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Operacionalizando a Produo Puxada

Slide 1

Operacionalizando a
Produo Puxada

Formao em Lean

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Slide 2

Operacionalizando a Produo Puxada


Nos vdeos anteriores comentamos sobre produo puxada e sobre
Kanban e Heijunka Box.

Nestes slides, iremos mostrar como se aplicam as tcnicas comentadas


passo a passo.

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Slide 3

Produo Puxada
Como vimos, a produo puxada difere da produo empurrada pois
so os operadores da linha e no o pessoal de planejamento de
produo os responsveis por colocar os produtos em produo.

O sistema Kanban a principal maneira de fazer isso acontecer.

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Slide 4

Produo Puxada
Como vimos, a produo puxada difere da produo empurrada pois
so os operadores da linha e no o pessoal de planejamento de
produo os responsveis por colocar os produtos em produo.

O sistema Kanban a principal maneira de fazer isso acontecer.

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Slide 5

O kanban
Kanban significa carto em japons.
O sistema kanban se baseia no uso de cartes para puxar a produo e seu
uso est frequentemente associado aos supermercados de peas.

No existe pea sem um kanban.

Como vimos, existem basicamente dois tipos de kanbans: de retirada e de


produo.

Tambm temos o kanban tringulo, que nada mais do que um kanban de


produo para um lote maior.

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Slide 6

Como funciona?
Temos basicamente dois tipos de operao:

Sistemas com 1 carto

Sistemas com 2 cartes

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Slide 7

O sistema com 1 carto


O supermercado de produto fica junto ao processo cliente. As
embalagens do produto tem, junto a elas, um carto (quadrado) cuja
cor depende do modelo.
Processo fornecedor Processo cliente
Quadro Kanban
Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 8

O sistema com 1 carto


A medida que o processo consome as peas, seus cartes so
colocados em uma caixa de coleta prxima a ele.

Processo fornecedor Processo cliente


Quadro Kanban
Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 9

O sistema com 1 carto


De tempos em tempos, os cartes so retirados da caixa de coleta e
movidos para o quadro kanban do processo fornecedor. O carto no
quadro, dispara a produo neste processo.
Processo fornecedor Processo cliente
Quadro Kanban
Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 10

O sistema com 1 carto


Quando as novas peas so produzidas, o carto sai do quadro e
colocada nela. A pea, mais o carto, so ento enviados para o
supermercado do cliente.
Processo fornecedor Processo cliente
Quadro Kanban
Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 11

O sistema com 2 cartes


O sistema com 2 cartes possui 2 supermercados, um no cliente e um
no fornecedor. Tambm possui um carto de produo (quadrados),
que ficam no supermercado do fornecedor, e cartes de retirada
(redondos), que ficam no cliente.
Processo fornecedor Processo cliente
Quadro Kanban
Supermercado Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 12

O sistema com 2 cartes


A medida que o processo cliente consome as peas de seu
supermercado, os kanbans de retirada so posicionados na caixa de
coleta. Depois de um certo tempo, os cartes so levados at o
supermercado do fornecedor.
Processo fornecedor Processo cliente
Quadro Kanban
Supermercado Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 13

O sistema com 2 cartes


Quando os cartes de retirada chegam ao fornecedor, este os colocam
nas peas e envia as peas com os cartes para o cliente. Ele tambm
retira o kanban de produo e o colocam na sua caixa de coleta.

Processo fornecedor Processo cliente


Quadro Kanban
Supermercado Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 14

O sistema com 2 cartes


De tempos em tempos, os cartes so colocados no quadro para a
programao da produo. Uma vez que as peas so produzidas, os
kanbans saem do quadro e so anexados a elas. Ambos ento vo para
o supermercado do cliente.
Processo fornecedor Processo cliente
Quadro Kanban
Supermercado Supermercado

Caixa de coleta

Caixa de coleta

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Slide 15

Ambos os sistemas
O sistema de kanban com 2 cartes considerado melhor que o de 1
carto por deixar clara a responsabilidade de abastecimento dos
supermercados. Neste caso, o fornecedor sempre o responsvel.

O processo com 1 carto, entretanto, significativamente mais simples.

Normalmente as empresas comeam a implementao com o sistema


de 1 carto e depois passam para o sistema de 2 cartes.

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Slide 16

Algumas regras sobre kanbans


A aplicao do sistema de kanban prev 5 regras:

Regra 1: O processo seguinte deve retirar os produtos do processo anterior na


quantidade necessria e no momento correto.

A obrigatoriedade da apresentao do kanban de retirada uma maneira de


fazer esta regra funcionar. A quantidade de peas retirada deve ser a mesma
quela apresentada no carto.

Por ltimo, vale ressaltar que: no podem haver peas desacompanhadas de


cartes.

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Slide 17

Algumas regras sobre kanbans


A aplicao do sistema de kanban prev 5 regras:

Regra 2: O processo anterior deve produzir produtos para o processo seguinte


nas quantidades retiradas por este.

Esta regra complementa a primeira e evita o excesso de produo. O kanban de


produo existe para operacionaliza-la. O processo fornecedor s pode produzir
a quantidade de peas definidas neste carto.

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Slide 18

Algumas regras sobre kanbans


A aplicao do sistema de kanban prev 5 regras:

Regra 3: Produtos defeituosos nunca devem passar para os processos seguintes.

O processo anterior deve certificar-se da qualidade dos seus produtos antes de


passa-los adiante. Como o Lean prega que os estoques devem ser
dimensionados a um mnimo, qualquer produto defeituoso pode ter um efeito
catastrfico no cumprimento dos prazos de entrega.

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Slide 19

Algumas regras sobre kanbans


A aplicao do sistema de kanban prev 5 regras:

Regra 4: O nmero de kanbans deve ser minimizado.

Como o nmero de cartes representa o inventrio em processo, ele deve ser


minimizado.

Na Toyota, responsabilidade do supervisor de cada processo minimizar a


quantidade. Ele deve buscar melhorias para diminuir o tempo de processo, que
vai diminuir a quantidade de cartes.

Na prxima aula de slides, veremos como dimensionar a quantidade de


kanbans.

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Slide 20

Algumas regras sobre kanbans


A aplicao do sistema de kanban prev 5 regras:

Regra 5: O kanban deve ser usado para suportar pequenas variaes na


demanda.

No sistema kanban, somente o processo puxador recebe a programao do dia.


Os demais processos s sabem o que vo produzir com a chegada dos cartes.
Sendo assim, variaes na demanda ocorrem de maneira natural e seus efeitos
psicolgicos negativos so amenizados.

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