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Electronic structures of atoms (test)

Test 2
1. Describe the formation of the line spectrum of the hydrogen atom according to Bohrs Theory. [6m]

2. The diagram below shows a few lines formed in the Balmer series of the hydrogen atom spectrum.

violet indigo blue-green red

(a) Between the red line and indigo line, which has a higher frequency? [1m]
(b) Explain why the spectrum consists of a set of sharp, distinct lines. [1m]
(c) Draw a labeled energy diagram to show the electron transitions for these lines. [2m]
(d) The frequency for the convergence limit is found to be 8.23 x 1014 Hz.
i) Which electron transition will produce the convergence limit? [1m]
ii) Calculate the energy that is required to promote one electron to produce this line. [2m]

3. (a) The diagram below shows four electron transitions in the hydrogen
(i) Sketch the line spectrum formed as a result of these four
transitions. [2m]
(ii) In which region of the electromagnetic spectrum are these lines
formed? [1m]

(b) Complete the table below:

Ion Mn2+ Fe2+ Cu2+
Number of electrons in
3d orbitals
(c) Write the electron configuration of the following ions.
(i) Co3+ (ii) Ni2+ (iii) P3- (iv) Ca2+ (v) Si [5m]

4. (a) State the Hunds rule. [1m]

(b) Sketch the energy level diagram of the orbitals of an atom with the principle quantum number of n=1 to
n=3. [2m]
(c) Use arrows to represent electrons, show the electronic configuration for sulphur on the diagram sketched.
(d) Draw the shapes of all orbitals with the principal quantum number n=2 for sulphur atom. [2m]

5. The proton number of chromium is 24.

(a) Write the valence electron configuration of
(i) the chromium atom [1m]
(ii) the chromium(III) ion [1m]
(b) (i) Sketch the relative energy level of the 3d and 4s orbitals in the chromium atom before electrons are
filled. [1m]
(ii) Draw the energy diagram to show the filling of electrons in the valence orbitals of chromium based
on Hunds rule. [2m]
First Term : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY : 2. Electronic structures of atoms (test)

6. (a) Electrons, protons and neutrons are the constituent particles of the atom.
Their masses, in amu, (atomic mass unit) based on the carbon-12 standard are:
proton: 1.007580 neutron: 1.008980 electron: 0.000548
(i) Calculate the mass, (in amu), of a deuterium atom, . [2 m]
(ii) The actual mass of a deuterium atom is 2.014102 amu. Calculate the mass lost, in amu, when the sub-
atomic particles fuse together. [1 m]
(iii) The mass lost is converted into radiant energy according to Einstein's equation E = mc2 (m is
measured in kilograms and c is the speed of light in ms-1). Using this equation, together with E = hv,
calculate the frequency of the radiation emitted. [2 m]
-27 8 -1 -34
(1 amu = 1.66 x 10 kg, c = 3 x 10 ms , h= 6.63x10 Js)

7. (a) The line spectrum of atomic hydrogen in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum is shown

(i) Explain why this spectrum consists of lines which are convergence. [2m]
(ii) Using a labeled energy level diagram, show how the line marked Y on the spectrum is formed. [2m]
(iii) If the frequency of convergence limit in Lyman series is 3.24 x 1015 Hz, Calculate the ionization
energy of hydrogen atom in kJ mol-1. [Planck constant, h = 3.99 x 10-13 kJ s mol-1] [2m]
(iv) Write an equation of ionization hydrogen atom. [1 m]