUVKOGYCU
centuries.
Amoghavarsha #OQIJCXCTUJC ECOG KPVQ EQPKEV YKVJ VJG
6JG2CNCTWNGTUYGTGITGCVUWRRQTVGTQHNGCTPKPICPFTGNKIKQPU
TWNGTUQH2CNCF[PCUV[KPYJKEJJGUEQTGFUQOGUWEEGUU
Dharampala HQWPFGF VJG HCOQWU $WFFJKUV OQPCUVGT[ CV
8KMTCOUJKNCYJKEJDGECOGUGEQPFQPN[VQ0CNCPFCKPHCOGCU $JQLCCNUQVTKGFVQVCMGCFXCPVCIGQHVJGYGCMRQUKVKQPQHVJG
CEGPVTGHQTJKIJGTNGCTPKPI&WTKPI2CNCUTGKIPVJGHCOGQH 2CNCMKPIUCPFCVVCEMGF$GPICN6JG2CNCMKPI0CTC[CPC2CNC
0CNCPFC7PKXGTUKV[URTGCFCNNQXGTVJGYQTNF UWHHGTGFCETWUJKPIFGHGCVCPF$JQLCCPPGZGFVJGYGUVGTPRCTVU
QHJKUGORKTG$JQLCCNUQJCFVQYCIGCRTQVTCEVGFYCTCICKPUV
&WTKPI &CXCRCNCU TGKIP VJG MKPI QH 5WXCTPCFXKRC
5QWVJ VJG 4CUJVTMWVCU YJQ JCF CNTGCF[ FGCNV C ETWUJKPI FGHGCV QP
'CUV#UKC $CNCRWVTCFGXGCDWKNVCOQPCUVGT[KP0CNCPFCCPF JKO$JQLCOCFG-CPPCWLCUVJGECRKVCNQH2TCVKJCT'ORKTG
TGSWGUVGF&GXCRCNCVQGPFQYVJGKPEQOGQHXGXKNNCIGUHQT 4CLC $JQLC YCU UWEEGGFGF D[ Mahendrapala. He defeated
VJGOCKPVGPCPEGQHVJGOQPCUVGT[ $GPICN VJG JQOG VGTTKVQT[ QH JKU JGTGFKVCT[ GPGOKGU
VJG 2CNCU *G YCU UWEEGGFGF D[ /CJKRCNC *G KPXCFGF
Tripartite Struggle 4CUJVTCMWVCU'XGPFWTKPIVJGTGKIPQH/CJKRCNCUUWEEGUUQTU
6JGOQUVKORQTVCPVGXGPVQHRQUV*CTUJCRGTKQFYCUVTKRCTVKVG VJG 4CUJVTMWVC KPXCUKQPU EQPVKPWGF #HVGT &GXCRCN VJG INQT[
EQPKEVCOQPIVJGGurjara-Pratiharas, 4CUJVTMWVWU and Palas QH2CNCUECOGVQCPGPFCPF&GXCRCNCUUWEEGUUQTUEQWNFPQV
HQTVJGUWRTGOCE[QHVJGPQTVJ6JKUEQPKEVUVCTVGFFWTKPIVJG TGUKUVVJG4CUJVTCMWVCCPF2TCVKJCTCKPTQCFU6JG5GPCF[PCUV[
TGKIP QH 8CVUCTCLC2TCVKJCT *G CUEGPFGF VJG VJTQPG KP #& UWEEGGFGFVJG2CNCUKP$GPICN
+PQTFGTVQIKXGRTCEVKECNUJCRGVQJKUKORGTKCNKUVFGUKIPU
8CVUCTCLC YKVJ VJG JGNR QH JKU HGWFCVQT[ EJKGHU CVVCEMGF The Rajputs
&JCTORCNCVJG2CNCMKPIQH$GPICNCPFECTTKGFCYC[JKUUVCVG 6JG UOCNNGT UVCVGU KP PQTVJGTP +PFKC YGTG TWNGF D[ RGQRNG
WODTGNNC MPQYP CU 4CLRWVU 6JG RGTKQF DGVYGGP #&  CPF #&
9JKNG VJG EQPKEV DGVYGGP $CVUCTCLC CPF &JCTOCRCNC YCU KG[GCTUKUMPQYPCUVJG4CLRWVRGTKQFKPVJGJKUVQT[
IQKPI QP VQ GUVCDNKUJ UWRTGOCE[ KP VJG PQTVJ &JTWXC VJG QH+PFKC9KVJVJGFQYPHCNNQH2TCVKJCTC'ORKTGCPWODGTQH
