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Rationale of the Study

The past two decades have witnessed a dynamic shift in the

way the computers have been used as a tool in the teaching-learning

process. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive

instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the

instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.

It uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in the

learning process. The fact that it is less hassle for both the

teacher and the learners made it a current trend in education.

Analyzing its effects are vital because the benefits of the

students learning are contingent on the instructional materials

provided by the teacher.

A key feature of effective teaching is the selection of

instructional materials that meet the needs of students and fit

the constraints of the teaching and learning environment.

Instructional materials are items that are designed to serve as

major tool for assisting in the instruction of a subject or course.

These items may be available in bound, unbound, kit or package

form and may consist of hard backed or soft backed textbooks,

consumables, learning laborites, slides, films and film strips,

recording, manipulative and its commonly to accepted

instructional tools.

There are many factors to consider when using instructional

materials especially in elementary school level. As Houry (1998)

points out, In selecting instructional materials, educators must

carefully consider three primary issues: (a) alignment of

environmental education topics and content with national

standards, state curriculum frameworks, and existing courses of

study; (b) professionally accepted criteria for judging the

quality of materials; and (c) the needs, interests, and

environmental circumstances of students. Also, it should be noted

that the quality of the material used should not only be measured

by the resulting rate of a group of students but should also be

measured individually.

Whether traditional or newer instructional media/materials,

these are indeed relevant to the process of teaching and learning.

Most notably, teachers also have to take into consideration the

students learning styles and preferences. Their learning

characteristics will also help determine what and how to use them

effectively in instruction.

The object of this study is the test the effect of Computer-

assisted instruction (CAI) in academic performance of elementary

learners. This particular topic has been chosen for appropriate

selection of instructional media can improve the quality of

teaching and learning. It can help facilitate an effective

teaching based on the learning objectives. As appropriate

instructional media/materials are chosen in the delivery of the

course content, learners will be guided to improve their learning,

performance rate and achievement.

This study focuses on elementary learners who used and are

still using Computer-assisted instructions. For this study,

effectiveness of using Computer-assisted instruction is define as

a guide, as well as a helping hand for other researchers who

endeavor to create guidelines for quality instructional


The elementary school years are important. They are the ones

in which children develop a foundation of knowledge and a beginning

sense of efficacy as participating citizens of the society. It is

therefore only logical to target the elementary learners of

Guadalupe Elementary School as a basis for a research on the

effectiveness of Computer-assisted instructions as a supplement to

their studies.

Theoretical Background

The idea of using technology to enhance education has been

around for a long time but is now becoming an important factor in

elementary school teaching. a great deal of research has been

conducted during the 1970s, 1980s, and early 1990s on the effects

of computer use on student achievement, attitudes, and other

variables, such as learning rate. Back in 1928, courses began being

offered through radio (Clark, 2003). This research covers a wide

range of topics, from computerized learning activities which

supplement conventional instruction, to computer programming, to

computerized recordkeeping, to the development of databases, to

writing using word processors, and other applications.

These researches made way for terms such as computer-based

education (CBE), computer-based instruction (CBI), and computer-

assisted instruction (CAI) to emerge.

The effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction is

grounded mainly on its material quality. Measuring the instruction

material quality means conducting evaluation of learners.

Evaluations of learners, according to Airasian, should provide

information that identifies both strengths and weaknesses, so that

strengths can be built upon and problem areas addressed. The said

evaluation shows performance of learners in relation to specified

standards, aptitude or expected growth, amount of improvement, and

the amount learned. Furthermore, evaluations of learners dont

just improve the quality of instruction materials but also help

them develop to their fullest potential- that is why it is most

important to address to students their strengths, and weaknesses

to shape them to the best.

However, as much as there are evaluations taking place,

it is still not enough. As mentioned in the rationale, the target

of this study is to identify the two specific components which are

the type of instructional materials that should be use and the

conditions in which it should be used. In connection with it, this

theory presents reasons why there are still evident excuses by the

learners in not reaching their full potential.

