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HIGH RISE BUILDING

TECHNOLOGY
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MU.Z.Mohamed Ashfaque| HNDQS Batch 10 | June 1, 2016


Unit/Module Technology-A

Assignment:Understandingandevaluatingthestandarddesign
forms,siteevaluationmethodsandmethodsofconstructionusedin
Assessment themodernconstructionandanalyzingthewayinwhichdecayandeffects
ofdilapidationofconstructionprojects.

Lecturer Mr. GaminiRajakaruna.

StudentName M.U.Z.Mohamed Ashfaque ID NG/HNDQS/10/17

DateHandedOver 12/06/2016 DateDue 30/04/2016

Re-
InitialSubmissionDate Submission
Date

CriteriaMet?
StudenttoTick
ifAttempted

Grading
On AssessorFeedback
Opportunity Initially
Resubmission

P1.1

P1.2

P1.3

P.2.1

P.2.2

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P.2.3

P.3.1

P.3.2

P.3.3

P.3.4

P.4.1

P.4.2

P.4.3

M.1

M.2

M.3

D.1

D.2

D.3

Assessed By(Name): Mr. GaminiRajakaruna.

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Signature: Date: / /2015

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StudentSignature&Comments :

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I sincerely thankful to my lecturer and my tutor Mr. GaminiRajakaruna, who helped me a lot in
making of this assignment. I have learned different steps in technology B with different
techniques with the help of the tutes and videos, these things helped me to make assignment
successful.

Mohamed Ashfaque

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Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ 7

INRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 13

OUR VISION................................................................................................................................ 13

OUR MISSION ............................................................................................................................. 13

. .................................................................................................................................................. 14

CLIENTS PURPOSE ............................................................................................................... 14

QUESTION 01 .......................................................................................................................... 14

1. DEAD LOAD .................................................................................................................. 15

2. LIVE LOAD .................................................................................................................... 15

3. Loads which can do, or can, alternate over the years, consisting of human beings
walking around a constructing (occupancy) or movable items inclusive of a flower pot on the
deck. In addition to stay loads, what is called environmental loads are masses which are
created obviously by way of the environment and encompass wind, snow, seismic, and
lateral soil pressures. ............................................................................................................. 15

4. WIND LOAD .................................................................................................................. 15

5. EARTHQUAKE LOAD ................................................................................................... 16

6. ............................................................................................................................................. 16

7. ............................................................................................................................................. 16

8. STEEL FRAME WORK .................................................................................................. 16

9. Rigid Frame.................................................................................................................... 16

10. Advantages of rigid frames ......................................................................................... 17

11. Disadvantages of rigid frames .................................................................................... 17

12. Shear walls. ................................................................................................................ 17

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13. Bracings ...................................................................................................................... 18

14. Framed Tubes ............................................................................................................. 19

QUESTION 02 .......................................................................................................................... 20

15. ANALYE THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES USED TO ACHIEVE SUCH


DESIGNS AND JUSTIFY THE SPECIFICATION OF MATERIALS. ................................... 20

16. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES THAT WE USE FOR THIS CONCEPT AND


WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF EFFICIENCY, QUALITY AND SUSTAINABILITY. ........ 21

17. Bricks .......................................................................................................................... 21

18. Advantages.................................................................................................................. 22

19. Curtain walls .............................................................................................................. 22

20. Advantages.................................................................................................................. 22

21. Disadvantages ............................................................................................................ 22

22. Claddings .................................................................................................................... 22

23. ........................................................................................................................................... 23

24. Advantages.................................................................................................................. 23

25. Disadvantages ............................................................................................................ 23

26. HOW CAN USE TO THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR MODERN


INDUSTRY ............................................................................................................................. 24

27. Solutions for minimize the construction wastage, time wastage and amount of labours
cost etc. ................................................................................................................................... 24

28. Pre cast slabs .............................................................................................................. 24

QUESTION 03 .......................................................................................................................... 26

29. Features of the building .............................................................................................. 26

30. Usability of the building ............................................................................................. 26

31. Space efficiency .......................................................................................................... 26

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32. Core area .................................................................................................................... 27

33. SPATIAL PLANNING TECHNIQUES USED IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS AND SKY
SCRAPERS ............................................................................................................................. 27

34. Advantages of using demountable partitions.............................................................. 28

35. Disadvantages of using this partition ......................................................................... 28

36. Raised floors ............................................................................................................... 28

37. Advantages of raised floors ........................................................................................ 29

38. Disadvantages of this floor finishing .......................................................................... 29

39. Suspended ceiling ....................................................................................................... 29

40. Advantages of suspended ceiling ................................................................................ 30

41. Disadvantages of the suspended ceiling ..................................................................... 30

42. Vertical service ducts.................................................................................................. 30