4CUJVTMWVC MKPI QH UQWVJ NCWPEJGF CP CVVCEM QP 8CVUCTCLC 4CLRWVUVCVGUECOGKPVQGZKUVGPEGKPPQTVJ+PFKC
CPFKPKEVGFCETWUJKPIFGHGCVWRQPJKO&JTWXCPGZVVWTPGF
CICKPUV&JCTOCRCNCCPFFGHGCVGFJKOUQOGYJGTGDGVYGGPVJG 
)CPIGU CPF VJG ;COWPC 6JWU DGICP VJG VTKRCTVKVG UVTWIING 6JGTGCTGFKHHGTGPVVJGQTKGUTGICTFKPIVJGQTKIKPQHVJG4CLRWVU
DGVYGGP VJG 2TCVKJCTCU 2CNCU CPF 4CUVJTCMWVCU HQT VJG 1PG VJGQT[ UWIIGUVU VJCV VJG 4CLRWVU CTG FGUEGPFGPVU QH VJG
UWRTGOCE[KPPQTVJGTP+PFKC6JGEKV[QH-CPPCWLYJKEJYCU CPEKGPV-UJVTK[CUDGNQPIKPIVQGKVJGT5WPHCOKN[
5WT[CXCPUJC 
GNGXCVGFVQCPKORQTVCPVRQUKVKQPD[*CTUJCXCTFJCPCUGGOUVQ QT /QQP HCOKN[
%JCPFTCXCPUJC  6JGTG KU C VJGQT[ QH VJG
JCXGDGGPVJGEQXGVGFRTK\GYQPD[GCEJ6JQWIJ8CVUCTCLC HQTGKIPQTKIKPCNUQ$WVVJGTGYGTGHQWTENCPUYJKEJENCKOGF
FGHGCVGF&JCTOCRCNCCPFDQVJUWHHGTGFCFGHGCVCVVJGJCPFU VJCVVJG[JCFPQVFGUEGPFGFHTQOGKVJGTQHVJGUGVYQHCOKNKGU
QH &JTWXC VJG 4CUJVTCMWVC MKPI [GV KV UQ CRRGCTU VJCV VJG
DWV HTQO VJG TG HCOKN[
CIPKMWNC  6JGUG HQWT ENCPU YGTG
EQPFKVKQPQH8CVUCTCLCJCFYQTUGPGFCU&JCTOCRCNCEQPVKPWGF
GPLQ[KPIJKUJQNFQXGT-CPPCWLGXGPCHVGTUWHHGTKPICFGHGCV VJG OQUV KORQTVCPV KP VJG JKUVQT[ QH VJKU RGTKQF 6JG[ YGTG
HTQOJKO&JCTOCRCNCCNUQEQPXGPGFCPCUUGODN[CV-CPPCWL VJG2TCVKJCTCU
QT2CTKJCTCU PQVVQDGEQPHWUGFYKVJVJGOCKP
YJKEJYCUCVVGPFGFD[VJGTWNGTUQHXCTKQWUUVCVGU 2TCVKJCTCUVJG%JCWJCPU5QNCPMKUCPF2CYCTU
QT2CTCOCTU 
VatsarajaYCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKUUQPCPFUWEEGUUQTNagabhatta, The four (agni-kula  ENCP GUVCDNKUJGF VJGKT RQYGT KP
YJQ VQQ YCU CODKVKQWU CPF CP KORGTKCNKUV *G OCFG GHHQTVU 9GUVGTP+PFKCCPFQXGTRCTVUQH%GPVTCN+PFKCCPF4CLCUVJCP
VQ TGUVQTG VJG NQUV RTGUVKIG QH JKU GORKTG *KU GHHQTVU YGTG 6JG HQTGKIP QTKIKP QH UQOG QH VJG 4CLRWV ENCPU KU FGPKVGN[
ETQYPGFYKVJVTGOGPFQWUUWEEGUU(TQOVJG)YCNKQTRNCVGU RTQXGFD[VJGGRKITCRJKEGXKFGPEG1PVJGYJQNGVJGFKXGTUKV[
YGNGCTPVJCV0CICDJCVVCFGHGCVGF&JCTOCRCNCCPFCFXCPEGF QHVJGEWNVUCPFDGNKGHUOCPPGTUCPFEWUVQOURTGXCNGPVCOQPI
CU HCT CU /QPIJ[T 0CICDJCVVCU XKEVQT[ QXGT &JCTOCRCNC VJG4CLRWVUUGGOUVQKPFKECVGFKXGTUKV[QHQTKIKP
India After Harsha H-121