Cotton (1991) describes CAI as specific applications such as

drill-and-practice, tutorials, or simulation activities offered

either as a stand-alone activity or supplemental activities to

enhance teacher-directed instruction. A summary of 59 CAI

research studies compiled by Cotton provides insight into the

benefits and effects of CAI. A few of the research findings shared

by Cotton includes:

1. The use of CAI as a supplement to conventional

instruction produces higher achievement than the use

of conventional instruction alone;

2. Students learn material faster with CAI than with

conventional instruction alone;

3. CAI is beneficial for younger students;

4. CAI is more beneficial for lower-achieving students

than higher-achieving students;

5. Students with disabilities achieve at higher levels

with CAI than with conventional instruction alone;

6. Students fondness for CAI activities centers on the

immediate, objective, and positive feedback provided

by these activities.

Despite a lack of conclusive evidence, many researchers in

the field view computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as an

opportunity for improved instruction for students with learning

disabilities. This is supported by Hall, Hughes, and Filbert

(2000). The findings of their research are the following:

1. The CAI software used in research studies where

students made significant gains involved software

that was carefully designed to incorporate systematic

instructional procedures found to be effective in

reading instruction (i.e., explicit, strategic, and

scaffolder instruction, engaged time, success rate,

and corrective feedback);

2. Research reinforces the need to apply systematic,

elaborate corrections for students to learn

efficiently and effectively; and

3. The application of CAI as supplemental activities to

teacher-directed instruction had significant outcomes

favoring CAI over other interventions such as

additional traditional teaching and workbooks.

In another study, Mioduser, Tur-Kaspa, and Leitner (2000)

investigated specific features of computer technology related to

targeted outcomes regarding childrens acquisition of early

reading skills. Software used in this study allowed concrete

manipulation of letters and word components in activities and games

involving the decomposition, re-composition and creation of words.

Findings identified key features of the software learning

environment, which were relevant to building early reading skills.

Such features involved the concrete manipulation of language

entities through the act of touching, hearing, seeing,

constructing, playing and replaying auditory constructs. The

features also held substantial potential for assisting young

children to acquire needed skills in reading.

Instructional resources usually fall into one of two

categories: student-centered and teacher-centered. In the student-

centered model, instructional resources can be used for tutorials,

problem solving, discovery, and review. In the teacher-centered

model, resources are used for presentations of supplementary or

primary material in the classroom.

Identifying what instructional media should be used is very

difficult. A study about selecting instructional media centered on

the learners was made by Reiser and Dick (1996). They list three

major criteria for selecting instructional media namely

practicality, student appropriateness, and instructional

appropriateness. These three should answer the following


1. Practicality: Is the intended media practical in that

the media is available, cost efficient, time efficient,

and understood by the instructor?

2. Student Appropriateness: Is the intended media

appropriate for the developmental and experiential

levels of the students?

3. Instructional Appropriateness: Is the intended media

appropriate for the planned instructional strategy? Will

the media allow for the presentation of the proposed

lesson in an efficient and effective manner? Will the

media facilitate the students acquisition of the

specific learning objectives?

In teacher-centered category, Douglas College recommends that

the teacher should proceed by considering what he/she already know

about the media available and then begin asking his/herself a

series of questions that eliminate what isnt feasible or possible.

Typical questions that can help decide on the appropriate media

include the following.

1. What are the most important tasks or requirements?

What are my learning outcomes?

2. Based on the learning outcomes, what are the most

applicable media attributes?

3. Are there any learning materials already available

that I might be able to use?

4. Should I consider using more than one technology or

medium? Will they augment one another or detract from

one another?

5. Can student location, work schedule or other factors

of access be addressed by the use of available


6. Where will I be teaching the material? What are the

environmental factors?

7. Do I have the skills needed to produce effective

media? Do I have the resources to learn?

8. Can the medium be produced by the time it is needed?

9. Can the production, maintenance and operation costs

be afforded?

10. Does the medium fit the policies/programs at the


11. Is the medium a practical choice given its


12. Is the technology I want to use readily available?

Is it easy to use?

13. What is the main benefit to me of using the


14. What are the benefits for students?

In a study by Bennet (2001), the researcher found out that

the educators active participation in professional development

around mathematics and integration of technology (Forgasz, 2006)

appear to influence the impact of CAI on students learning

mathematics as does having teachers available to interact with

students and give timely feedback. For CAI to be effective a third

consideration is the ability of students to work independently.

The impact of CAI diminishes when students do not take a dynamic

role in the process.