43. Advantages of vertical service ducts .......................................................................... 31

44. Advantage for vertical service ducts .......................................................................... 31

45. MOST SUITABLE SPATIAL PLANNING FOR MEGA POLISE CONSTRUCTION


PROJECT ............................................................................................................................... 32

QUESTION 04 .......................................................................................................................... 33

46. INTEGRATION OF THE BUILDING SERVICE WITHIN A BUILDING. ................ 33

47. MAIN OUTCOME OF THE COLOMBO MEGA POLISE CONSTRUCTION


PROJECT. .............................................................................................................................. 34

There is a huge project for Colombo polise mega construction project. Because many creation
businesses are equipped to face those initiatives. My production crew wish to construct
residences, luxurious inns , clubs and lots of amusement are matters on this constructing. In
this case, production services are most crucial for all construction initiatives. Such offerings
may be placed and set up using the making plans gadget such as prefabricated walls,
suspended ceilings, precast slabs, and many others. ................................................................. 34

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Question 05 ................................................................................................................................ 34

48. PRINCIPleS OF BUILDABILITY AND IMPLICATION OF BUILDABILITY FOR


THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY ...................................................................................... 34

49. ACCORDING TO (CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY RESEARCH & INFORMATION


ASSOCIATION) 1983 REPORT OF CIRIA, THERE ARE FEW PRINCIPLES OF THE
BUILDIBILITY CONCEPT. ................................................................................................... 35

Question 06 ................................................................................................................................ 38

50. Advantages and disadvantages of employing the concept of buildability .................. 38

51. Advantages.................................................................................................................. 39

52. Disadvantages ............................................................................................................ 39

53. Advantages.................................................................................................................. 40

54. Disadvantages ............................................................................................................ 40

Question 07 ................................................................................................................................ 43

55. Key principles of sustainable construction approach ................................................ 43

Question 08 ................................................................................................................................ 47

56. Modern and traditional construction method and benefits from a sustainable
construction approach............................................................................................................ 47

57. Benefits of sustainable construction ........................................................................... 52

58. The sustainable construction methods that are used for 60 storey commercial
building to build on Colombo mega polise development in sri lanka .................................... 53

Question 09 .................................................................................................................................. 0

59. Techniques used to erect multi storey buildings which provide flexibility of spatial
planning in terms of sustainable construction principles ........................................................ 0

Question 10 .................................................................................................................................. 4

60. The plan for future occupier needs and the alteration and repair techniques used to
meet such needs and the legal constructions on the above processes. .................................... 4

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Question 11 .................................................................................................................................. 7

61. The construction methods associated with the demolition of a given structure with
particular reference to the associated documents and compliance with all relevant legal
constraints including health and safety legislation, cdm requirements ................................... 7

62. ........................................................................................................................................... 11

63. The documents, and compliance with all relevant legal constraints including health
and safety, legislation, cdm requirements .............................................................................. 11

CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 13

Figure table ................................................................................................................................... 14

References ................................................................................................................................. 15

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INRODUCTION

From Technology-A, we found out approximately the lowrise and midrise buildings. But
for the primary time we discovered about the excessive upward thrust buildings and
skyscrapers from TECHNOLOGY-B.Accordingly this subject very useful to understand
what is the building very deeply. However our group need to mentioned 60 STOREY
COMMERCIAL BUILDING for MEGA POLISE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT. So we
are going to provided that project: how we are going to assemble this challenge inside
shortest term and the way we use excessive excellent technology for this constructing.

OUR VISION
We always offer to clean view of our project and proper guidelines. Mainly focus is what
are the new technologies in the construction world.

OUR MISSION
We are always ready to this project using latest technology and quality of the product.
Another thing is time management of duration of the complex.

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.

CLIENTS PURPOSE

We need to handover this project within 2 years


He wants 60 storey building including commercial area, hotels and apartments.
He have already to invest 24 Billion Rupees.
But my construction company ready to do this project from using 20 billion rupees.so we
planed to save 4 billion rupees from my clients budget.

My patron instructed me he have his own bare land close to via the Negombo beach facet. So we
went and visited it. That land is set one acre. Actually it has 1.14 acre.

Negombo beach side is a rural place. So my patron want to get some thing new and more
attraction to his constructing. He broadly speaking assume how his earnings rely on through this
process.

QUESTION 01

Describe the VARIOUS FORMS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN USED FOR MULTI


STOREY BUILDINGS AND EVALUATE THE BENEFITS AND SHORTCOMINGS of
each. (P.1.1)

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When we are concerning multi stories building - generally depend on main three factors.