Gahadvalsa, Parmars and Chauhans (ii) The Chauhans -JGNRGF2TCVKJCTCCICKPUV#TCDUDCUGF


KPGCUVGTP4CLCUVJCP
6JGOQUVRQYGTHWN4CLRWVUYGTGVJG)CJCFXCNCUQH-CPPCWL
(iii) The Solankis -CNUQECNNGF%JCNWM[CUQH)WLCTCVDCUGF
VJG2CTCOCTCUQH/CNYCCPFVJG%JCWJCPUQH#LOGT6JGTG KP-CVJKYCTC
YGTGQVJGTUOCNNGTF[PCUVKGUKPFKHHGTGPVRCTVUQHVJGEQWPVT[
(iv) The Pawars of Parmars - GUVCDNKUJGF VJGKT EQPVTQN KP
NKMG VJG Kalachuris KP VJG CTGC CTQWPF OQFGTP ,CDCNRWT /CNYCYKVJVJGKTECRKVCNCV&JCTPGCT+PFQTG
the ChandellasKP$WPFGNMJCPFVJGChalukyasQH)WLCTCV 6JGHQWTENCPUFQOKPCVGFGCTN[4CLRWVCEVKXKVKGU
and the TomarsQH&GNJKGVEVJGGahadvalasQH-CPPCWL
ITCFWCNN[USWGG\GFVJG2CNCUQWVQH$KJCTCPFOCFG$CPCTCUC 
UGEQPFECRKVCN/GCPYJKNGVJG%JCWJCPUYJQJCFGUVCDNKUJGF 6JG(GWFCNQTFGTYCUUVTQPIN[GUVCDNKUJGFCOQPIVJG4CLRWVU
VJGOUGNXGUCV#LOGTYGTGITCFWCNN[GZVGPFKPIVJGKTGORKTG 6JG4CLRWVTWNGTUFKXKFGFVJG-KPIFQOUCOQPINCPFGFWPKVU
VQYCTFU)WLCTCVCUYGNNCUVQYCTFU&GNJKCPFVJG2WPLCD called JairsCPFFKUVTKDWVGFVJGOCOQPIHCKVJHWNPQDNGU6JG
1PVJGRGTKRJGT[QHYJCVJCFDGGPVJGVJTGGOCLQTMKPIFQOU 4CLRWVUYGTG*KPFWUCPFYGTGMPQYPCU-UJCVTK[CUDGKPIC
VJGTGJCFCTKUGPCPWODGTQHUOCNNUVCVGU6JGUGYGTG0GRCN YCTTKQTENCUU6JG[EGNGDTCVGFVJGOCLQT*KPFWHGUVKXCNUCPF
-COCTWRC
#UCCO  -CUJOKT CPF 7VMCNC
1TKUUC  /CP[ KPXQMGF )QFFGUUGU NKMG &WTIC QT $JCXCPK HQT UVTGPIVJ CPF
QHVJGJKNNUVCVGUQHVJG2WPLCDECOGKPVQDGKPICVVJKUVKOG XCNQWT 4CLRWV YQOGP YGTG TGURGEVGF KP UQEKGV[ DWV FKF PQV
KPENWFKPI%JCORCMC
%JCODC &WTICTC
,COOW CPF-WNWVC GPLQ[VJGUCOGRQUKVKQPCUOGP

