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CH : CLAY ML : SANDY SILT

CL : SILTY CLAY/SANDY CLAY MH : SILT


SM : SILTY SAND GP : GRAVELLY SAND
OH : ORGANIC CLAY
SW : SAND
SC : CLAYEY SAND
zKonsistensi tanah clay

Consistency N70 Remarks


Very soft 0-2 Squishes between fingers when squeezed

Young
clay
NC
Soft 3-5 Very easily deformed by squeezing
Medium 6-9
Stiff 10-16 Hard to deform by hand squeezing
increasing

cemented
Very stiff 17-30 Very hard to deform by hand
Aged/
OCR

Hard > 30 Nearly impossible to deform by hand


zKorelasi kuat geser untuk tanah sand
Description Very Loose Loose Medium Dense Very dense
Dr 0 0.15 0.35 0.65 0.85
SPT N70
Fine 1-2 3-6 7-15 16-30 ?
Medium 2-3 4-7 8-20 21-40 > 40
Coarse 3-6 5-9 10-25 26-45 > 45

Fine 26-28 28-30 30-34 33-38
Medium 27-28 30-32 32-36 36-42 < 50
Coarse 28-30 30-34 33-40 40-50

wet (kN/m3) 11-16 14-18 17-20 17-22 20-23


Parameter Kekakuan dan Deformasi
zModuluss Youngs dan Poisson Ratio
untuk berbagai jenis tanah
Korelasi Data SPT

zKorelasi kuat geser untuk tanah clay


Relationship between Cohesion and N-Value (Cohesive soil)

2/3 N
Relationship between Angle of Internal Friction and N-Value
(Sandy Soil)
Faktor Koreksi N SPT Lapangan seusai dengan Metoda
Pelaksanaan Test:

Estimated Rod Correction Factor fo r


Countr Hammer Hammer Release Energy (%) 60% Rod Energy
Type
Donut Free Fall 78 78/60 = 1.30
Japan Donut Rope an Pulley with 67 67/60 = 1.12
special throw release
Safety Rope and Pulley 60 60/60 = 1.00
US
Donut Rope and Pulley 45 45/60 = 0.75
Argentina Donut Rope and Pulley 45 45/60 = 0.75
Donut Free Fall 60 60/60 = 1.00
China
Donut Rope and Pulley 50 50/60 = 0.83

Harga N free fall tidak perlu dikoreksi krn menjadi standard

Harga N rope and pulley harus dikalikan dengan 0.70


Korelasi Data Sondir
z Klasifikasi jenis tanah dari hasil sondir
zKorelasi kuat geser tanah dari hasil sondir
CONE BEARING, qc , bars

Clay Sand

qc qc
cu = s/d

' , bars
15 20

VERTICAL EFFECTIVE STRESS, vo


Parameter Kekakuan dan Deformasi
zModuluss Youngs untuk Clay
1600
Normally Consolidated Clay,
PI>50 :
1400

1200 Eu = 200 cu
Ed = 0.667 Eu
1000
PI<30

Eu/Cu 800

600

400 30<PI<50

200 PI>50

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Overconsolidation Ratio
(after Jamiolkowski et al)
Cc vs qc
CC
6

1
0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
static cone resistance qc in bar
Cc vs. qc
(G. Sanglerat, 1972)
Cv vs LL
Daya dukung pasir
1000
800
600
400

200

100
80
60
40
and

20

10
8
6
4

1
0 10 20 30 40 45
Soil friction angle, (deg)
(Meyerhof, 1976)
' , bars
HORIZONTAL EFFECTIVE STRESS, Ho

VERTICAL EFFECTIVE STRESS, vo


' , bars FOR k o = 0.45
CONE BEARING, qc , bars
' , bars
VERTICAL EFFECTIVE STRESS, vo
CONE BEARING, qc , bars
RATIO, qc /N qc , bars ; N, blows/foot (1 bar = 100 kPa)

MEAN GRAIN SIZE, D50 , mm


No. DESCRIPTION cu/p'

1. Portsmouth
CL Clay PI = 15 .20
st - 10 LL = 35
2. Boston CL Clay
LL = 41 PI = 22 .20
3. Bangkok CH
Clay LL = 65 PI = 41 .27
4. Maine CH OH
Clay LL = 65 PI = 38 .29
5. AGS CH Clay
LL = 71 PI = 40 .26
Eu 6. Atchafalaya
cu CH Clay .24
LL = 95 PI = 75
7. Tailor River
Peat w = 500% _

- CK U simple shear tests

- All soil normally consolidated

APPLIED SHEAR STRESS RATIO n /c u


FOR CLASSIFICATION OF FINE-GRAINED SOILS AND FINE-GRAINED
FRACTION OF COARSE-GRAINED SOILS

Equation of "A"-line
Horozontal at PI = 4 to LL = 25.5,
then PI = 0.73 (LL-20)
ne
" -li
"A
Plasticity Index (PI)

)
Equation of "U"-line ils
so
Vertical at LL = 16 to PI = 7, r al L
then PI = 0.9 (LL-8) n atu
r O
r o
CL
fo
it
lim
p er
up
e
at
i m
rox L
(a
p p
r O
e o
CL
n
" -li
"U MH or OH

CL-ML ML or OL

Liquid Limit (LL)


Anglo of shearing resistance - degrees

Drained shear d

True angle of internal friction r

Plasticity Index
Relative density

Very dense
SPT N-value (blows/300mm)

Dense

Medium dense

Loose
Very loose

Angle of shearing resistance,


Soil groups refer to
Unified system
Undrained shear strength - kN/m2

CH Sowers

CL

SC-ML

Terzaghi and pack

SPT N-value - blows/300 mm