They are,

LOW RISE BUILDING 5 stories or less 5 stories


MIDRISE BUILDING more than 5 stories, less than 12 storey
HIGH RISE BUILDING more than 12 storey , less than 50 storey
SKY SCRAPE BUILDING more than 50 storey

The stability of the building depends on the transfer the loads. So there are four types of loads
that is affecting to the stability of the buildings.

They are,

1. DEAD LOAD

Loads that typically dont change over time, such as the weights of materials and components of
the structure itself (the framing, the materials, roofing materials, etc ) and the weights of fixed
service equipment. (plumbing, HVAC system etc)

2. LIVE LOAD

3. LOADS WHICH CAN DO, OR CAN, ALTERNATE OVER THE YEARS,


CONSISTING OF HUMAN BEINGS WALKING AROUND A CONSTRUCTING
(OCCUPANCY) OR MOVABLE ITEMS INCLUSIVE OF A FLOWER POT ON
THE DECK. IN ADDITION TO STAY LOADS, WHAT IS CALLED
ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS ARE MASSES WHICH ARE CREATED
OBVIOUSLY BY WAY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND ENCOMPASS WIND,
SNOW, SEISMIC, AND LATERAL SOIL PRESSURES.

4. WIND LOAD

Wind is essentially comprehensive scale of horizontal movement of free air. It plays an


important role designing a tall structure building because it exerts load on the building.

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5. EARTHQUAKE LOAD

This can effect any kind of building. But this cause is mostly effect to the high rise building and
to the sky scrapers. Therefore we use piles for our building. From this we can decrease the
damagers to our building.

6.

7.

8. STEEL FRAME WORK

1.The most precious idea inside the constructing. So that if there may be a complete electricity
body in any type of building which can use long time length. A structure need to want to
sufficient electricity to naked the loads because of the gravity. However we can divide metallic
frames to categorize of the constructing. These steel body works typically suitable for high
upward thrust buildings and to the sky scrapers.

2. This device basically used in excessive upward push homes to prevent the
lateral loads can be particularly classified like,
3. RIGID FRAME
4. SHEAR WALLS
5. FRAMED TUBES

9. RIGID FRAME

When a rigid frame shape is subjected to a vertical load, it's also picked up by way of the beams
and sooner or later transferred via the columns to the ground. However, the joints are strongly
related, preventing any free rotation to arise on the beams ends. This moderate difference
changes the entirety approximately the behavior of the beams, which is now the same as a
restore-ended beam. In this manner, the inflexible frame structure presents many advantages,
which include decreased deflection, decreased internal bending moments, and pointless to
mention, increased tension. Ultimately however, the columns are experiencing some degree of
inner bending themselves because the beams live inflexible.

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10. ADVANTAGES OF RIGID FRAMES

Easy to construct.

Frame structures can be constructed rapidly.

Economy is a very important factor in construction field, frame structures have economical
designs.

11. DISADVANTAGES OF RIGID FRAMES

When using frame structures, span lengths are generally restricted to 40 ft when normal
reinforced concrete is used. Wide spans greater than that can cause lateral deflections.

Less stiff than bracing systems with large complex connections

12. SHEAR WALLS.

Shear walls are wooden structures which are mostly made out of materials like ply woods.
Theses structures will have the strength to resist the horizontal forces. Shear walls are completed
with four parts, they are

Framing members
Sheathing
Nails
Hold down

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Figure 1: shear wall

13. BRACINGS

Ties and rods used for supporting and strengthening various part of a building used for lateral
stability for columns and beams is the definition for bracing according to NCRS constructional
dictionary. Which gives us an idea, it is a stable unit gives support to maintain the strength of the
building.

Figure 2:Bracings

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14. FRAMED TUBES

Framed tube is the maximum appropriate gadget for the buildings more than 60 testimonies. In
this technique the constructing is designed like a hole cylinder cantilevered perpendicular to the
ground. And also these homes can be appear in type of ground plan shapes , such as rectangular
and square This is a very least expensive pleasant device what generally engineers prefers to.
Frame tubes can undergo the lateral masses that affect the steadiness of the constructing.

Figure 3: structures of the frame tubes

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Figure 4: frame tubes


QUESTION 02

15. ANALYE THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES USED TO ACHIEVE SUCH


DESIGNS AND JUSTIFY THE SPECIFICATION OF MATERIALS.

Construction may be specially divided into 3 categories as homes, infrastructure and industrial.
This is a large system that enables to continue the related venture till quit. So,as we live with the
present day generation production industry develops and as a result of it creation technology and
strategies makes them extra easier . Construction techniques used for together with strip, pad,
raft, pile and beam foundations , selection of substances , financial implications of strategies
used, plant necessities ,health and protection problems ,environmental issues, legislative
constraints. In that case Technology B issue help to help how to gain that technology and
techniques.