-WNW 6JGQDUGUUKQPYKVJNQECNCHHCKTUCPFKPIJVKPICOQPI
VJGUVCVGUOCFGVJGOYGCM 
6JGRGTKQFWPFGTVJG4CLRWVUCNUQYKVPGUUGFVJGDNQUUQOKPIQH
  NKVGTCVWTG/WPLCQHVJG2CTCOCTF[PCUV[QH/CNYCYCUCITGCV
(i) The Parihara -CNUQMPQYPCU2TCVKJCTCDCUGFKPUQWVJGTP UEJQNCT CPF RQGV #PQVJGT MKPI -KPI $JQL YCU YGNNMPQYP
4CLCUVJCP HQTJKUYKUFQOCPFNGCTPKPICPFCUUWOGFVJGVKVNGQH4CXKTCLC
Important Literary Work
Subject area Name of the author Name of the work Remarks
2QGVT[ 1. Jaideva )KVC)QXKPFC  ,CKFGXC YCU VJG EQWTV RQGV QH .CMUJOCPCUGPC
QH$GPICN
$JCTCXK -KCVCTLWPG[C
$JCTCVTKJCTK 4CXCPC8CFJC
&COQFCT)WRVC -WVVCPKOCVC
/CIJC Sishupala Vadha
Shri Harsha
&TCOC 4CLC5GMJCTC $CN4COC[CPC  4CLC5GMJCTCYCUVJGEQWTVRQGVQH/CJGPFTCRCN
the Pratihara ruler.
$JCXCDJWVK /CJCXKT%JCTKVC  $JCXCDJWVK YTQVG KP 2TCMTKV /CNCVK /CFJCX
7VVCTC4COEJCTKVC
Historic 1. Vadra Narain Veni Sanhara  Veni Sanhar is full of heroic tales.
9QTM -CNJCPC 4CLVCTCPIKPK  4CLCVCTCPIKPKPCTTCVGUVJGJKUVQT[QH-CUJOKT
,C[CPKCM 2TKVJXKTCL8KLC[
*GOEJCPFTC -WOCTRCN%JCTKVC  2TKVJXKTCL8KLC[CPF-WOCTRCN%JCTKVCTG)TGCV
UQWTEGUQHEQPVGORQTCT[JKUVQT[
$KQITCRJ[ $KNJCPC 8KMTCOCFGXC%JCTKVC  +VKUVJGDKQITCRJ[QHC%JCNWM[C-KPI
%JCPF$CTFCK 2TKVJXKTCL4CUQ  +VFGCNUYKVJVJGGZRNQKVUQH2TKVJXKTCL%JCWJCP
$CNNCNC $JQLC2TCDCPFJW  +VUJQYUNKIJVQPVJGNKHGQHMKPI$JQLC
Stories 1. Somadeva -CVJCUCTKVC5CICT  Hitopadesha is a collection of short stories
Hitopadesha DCUGFQP2CPEJVCPVTC
/GFKEKPG $CIJDJCVVC #UVCPIJTKFC[
and Science %JCMTCRCPK&WVVC #[WTXGFC
$JCUMCTCEJCT[C Siddhanta Siromani
5CTKFJCTK Tarisati
)TCOOCT ,C[CFKV[C -CUKMXKVTK
$JCTCVTKJCTK %QOOGPVCT[QP2CPKPKU
/CJCDJCU[C
H-122 India After Harsha

