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Methods to Sustain Cellular Channel Availability in High Traffic Location

Debashis De, Sritama Chakraborty

Department of Computer Science &Technology


West Bengal University of Technology
BF-142,Sector1,Saltlake City,Kolkata-700064,India
debashis.de@wbut.ac.in

Abstract

This paper concerns GSM cellular network where congestion problem is common resulting in
insufficient capacity of high interference level. One of the most efficient techniques is cell breathing where
the coverage will shrink when more users are supported. Further, we propose a new approach that is
intersystem handoff for congested network where the handoff takes place from one network to another
network. It is analyzed that proposed approach Intersystem handoff in congested area is approximately
89% more cost effective than cell breathing approach.

1. Introduction

The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is a European Standard that was developed
to provide a common second generation technology [1]. Wireless communication, from broadband Internet
access to basic voice calls, is becoming an increasingly important part of peoples lives worldwide.
Telecom operators are investing heavily to build new networks and upgrade existing ones to provide
seamless wireless communications on roads, in buildings and in living areas.

In confined areas with high user concentration example; convention centers, train cars, airplane
cabins, special event locations, stadiums, wireless networks without solutions tailored to these
environments can be suffered by technical difficulties due to high user demand. Commonly experienced
problems include insufficient capacity and high interference levels. Overcoming these challenges could
increase revenues for wireless operators, real estate owners and operators, special event organizers, and
transportation companies.

2. Cell Breathing Approach

Cell breathing technique is commonly used in cellular network. The effective coverage area of a
cell shrinks when its load increases i.e. the base station becomes overloaded with users. After that for the
subsequent recovery, users leave the area. This phenomenon is called cell breathing [2, 3]. Cell breathing is
the constant change of the range of geographical area covered by a cellular telephone transmitter based on
the amount of traffic currently using that transmitter. This represents that cell coverage and capacity have
an inverse relationship. Cell breathing is a common phenomenon of 2G, 3G and 4G wireless systems
including code-division multiple access (CDMA).

One cell is heavily loaded and is surrounded by lightly loaded cells in the same network. Cell
breathing may provide an increase in capacity of the highly loaded cell by redirecting its Mobile Stations
(MS) to surrounding cells [2]. In a seven cell cluster, if the inner cell is heavily loaded by users and
surrounding 6 cells are lightly loaded, then some Mobile Stations (MS) which reside at the border of the
heavily loaded cell are redirected to the surrounding cell. So, the radius of inner cell becomes smaller and
inner cells transmitted power is decreased. But surrounding six cells transmitted power is increased.

978-1-4244-6051-9/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE


Figure 1 cell breathing

The Figure 1 shows cell breathing effect within 7 cell clusters. Here Mobile Stations (MS) of the
shaded portions moved their neighboring cells and are handled by these cells Base Transceiver Station
(BTS).
Estimation of cost of the cell breathing: Cost is directly proportional to power and also directly proportional
to coverage area. Cell breathing cost = Cost of contraction of inner cell and expansion of surrounded six
cells + Handoff cost. In the course of cell breathing, Cost for the contraction of the inner cell,
C1 = ((33)/2)(xd) 2
where xd is reduced distance from the center to the corner of the cell and always x<1
Cost for the expansion of the surrounding six cells,
C2= 6((33)/2)[d+(d- xd)]2 = 93 (2d-xd)2
where d is the distance from the center to the corner point of the cell
Cost of contraction of the inner cell and cost of expansion of the outer cell,
C3 = C1+C2 = ((33)/2)(xd) 2 + 93 (2d-xd)2
Handoff cost calculated as follows
C4= [((33)/2)d2 - ((33)/2)(xd)2 ]p
where p is per call handoff cost in the same network.
From this analysis total cost of cell breathing,
C5 = C3+C4 = [(33)/2(xd)2]+93 (2d-xd)2 +[((33)/2)d2 - ((33)/2)(xd)2 ]p
Here cost is calculated for cell breathing, by contraction of inner cell and expansion of surrounding six
cells. It reduces the power of inner cell and increases the power of surrounding cells.

3. Intersystem Handoff in congested area

During the course of a call, if a mobile moves from one cell to a different cell controlled by a different
Mobile Switching Center (MSC), an intersystem handoff becomes necessary [1]. An MSC engages in an
intersystem handoff when a mobile signal becomes week in a given cell and the MSC cannot find another
cell within its system to which it can transfer the call in progress. Using this concept an approach excluding
cell breathing can be given to handle the situation of a confined area suffering from congestion. In this
proposed approach, handoff happens between two different networks.
Figure 2 Seven cell cluster

The Figure 2 shows a 7 cell cluster region that is handled by two networks. If the cluster becomes
congested and one network suffers from it, then handoff takes place between two different networks, so
that the congestion can be removed. Cost for handoff to a different network in a congested place is
Ch = [7 ((33)/2) d2 q]
where q=per call handoff cost in different networks. We calculate this cost for seven cell cluster.

4. Graphical analysis and comparison

The graphical model allows us to study the system performance graphically. In this section, it
compares the proposed intersystem handoff in congested area with the cell breathing technique.

Figure 3 Cell breathing cost Figure 4 Handoff cost within the congested place
in different network

The Figure 3 demonstrates the relation of cost and distance from the center to the corner point of
the cell or one side of the cell regarding a cluster of 7cells. This figure shows the situation with congestion
handled with cell breathing. The cost starting from 225 unit rises up to 378 unit. Here per call handoff cost
in the same network is 0.25 unit. The Figure 4 shows the same relation of cost and distance from the center
to the corner point of the cell or one side of the cell regarding a cluster of 7cells. This figure also shows the
situation with congestion. But here cell breathing is not used to handle the situation. Here the Base
Transceiver Station (BTS) of one network hands off to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) of another
network. The cost starting from 28 unit rises up to 46 unit. In this technique per call handoff cost is equal to
the per call handoff cost in the same network which is used in the cell breathing technique. Per call handoff
cost in the different network is 0.25 unit. From the above two figures it can be seen that the cost is
increased during cell breathing.

Figure 5 Handoff cost within the congested Figure 6 Handoff cost in the congested area
place in different network

As shown in Figure 5 handoff cost within the congested place in different network, where per call
handoff cost in different network is 200 unit. The total cost is equal to the cell breathings total cost. The
cost starting from 225 unit rises up to 378 unit. In Figure 6 compare between cell breathing cost, and
intersystem handoff in congested area. The cost of intersystem handoff in congested area is less than that of
cell breathing.

5. Conclusion

We propose a new approach of intersystem handoff in congested area. It is used to sustain cellular
channel in high traffic location. The problem of congestion observed in cellular network in a confined area
is solved by Handoffs to different networks and cell breathing. It is analyzed that the cost of this proposed
method, intersystem handoff in congested area is less than that of cell breathing. The reduction of the cost
is approximately 89%. From this comparison, it can be concluded that intersystem handoff in congested
area will reduce cost than that of cell breathing.

6. References

1. Theodore S.Rappaport, Wireless Communications Principals and practice, Second Edition, Pearson
Education, 2002

2. V.V. Veeravalli and A. Sendonaris, The Coverage-Capacity Tradeoff in Cellular CDMA Systems,
IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, pp. 1443-1451, Sept. 1999

3. P. Bahl, M.T. Hajiaghayi, K. Jain, V.S. Mirrokni, L. Qiu, and A. Saberi, Cell Breathing in Wireless
LANs: Algorithms and Evaluation, IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 164-178, Feb. 2007.