Figure 5: ancient construction techniques

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16. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES THAT WE USE FOR THIS CONCEPT AND
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF EFFICIENCY, QUALITY AND
SUSTAINABILITY.

The constructing envelope is the interface among the building indoors and the outside
environment. It includes the walls, basis and roof. Building envelope for the design and
construction of the outdoors of the residence. Good constructing envelope includes using
substances and designs which might be appropriate to the climate, structurally high power outer
walls and having a great appearance. These are key elements inside the preference and design of
an appropriate building envelope.

Apart from the roof or the inspiration, exterior partitions plays a first-rate function in the
constructing envelope. He must have an excellent aesthetic look, adapted to the local climate and
should also be capable of resist weather alternate.

There are various types of materials that are using for construction industry.

Bricks

Curtain walls

Claddings

17. BRICKS
Figure 6:A brick

Bricks generally rectangular shape. Bricks used to build


structures such as walls.

There is a standard brick size.

Length must be 215mm

Width should be 112.5mm

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Figure 7:standard brick size


And height should be 65mm

18. ADVANTAGES

Attractive, durable, low maintenance

Relatively good thermal insulation.

19. CURTAIN WALLS

These are used as a outer covering process of the building and also get a more attractive
appearance to the building.

In our mega polise project that we decide to use curtain walls. Because we expect much aesthetic
appearance and we can easily get our building shape sharply.

20. ADVANTAGES

Very easy to clean and get sharpness of the building


Low maintenance
Aesthetic outer appearance.

21. DISADVANTAGES

Installation cost will be high


Can be damage and risk high.

22. CLADDINGS

Claddings are used materials in modern construction to


Figure 8: Curtain walls
covering the coat of the structure of the building.

There are so many cladding types. They are,

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1. Metal claddings
2. Wooden claddings
3. Vinyl claddings
4. Stone claddings
5. Solar paneled claddings

Figure 9: Solar panel claddings

23.

24. ADVANTAGES

Can afford
Low maintain and repair cost
Easy to install

25. DISADVANTAGES

Can be damage easily

Figure 10: Metal claddings

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26. HOW CAN USE TO THE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR
MODERN INDUSTRY

The modern situation within the international, there are distinctive kinds of production
techniques that we can get. In reality, can every person assume why we need the construction
techniques for the industry. There are many benefits we get for this procedure. If any kind of
creation businesses ought to geared up to provide a whole lot profit because of the construction.
So the new creation generation can lessen the waste of time, waste of construction and quantity
of hard work price etc. Then what are the blessings we expect basically modern era

27. SOLUTIONS FOR MINIMIZE THE CONSTRUCTION WASTAGE, TIME


WASTAGE AND AMOUNT OF LABOURS COST ETC.

Can use prefabricated walls.

Using precast walls

Can use pre cast slabs.

In Our construction project we need to reduce the waste of time. Because my client has
need this early project and hope to use 44 gallons drums to minimize waste from
construction. Each tray we classify metal, wood, plastic , plaster, paper etc.

28. PRE CAST SLABS

Pre

Figure 11:precast slab lifting and fixing


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cast walls

Figure 12: precast wall

Prefabricated walls

Figure 13:prefabricated walls

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QUESTION 03

Describe THE SYSTEM USED TO PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY OF INTERNAL SPATIAL


PLANNING AND EVALUATE THE BENEFITS AND SHORT COMINGS.

Spatial planning means that the method and approaches used by the public and private sector to
influence the distribution of people and activities in spaces of various scales. SPATIAL
PLANNING can be defined as the co ordination of practices and policies affecting SPATIAL
organization.

29. FEATURES OF THE BUILDING

The way the interior space of the building must ensure that it is able to facilitate the different
activities and functions of a particular purpose and do the function that the building was built for
within the limits of space given the building.

30. USABILITY OF THE BUILDING

How the interior of the building must ensure that it is able to cover life and uses of building and
working capacity continue such functions without interruption and overwrite each other.

31. SPACE EFFICIENCY

In a multi storey building could be achieved by the increasing the gross floor area and the net
usable area. There are few keys to maximize the efficiency of the available space of the building.

1. Take the balance are also for the active uses


2. Provide a huge ratio to of usable area to gross area.
3. Select the best size of the furniture for effective works.
4. Arrange the wireless data access to enable maximum effective use of common space.

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32. CORE AREA

Vertical transmigration elements such as elevators, escalators, fireplace stair exits, lobby
elevators are in a specific area that is particularly the building core in modern-day high upward
thrust constructing and sky scrapers.

In my project, maximum of the sea view flats, hotels, buying department shops, and colourful
amusement so come this basic integrity gadget is appropriate. It is important to have a free area
because the center area in homes which include residences for natural mild and air flow.
Otherwise, the heart of the constructing can be used for vertical transportation facility (service
middle) and specially inside the buying shops, sports and office complexes.