 The cause of thiUKPXCUKQPYCUPGKVJGTVJGYKUJHQTVGTTKVQTKCN


GZRCPUKQP PQT TGNKIKQWU 6JG MKPI QH %G[NQP JCF UGPV UQOG
6JG RCNCEGU QH ,CKRWT CPF 7FCKRWT CPF VJG HQTVU QH %JKVVQT
/CPFW ,QFJRWT CPF )YCNKQT CTG PG GZCORNGU QH 4CLRWV IKHVU VQ VJG MKPI QH 6WTMG[ YJKEJ YGTG NQQVGF CV &GDCN KP
architecture. Dilwara temples at Mount Abu, the Vimala Vasahi 5KPFJD[VJGRKTCVGU6JGTWNGTQHVJG5KPFJ&CJKTTGHWUGFVQ
CPFVJG.WPC8CUCJKYGTGDWKNVD[5QCNCPMKUQH)WLCTCV EQORGPUCVGVJGNQUUD[UJQYKPIJKUKIPQTCPEGVQVJGKPEKFGPV
$WVVJKUEQWNFPQVUCVKUH[VJGGIQQHVJGRTQXKPEKCNIQXGTPQTQH
 Basra, Al Hajjaj YJQ KOOGFKCVGN[ UGPV CP CTO[ GZRGFKVKQP
6JG4CLRWVRCKPVKPIUCTGENCUUKGFKPVQVJGRajasthani School KP$WVJGYCUWPUWEEGUUHWN#PQVJGTOKNKVCT[GZRGFKVKQP
of Art and the Pahari School of Art 6JG 4CLCUVJCPK 5EJQQN OGVYKVJVJGUCOGHCVG
QWTKUJGF KP /GYCT $KMCPGT ,CKRWT ,QFJRWT ,CKUCNOGT 6JG #TCDU CUUCWNV RCXGF VJG YC[ HQT HWTVJGT YTCVJ QH VJG
CPF $WPFK CPF URGEKCNK\GF KP FGRKEVKPI UEGPGU HTQO -TKUJPC CVVCEMGTKPVQ+PFKC+VYCUCICKPUVVJKUDCEMITQWPFVJCVMahmud
NKNC /C[KMC 8GFC CPF 4KVW %JCTKVC 6JG 2CJCTK 5EJQQN YCU
of GhazniKPXCFGFVJGEQWPVT[KP#&HQTJGTYGCNVJ
RCVTQPK\GFD[VJGTWNGTUQH*KOCNC[CPUVCVGUGURGEKCNN[KPVJG
TGIKQPU QH $CUQNK /CPFK ,COOW -CPITC )CTJYCN 5CPUCT *GYCPVGFVQOCMG)JC\PKCRTKPEKRCNKV[QH#HIJCPKUVCPKPVQ
%JCPFVJGTWNGTQH-CPITCGPEQWTCIGUVJKUUEJQQNQHRCKPVKPIU CTGIKQPYKGNFKPIHQTOKFCDNGRQYGTKPVJGRQNKVKEUQH%GPVTCN
FGCNKPI YKVJ 4CFJC CPF -TKUJPC $CTCOCUC
 OQPVJU  CPF #UKC +P C UJQTV RGTKQF QH  [GCTU JG OCFG  TCKFU *G
4CICU
/GNQFKGU 6JGDGUVGZCORNGUQH2CJCTGKUEJQQNCTGVJG FGUVTQ[GFOCP[VGORNGUGI5QOPCVJVGORNGUKP)WLCTCVCU
0CN&COC[CPVKCPF)QIJCTCVJG)QXCTFJCP&JCTCPCPFVJG VJG[YGTGFGRQUKVQTKGUQHXCUVSWCPVKVKGUQHYGCNVJ
UGK\GQH.CPMC 5GEQPFCVVCEMHTQOPQTVJYGUVYCUOCFGD[Muhammed Ghori
CVVJGGPFQHVJEGPVWT[HQTYJKEJ+PFKCYCUPQVRTGRCTGF