In the present time, many teachers are already using CAI in

teaching, schools have different ways of teaching students and

its now the current trend in education. The confusion about using

CAI must be solve fast for it is vital to students learning

therefore it is only fitting for the teacher and the school to

ensure that theyre using the appropriate material.

Furthermore, as advocates continue their efforts to

incorporate technology in the elementary level teaching, it is

important to continue research that assesses progress towards this

goal. More accurate and efficient methods for evaluating

instructional materials/media are critical to assuring the

development of education in elementary level.



This study aims to test the effectiveness of using computer-

assisted instruction in the academic performance of elementary


Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following


1. How effective is computer-based teaching at the elementary

school level?

1.1. What type of instructional materials should a teacher


2. Under which conditions does it appear to be most effective?


This research will benefit the following entities:

Learners. This study would benefit the elementary learners

when the problems are addressed. It would provide them a greater

training. When the students have a more desirable training, they

would be able to understand more the lessons, and would have the

initiative to study as well. As they have to gain a room for

development, the students would also acquire a high academic


Teachers. This study would improve the teachers teaching

skills. The study would provide them various ways on how they could

change or improve their way of teaching through instructional

media/materials, so as to better introduce the lessons to their

students. Through this study, the teachers would also know if their

strategies in teaching are enough for the students to understand,

based on the students performance in doing the provided


School. This study could be of help to different school like

the Guadalupe Elementary School. Once the problems are addressed,

the system will become very effective for the students and the

students would excel. When the students would excel, the school

would also excel. The school would be accredited, thereby giving

it a chance to be known to other people, nationally or



This study applies a qualitative research and quantitative

research strategy. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-

depth understanding about the level effectiveness of using

computer-assisted instruction in the academic performance of

elementary learners. The corpus from written outputs of the

students serves as the main data to be inspected. The results will

be tallied and ranked accordingly. Besides this, the researcher

will also examine the issues through numerical representations and

through statistical analysis. Along with questionnaires that will

be given out to respondents for the statistical representation of

the findings in the study, interviews with the respondents and a

few teachers will also be conducted.

Research Environment

The study will be conducted at Guadalupe Elementary School.

Located in Brgy. Guadalupe, Maasin City, Southern Leyte. It is the

house of different grade levels learners.

Research Participants

The studys source of data are the grade six, five, and four

students. This study will survey 10 students each from grades who

had experienced whose teachers are using CAI.

Research Instruments

The main instrument of this study are survey questionnaires

the researchers will make. The results of this questionnaire will

serve as the studys corpus. Some questions will have sub-questions

to aid the researchers in answering the problem.

Researching Procedures

Gathering of Data. From the three listed grades above, 10

survey questionnaire will be collected from students. These result

of this survey will be converted into numerical representation for

better understanding.

Treatment of Data. Using the results, the results will be

tallied and ranked accordingly. The researcher will also examine

the issues through numerical representations and through

statistical analysis. After tallying, the results will then be

analyzed and interpreted. These results will then serve as the

basis for the development of quality instructional



The important terms used in this study are further defined

for better understanding.

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Refers to instruction or

remediation presented on a computer. Many educational computer

programs are available online and from computer stores and textbook

companies. They enhance teacher instruction in several ways.

Computer-based instruction (CBI). Defined as the use of the

computer in the delivery of instruction. Other similar terms

include: computer based training (CBT).

Computer-based education (CBE). Any curricula in which

students interact with a computer as a key element of the learning



Cotton, K. (1991). Computer-assisted instruction. Northwest

Regional Educational Laboratory School Improvement Research
Series (SIRS). CloseUp #10. Retrieved September 18, 2006,
from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/5/cu10.html

Hall, T. E., Hughes, C. A., & Filbert, M. (2000). Computer

assisted instruction in reading for students with learning
disabilities: A research synthesis. Education and Treatment
of Children, 23, 173-193

Houry, D. (1998). Choosing Instructional Materials for

Environmental Education. ERIC Digest.

Clark, E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media.

Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 445-459. Retrieved
from http://www.aera.net

Mioduser, D., Tur-Kaspa, H., & Leitner, I. (2000). The learning

value of computer-based instruction of early reading
skills. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 16, 54-63

R. Reiser, W. Dick (1990). Evaluating Instructional Software

The Model of Reiser and Dick