33. SPATIAL PLANNING TECHNIQUES USED IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS AND


SKY SCRAPERS

There are mainly 4 types of spatial planning

1. Demountable partition
2. Raised floors
3. Suspended ceiling
4. Vertical service ducts

Demountable partition

A non- load bearing wall made of prefabricated sections that can be readily disassembled and
relocated. These partitions may be full height or partial height.

Figure 14: demountable partition

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34. ADVANTAGES OF USING DEMOUNTABLE PARTITIONS

Not much space occupying


Easy to installation
Light in weight
Less cost (cheaper to made)

35. DISADVANTAGES OF USING THIS PARTITION

Glass wall are very risky


Not sound proof
Cant bear the load

36. RAISED FLOORS

A data center construction model in which a slightly higher floor is constructed above the
buildings original concrete slab floor, leaving the open space created between the two for wiring
or cooling infrastructure.

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Figure 15: raised floor
37. ADVANTAGES OF RAISED FLOORS

Easy to access
East to maintain service lines
Thermal protection
Hide exposed structural and mechanical equipment
Various types of floor finishes

38. DISADVANTAGES OF THIS FLOOR FINISHING

Risky when heavy loads are on this floor


Flooring needs to be supported with many pedestals
Wires and cables should be checked frequently.

39. SUSPENDED CEILING

A sort of end machine this is hung below the ceiling shape within a room or building. It maybe
suspended from a roof or ceiling deck, which includes structural framing joists that aid loads
above and under the deck. The majority of suspended ceiling

Systems are made up of metal gird and acoustical tiles, even though different materials also can
be used. Metal hanger wires are used to suspended these device everywhere from three inches to
extra than a foot(7.6cm to30.5cm) below the deck.

Figure 16: suspended ceiling

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40. ADVANTAGES OF SUSPENDED CEILING

Very cheaper and easy to install


Sound proof
Easy to access for mechanical faults in construction
Better finishing and well appearance for the roof.
Space provide between ceiling can be used for service lines

41. DISADVANTAGES OF THE SUSPENDED CEILING

Provide huge space for small animals to live (rats, snakes, squirrels etc)
Overall height of the room is reduced.

42. VERTICAL SERVICE DUCTS

Services are grouped in one location and related to the construction of a pipe established
vertically on this device. Construction services, which includes cold water lines of the main line,
hot water pipe, electric powered leads, gas supply, and telecommunication cables may be set up
the usage of this machine.

Figure 17: Vertical service ducts

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43. ADVANTAGES OF VERTICAL SERVICE DUCTS

Space can be properly managed


Easy for repair and maintenance
Lower cost
Can reduce amount of materials for service ducts

44. ADVANTAGE FOR VERTICAL SERVICE DUCTS

Ducts need to be carefully sealed.

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45. MOST SUITABLE SPATIAL PLANNING FOR MEGA POLISE
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

In our construction venture of my most anticipate income customer as I have already said. So,
office complexes, purchasing malls, luxury motels, residences, and many others. These styles of
buildings are all going to be extra multi-storey homes and skyscrapers too.

For office complexes, demountable walls can be used office rooms and offices separated to
separate. And also suspended ceilings may be used to attain an excellent finish and also installing
conduits together with electric son. For air conditioning ducts additionally installing suspended
ceilings are best as it offers area between the slab and the suspended ceiling. These are the
strategies can reduce the waste of time.

For flats and suspended ceilings luxurious accommodations are ideal to repair the air con chillers
openings in the event that they use them. As those residences and comfort resorts consciousness
at the aesthetics of suspended ceilings can be used to make recessed lighting. Apartments must
require greater at ease. So suspended ceiling is a good device for luxurious flats.

Vertical carrier ducts can be used for the installation of building services, which include gas
deliver, water deliver, plumbing strains, electrical tracks, and so on. In one vicinity because it
will no longer intervene with the aesthetics of the building in place of having those carrier lines
right here and there within the constructing. Vertical service shafts help manipulate the vertical
traces properly. Then we can get the advantages much less area. In this case, no greater damage
to the aesthetics of the building.

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QUESTION 04

46. INTEGRATION OF THE BUILDING SERVICE WITHIN A BUILDING.

Construction offerings are needed to make the building a more comfy, wholesome and secure for
customers of the constructing. Constructing services a chief role inside the building contributing
to the general layout of the constructing. When planning construction offerings such elements as
weight, size and location of centers and equipment , the position of vertical pipes , roads for
horizontal offerings , drainage, plumbing offerings , assets power , sustainability and so on.