*KUTUVKPXCUKQPYCUCICKPUVMultanKP#&YJKEJYCU
#HVGTVJGFQYPHCNNQHVJG2CNCUVJG5GPCUWPFGTSamanta Sena successful.
HQTOGFCPGORKTGKP$GPICN8KLC[5GPCJKUITCPFUQPECPDG
*GCVVCEMGFHTQOGomal pass in 1182, and conquered Sindh.
CVVTKDWVGFVQDGVJGTGCNHQWPFGTQHVJGGORKTGCUJGWPKVGFVJG
+PJGEQPSWGTGFLahoreCPFUQQPCHVGTCPCVVCEMYCU
YJQNGQH$GPICNWPFGTJKUTWNGCPFTWNGFHQTCDQWV[GCTU
#5CKXKVGJGCNUQICXGRCVTQPCIGVQCTV&GQRCTC2TCUGUVKYCU EQOOGPEGF QP VJG 4CLRWV MKPIFQOU EQPVTQNNKPI VJG )CPIGU
EQORQUGFD[7OCRCVKFJCTFWTKPIJKUVKOG6JG'ORKTGECOG plain. Prithviraj ChauhanNGFVJG4CLRWVUCICKPUV/WJCOOGF
KPVQFGENKPGFWTKPIVJGTGKIPQH.CMUJOCPUGPC6JG5WNVCPCVG )JQTK CV VJG TUV DCVVNG QH 6CTCKP KP  CPF VJG 4CLRWVU
ruler /WJCOOGF $CMJVK[CT -JKNLKU CVVCEM NGF VQ KVU SWKEM DGECOG XKEVQTKQWU #V VJG UGEQPF DCVVNG KP  CV VJG UCOG
FGEC[ RNCEG 2TKVJXKTCL YCU FGHGCVGF CPFVJG MKPIFQO QH&GNJK HGNN
#RCTV HTQO VJGUG VJGTG YGTG #JQOU KP #UUCO KP 1TKUUC VQ/WJCOOGF)JQTK$GHQTGJKUCUUCUUKPCVKQPKP6WTMU
-GUCTKGU CPF )CPICU HTQO $JWDCPGUYCT CPF -CNKPICPCICT had conquereFVJG)CPIC;COWPCFQCDCPFKVUPGKIJDQWTKPI
TGURGEKVKXGN[TWNGF CTGCUCPF$KJCTCPF$GPICNYGTGCNUQQXGTTWP*GUVCTVGFC
-CUJOKTYCUTWNGFD[VJTGGF[PCUVKGUVJG-CTMQVC7VRCNCCPF PGYGTCKP+PFKCPJKUVQT[
.QJCTCU .CNKVCFKV[C YCU VJG OQUV HCOQWU TWNGT QH -CUJOKT
during this period. Points to Remember
6JGUG TWNGTU YGTG CV TGIWNCT IJVU YKVJ GCEJ QVJGT HQT  /CJOWFQH)JC\PKCUEGPFGFVJGVJTQPGKP#&
UWRTGOCE[YJKEJOCFGVJGOYGCM6JGEQPVCEVDGVYGGPVJGUG
UOCNN MKPIFQOU CPF QWVUKFG YQTNF YCU XGT[ NKOKVGF 'XGP  *G KPXCFGF +PFKC VQ RNWPFGT VJG DKI VQYPU CPF TKEJ
EQPVCEVUDGVYGGPVJGUGMKPIFQOUYGTGNKOVGFVQYCT5QVJG[ temples.
EQWNFPGKVJGTFGHGPFVJGOUGNXGUKPFKXKFWCNN[PQTWPKVGCICKPUV  *GCPPGZGF2WPLCDCPF/WNVCPVQJKUGORKTG
VJG/WUNKOKPXCUKQPU
 6JGHCOQWUJKUVQTKCP#NDGTWPKECOGKPCPFYTQVGVJG
famous 6CJTKM*KPF
Growth of Regional Languages
 +P  #& CPQVJGT YCXG QH CVVCEM ECOG HTQO
#TGOCTMCDNGHGCVWTGQHVJGRGTKQFYCUVJGITQYVJQHTGIKQPCN
5JCJCDWFFKP/WJCOOGF)JQTK
NCPIWCIGU 2TCMTKV VJG NCPIWCIG QH VJG OCUUGU RNC[GF CP
important role in the development of local languages, such as  *GDGNQPIGFVQVJGTWNKPIHCOKN[KP#HIJCPKUVCP
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India After Harsha H-123

