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70 ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

A small error in evaluating phase angle between sending end voltage and current will
lead to inaccurate calculation of efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested to make use of the first
formula.
P
%= R 100
( Ir 2 + Is 2 )
P+3
2
where P is the 3-phase power delivered at the receiving end, R is the resistance per phase.
In order to determine A, B, C, D constants for nominal-T (Fig. 4.5).
Z
Vc = Vr + Ir
2
Ic = VcY
FG ZI
JY
H 2K
Is = Ir + Ic = Ir + VcY = Ir + Vr + I r

Z R F ZI U Z
+ SI + G V + I J YV.
Z
V =V +I
s c
2
=V +I
s
2 T
r
H r
2K W 2
r r r

F YZ IJ + I FG Z + Z + YZ IJ
= V G1 +
2

H 2 K H2 2 4 K
r r

F YZ IJ + I FG Z + YZ IJ
= V G1 +
2

H 2K H 4 K
r r

F YZ IJ + I Z FG 1 + YZ IJ
V = V G1 +
s H 2K H 4K
r r (4.17)

F YZ IJ + V Y
I = I G1 +
s rH 2K r

F YZ IJ I
= YV + G 1 +
H 2K
r r (4.18)

Writing down the voltage and current equation,


Vs = AVr + BIr (4.19)
Is = CVr + DIr (4.20)
Comparing the coefficients of equations (4.17) to (4.20)
YZ
A=1+
2
FG
YZ IJ
B = Z 1+
4H K
C=Y
FG YZ IJ
D = 1+
H 2 K