The layout of building services need to be integrated into the overall design of the constructing
and also while making plans to apply the planning systems of the territory.

There are so many building services systems in the building. They are,

Water supplying system


Electrical system
Air conditioning system
Ventilation system
Drainage system
Transportation systems (elevators, escalators etc)
Fire fighting systems.

We can give the definition of integration of construction services like this. This is how the
building services are located inside the building. What we call the integration of construction
services

Building service engineering expressed in particular three topics.

They are,

Appliances ex: fans and exhaust fan, boilers, light fittings, sanitary appliances, telephones, and
so on

Plants and equipment ex: fans, air conditioning vegetation, doorways and windows, water
tanks, water plumbing device(water sucking cars), water heating and cooling systems, and so on.

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Service going for walks ex : garbage disposal structures, plumbing line work
structures, air con ducts, sewage line works, electric distribution wires and cables for plants,
smartphone wires and cable gadget and so forth.

47. MAIN OUTCOME OF THE COLOMBO MEGA POLISE CONSTRUCTION


PROJECT.

There is a huge project for Colombo polise mega construction project. Because many creation
businesses are equipped to face those initiatives. My production crew wish to construct
residences, luxurious inns , clubs and lots of amusement are matters on this constructing. In this
case, production services are most crucial for all construction initiatives. Such offerings may be
placed and set up using the making plans gadget such as prefabricated walls, suspended ceilings,
precast slabs, and many others.

QUESTION 05

48. PRINCIPLES OF BUILDABILITY AND IMPLICATION OF BUILDABILITY


FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

The custom of the buildings are designed and built inside the commercialized international is
irresponsible and unnecessary, they're made constructed with a lifestyles expectancy of just a few
decades, however no plan of what's going to appear after the building's lifetime . A third of stable
waste coming to the landfill is from creation waste as a consequence of the demolition of antique
homes. Construction waste could be averted if the recycling and reuse involves play. The
foremost obstacle is to reuse the homes is that they're now not designed clean disassembly
manner.

The concept of constructability may be defined because the constructing is designed to gather
easily and clean to disassemble.

The clothier or architect should certify the good buildability of the assignment. There are some
ideas of the idea of constructability as shown beneath.

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49. ACCORDING TO (CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

RESEARCH & INFORMATION ASSOCIATION) 1983 REPORT OF


CIRIA, THERE ARE FEW PRINCIPLES OF THE BUILDIBILITY
CONCEPT.

Carry out thorough investigation and design


Plan for essential site production requirements
Plan for a practical of sequences of building operations and early enclosure
Plan for simplicity of assembly and logical trade sequences
Detail for maximum repetition and standardization
Detail for achievable tolerances
Specify robust and suitable materials.

Twenty-4 suggestions for every of those seven ideas, as some of recommendations were
supplied. Disassembly of hints on some troubles is not relevant. For instance, the dimensions of
the solid build and make stronger reuse should be encouraged to paintings because the. "Some
meeting disassembly works of moist concrete curing system can not be reversed, for the reason
that introduction of excellent practice formwork, re-use, disassembly and it'd be of no relevance.

For best buildability, there are three principle criteria. They are,

Clear communication
Simplicity
Standardization

After three criteria for appropriate layout standards had been advanced buildability sixteen.
Previously, comparable research CIRIA, disassembly simplest applies to the problem of ideas
designed. The closing 9 sixteen or so particular that the prescriptive steering, or disassembly of
the sequence isn't always equal to the meeting techniques, disassembly trendy relevance may be
visible.

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When designing for disassembly principle, the following must be considered,

1. Minimize the number of different types of components


2. Use an open building system where parts of the building are more freely interchangeable
and less unique to one application
3. Use components and pre-assemblies that are compatible with other system both
dimensionally and functionality.
4. Use assemble techniques that are compatibility with standard building process.
5. Provide access to all parts of the building and all components.
6. Design joints and connections to withstand repeated use.

Benefits of applying the buildability principles

Site waste reduced by 20%


Management of the design process.
More cost and programmer certainty
Reduced risk
Efficient construction through use of construction logistics
Buildability and contractor style input at the beginning of the design process

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Figure 18: buildability

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QUESTION 06

50. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EMPLOYING THE CONCEPT OF


BUILDABILITY

Buildability creation challenge to introduce the concept of the parties depends on the purchaser,
designers, contractors, suppliers of constructing and construction substances. As I defined above
buildability paintings "to build a constructing economically, efficiently and constituent materials,
components and sub-assemblies to the agreed degree of fine can be defined because the capacity.
Buildability have a huge effect on the idea of the construction industry

Advantages and disadvantages of employing the buildability concept in terms of health and
safety.

Health and safety issues as an aspect of buildability very early stage of the design should be
considered by designers. It is legally binding for the majority of construction projects. The
designer of the building during construction and for future users are in a unique position to avoid
the risk.