Exercise - 1
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 F  7KH\ZHUHDODQGHGDULVWRFUDF\ were
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(a) Avalokitesvara (b) Tara (c) The 3ratiharas and the 3alas
 F  6XU\D G  6KLYD3arvati (d) The CKDOXN\DVDQGWKHChahamans
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(c) Kalhana (d) Kshemendra (c) Adhirajendra (d) Rajaraja I
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teacher of HUD,WVHTXLYDOHQWLVWR
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 F  %KRMDSDUPDUD G  <XYDUDMDGHYD,, (c) 613 AD (d) 634 AD
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constructed Dharmachakra-jina-vihar at  7KHSUHVLGLQJGHLW\RI%KRMVDOD7HPSOHLV
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12. The CKRODUXOHUVZHUHJHQHUDOO\ (b) Narasinghvarman I
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(b) Vaisnavites (d) Nandivarman I
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 :KRRIWKHIROORZLQJDGRSWHG*DUXGDDVG\QDVW\HPEOHP Lakshmi was a Queen of
H-124 India After Harsha

(a) Karnataka (b) Kashmir  :KRZDVWKHODVWUXOHURI3UDWKLKDUDG\QDVW\"


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 D  9DOODEKDFKDU\D E  1LPEDUDNDFKDU\D (a) invasions of Muhammad Bin Quasim
 F  0DGKYDFKDU\D G  5DPDQXMDFKDU\D (b) invasions of Muhammmad Ghori
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(d) None of these  7KH5DMSXW&ODQWKDWUXOHG%XQGHONKDQGZDV
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(b) Rajataragini (a) Dhanga (b) Chandradeva
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(d) Dasakumara Charita 52. The son of Dhanga who gave resistence to Muhammad
 :KRZURWH3ULWKYLUDM5DVR" *KD]QL
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from  7KHUVW0XVOLPVLQYDGHG,QGLDZHUH
(a) 840-890 A.D (b) 850-860 A.D (a) Arabs (b) Turks
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India After Harsha H-125

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 D  'DKLU E  +DOD (a) 1193 A.D. (b) 1198 A.D.
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(d) Muhammad Ghor
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(a) 900-950 A.D. (b) 950-1000 A.D.
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Exercise - 2
Statement Based MCQ Matching Based MCQ

1. Consider the following statements- 4. List-I List-II


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Rashtrakutas
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3. It is after Yanasakti that the chandella kingdom was  & 3DGPDJXSWD  3ULWKYLUDMD9LMD\D
called Tejabhukti.
4. During the Arab rule over sindh in the 6th and 7th  ' 6DQGK\DNDU1DQGL  5DPD&KDULWD
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(c) 1 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 (b) 2 4 3 1
2. Consider the following statements (c) 3 1 4 2
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KDUDG\QDVW\
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B. Chauhans 2. Indore
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3. Consider the following statements  & 6RODQNLV  6RXWKHUQ5DMDVWKDQ
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landed units calledJars. A B C D
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(d) 4 2 1 3
H-126 India After Harsha

EXERCISE-1 FDSDEOHDQGQREOHNLQJ7KHQUDQLQWRQDQFLDOWURXEOH
because RIKLVVSHQGLQJKDELWVDQGEHFDPHDQHYLO
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8. (a) Gahadavalas levied Turushka-danda. Gahadavala
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Chandradeva. Chandradeva founded the Gahadavala
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this district.
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