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First Term : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : 2.

Electronic structures of atoms (test)

Test 2
1. Describe the formation of the line spectrum of the hydrogen atom according to Bohrs Theory. [6m]

2. The diagram below shows a few lines formed in the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.

violet indigo blue-green red

(a) Between the red line and indigo line, which has a higher frequency? [1m]
(b) Explain why the spectrum consists of a set of sharp, distinct lines. [1m]
(c) Draw a labeled energy diagram to show the electron transitions for these lines. [2m]
(d) The frequency for the convergence limit is found to be 8.23 x 1014 Hz.
i) Which electron transition will produce the convergence limit? [1m]
ii) Calculate the energy that is required to promote one electron to produce this line. [2m]

3. (a) The diagram below shows four electron transitions in the hydrogen
atom.
(i) Sketch the line spectrum formed as a result of these four
transitions. [2m]
(ii) In which region of the electromagnetic spectrum are these lines
formed? [1m]

(b) Complete the table below:


Ion Mn2+ Fe2+ Cu2+
Number of electrons in
3d orbitals
[3m]
(c) Write the electron configuration of the following ions.
(i) Co3+ (ii) Ni2+ (iii) P3- (iv) Ca2+ (v) Si [5m]

4. (a) State the Hunds rule. [1m]


(b) Sketch the energy level diagram of the orbitals of an atom with the principle quantum number of n=1 to
n=3. [2m]
(c) Use arrows to represent electrons, show the electronic configuration for sulphur on the diagram sketched.
[1m]
(d) Draw the shapes of all orbitals with the principal quantum number n=2 for sulphur atom. [2m]

5. The proton number of chromium is 24.


(a) Write the valence electron configuration of
(i) the chromium atom [1m]
(ii) the chromium(III) ion [1m]
(b) (i) Sketch the relative energy level of the 3d and 4s orbitals in the chromium atom before electrons are
filled. [1m]
(ii) Draw the energy diagram to show the filling of electrons in the valence orbitals of chromium based
on Hunds rule. [2m]
First Term : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : 2. Electronic structures of atoms (test)

6. (a) Electrons, protons and neutrons are the constituent particles of the atom.
Their masses, in amu, (atomic mass unit) based on the carbon-12 standard are:
proton: 1.007580 neutron: 1.008980 electron: 0.000548
(i) Calculate the mass, (in amu), of a deuterium atom, . [2 m]
(ii) The actual mass of a deuterium atom is 2.014102 amu. Calculate the mass lost, in amu, when the sub-
atomic particles fuse together. [1 m]
(iii) The mass lost is converted into radiant energy according to Einstein's equation E = mc2 (m is
measured in kilograms and c is the speed of light in ms-1). Using this equation, together with E = hv,
calculate the frequency of the radiation emitted. [2 m]
-27 8 -1 -34
(1 amu = 1.66 x 10 kg, c = 3 x 10 ms , h= 6.63x10 Js)

7. (a) The line spectrum of atomic hydrogen in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum is shown
below:

(i) Explain why this spectrum consists of lines which are convergence. [2m]
(ii) Using a labeled energy level diagram, show how the line marked Y on the spectrum is formed. [2m]
(iii) If the frequency of convergence limit in Lyman series is 3.24 x 1015 Hz, Calculate the ionization
energy of hydrogen atom in kJ mol-1. [Planck constant, h = 3.99 x 10-13 kJ s mol-1] [2m]
(iv) Write an equation of ionization hydrogen atom. [1 m]