Advantages

Construction waste is minimized


Disassembly reduces environmental impact
Produce less toxic materials to environment
Employing of skillful professionals minimizes the health hazards
During the period of construction, accidents and injuries could be prevented.

Disadvantages

Only professionals should employ precast concrete slabs, beams and columns are used as
concepts. Unskilled workers are used for the purpose of establishing the security and
protection issues that will cause.
Co2 can be mix liberally to the atmosphere
Fire risks

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Can be spread various diseases

Advantages and disadvantages of buildabitiy concept in terms of efficieny

There are three main factors that such a cost, time and quality as the successfulness of the project
of construction are decided. Time is money, especially in the construction industry. A client
work within a given period of time efficiency is very important to complete the project. By
applying the principle buildability client, designers and also benefits.

51. ADVANTAGES

Ability to avoid the construction errors


Construction process has taken less time
Building can use for many purposes

52. DISADVANTAGES

Increase the cost

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Advantages and disadvantages of buildabitiy concept in terms of economy

The manner we gift the design and production of commercial buildings inside the global is
useless and irresponsible. Most buildings on what's going to manifest after the carrier life and not
using a thought of just a few decades, existence expectancy are designed with. In fact, one 0.33
of the stable waste going to the landfill comes from constructing demolitions. The negative
impact of waste at the surroundings is high. Such waste is prevented and the reuse of
constructing materials and components and the contemporary rate can be reduced by using
growing recycling. The buildings in addition to in the manner should be organized for ease of
disassembly.

53. ADVANTAGES

Less need for demolitions


The amount of space is high
Can reuse the materials
Reduce the cost for assembly and disassembly

54. DISADVANTAGES

More man power


Initial cost is high
Short life time

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Advantages and disadvantages of buildability concept in terms of quality

Quality may be defined as the potential to impact. Quality manage is critical problem for
assignment managers. Defects or disasters in built facilities huge wastage of money and may be a
large cost. Even with minor defects, discount in satisfactory of production that may be vital to
rebuild. Good assignment managers attempt to ensure that the task is accomplished right the
primary time and the desired first-class tiers are maintained..

Advantages

Less maintains
Increasing the safety
Increase the value of the building
Proper finishing of the entire construction project
Using of strong and standard materials.

Disadvantages

Increase the manpower


Hard to find the professionals if precast components are used
Initial building time increase
Increase the cost

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Application of buildability for mega polise project.

At the end, the new technology and new methods are very expensive. High cost. We used
buildabilityto fast construct the more buildings for residential, as the same process we use
buildability to our mega polise project make fast the process. Because buildability
efficiency and quality while at the same to the cost increases.

So I decide to use,

Precast walls, slabs for 60 storey building


Prefabricated glass curtain walls and suspended ceiling to beused.

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QUESTION 07

55. KEY PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION APPROACH

Sustainable construction

The fundamental sustainable constructing, the building's entire existence time of a constructing
to lessen the environmental effect in their monetary viability, comfort and safety of the occupiers
of the building version, even as there. The concept of stability for the future protection of the
environment and the green use of assets shows. Sustainable building is likewise identified as a
inexperienced constructing. Making it a useful shape, monetary, social and environmental impact
is involved with. It is the responsibility of designers and constructing contractors to
environmental practices so that you can purpose the least long-term damage is to use.
Sustainable buildings are the folks who stay or paintings within the building and additionally to
lessen pollutants and waste, strength-efficient, are designed to be environmental health.

The concept of sustainability is the precept that humans and their groups, social, monetary and
environmental device this is primarily based on are in regular contact are product of. And that
must be stored in concord or balance, the community now and inside the destiny for the
advantage of its inhabitants is to keep to paintings. A healthful, balanced society, one that might
bear within the destiny. Braking stability issues bobbing up from the balance of nature to get
answers to a great principle.

Sustainable construction encompasses issues as diverse as:

Local sourcing
Construction techniques
Utilization of information and communication technology
Orientation of buildings
Community involvement.
Materials of constructions

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There are six principles of stability. They are principles that can help a community to ensure
social, economic and environmental systems are well integrated and that are able to endure. Will
try to follow a community or society that wants stability.

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01. Maintain and, if possible, to improve living conditions. Quality of
life

02. This differs from community to community. It's such income, training, fitness care,
housing, employment, legal rights on the only hand, as many components is Crime,
pollution, sickness, disasters, and different publicity to different dangers. A city its
secure streets, quality colleges, and rural surroundings, at the same time as on the same
time employment and another thinks its ancient historical past making it an appealing
region to stay can be proud. For now and for future generations of residing beings best
of lifestyles of men and women liable for the scheme is vital.

03. Enhance local economic vitality

Stability is crucial for a feasible local economic system, employment


opportunities, ok tax base and authorities sales and the provision of infrastructure and
services, and consists of a appropriate commercial enterprise climate to assist. A
sustainable financial system is diversified so that it is without difficulty disrupted
through internal or external events or screw ups do now not.

04. When building a consensus for decision-making, participatory process used.

Participatory approaches are crucial to the sustainability of communities. It encourages


the identification of establishments and issues, promotes the extraordinary generation of
ideas to cope with those issues and assist those worried to find a way to reach an
agreement on the solutions.

05. Integrate disaster resilience and mitigation in its make the decisions and actions.

A community is irrepressible to inevitable natural disasters along with hurricanes, tornadoes,


earthquakes, floods and drought if it takes steps to insure that these occasions purpose the least
viable harm. This productivity is very little interrupted, and that the excellent of lifestyles stays
at large stages. A resilient community to failures also takes duty for the dangers it faces and,
anyplace viable, is self sufficient.

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Maintain and, if possible, enhance, the quality of the virtual reality
(environmentally)

It does its part by avoiding unnecessary destruction of the air, fresh water, oceans and other
natural systems. In some cases, this means simply defending what is already there by finding
ways to change human activities and development into less affected areas.A sustainable
community sees virtually as existing within a physical environment and natural ecosystem.But a
society may need to take action to reclaim, restore, or rehabilitate an earlier damaged ecosystem.

06. Cooperate the social and intergenerational equity.

A sustainable community does not evacuate its resources, destroy natural systems, or pass
onward unnecessary hazards to its future generation.A sustainable societys resources and
opportunities are available to everyone, careless of ethnicity, age, gender, cultural background,
observance, or any other characteristics.

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QUESTION 08

56. MODERN AND TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION METHOD AND BENEFITS


FROM A SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION APPROACH

Modern construction method

With the growth of the technology, modern construction methods undertakes all the barriers in
construction field .Therfore modern construction methods can efficiently provides the market
advantages.

Main objective of modern construction method

It saves and reduce the time and the cost that has been estimated for the construction .Mean
while it supports to increase the value of the construction with better productivity.

Benefits of modern construction method

Increase the quality of work


Less cost
Time saving
Waste reduction
More green
Less manpower
Reduction of wastage

Green roofing

Today green roofing has become more popular than the traditional roofing methods .This can be
fully or half covered with vegetation. It helps to create healthy cities. There are two types of
green roofing.

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Figure 19: Green roofing

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Intensive living roofs

Soil depth 6 inches or more


Heavier weight
Shrubs and plants
Largest plant diversity
Require regular maintenance
Require regular fertilization
Require regular irrigation

Extensive living roofs

Soil depth 3 6 inches


Light weight
10 20 % organic matter in soil
Low cost
Easy to replace

Benefits of green roof


Helps bio diversity
Improves air quality
Reduce urban heat
Creates cool environment
Reduce carbon dioxides emission
Increasing energy efficiency.
Non-toxic paints

There are many varieties of paints can be find in local and international market. Most of them out

of toxic chemicals which can harm for our health and also to the environment. Usually we can

found three components of paints, pigment, binder and

a carrier.

Non toxic paints are made out of natural raw

ingredient
s such as
Figure 20: non toxic paints water,pla
nt oils, natural minerals

such as clay , chalk and talcum, etc. There are three

different categories , they are

Natural paints

Zero VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)

1. Low VOC
Rehabilitation of buildings

Ends after age buildings, these homes demolished to make some other constructing is left without any
renovation or any use or are doing. In this example, a large quantity of construction waste is destroyed with the
end result and it is dangerous to the surroundings and sustainable production is an impediment, both. As if the
maintenance of homes or building with out using any are left after his lifetime that begins to emit toxic gases.
Old homes are a risk to the surroundings. Repair and demolition of the old buildings may be rehabilitated with
out the modern-day surroundings to avoid this situation

Reclamation of materials

For the development enterprise to be sustainable in every way, trying new strategies. One of the first-rate way is
to use reclaimed cloth. Reclaimed substances or a constructing that has already been used in a undertaking.
Sometimes the cloth, to be changed, resized, refinished or may also need to conform, but they're not in any
manner reprocesses. Materials that reprocessed and reused as recycled substances are recognized.

Materials that may be reclaimed, bricks, slate roofs, ceramic tiles, chimneys, doorways, window frames, glass
panels, steel furniture, fittings, stairs, stone, metallic sections, wood, and many others., lessen the amount of
material introduced lets construct a fairly massive rubbish

Traditional construction methods

Traditional construct is most customarily used to describe a structure in which the inner load bearing leaf of
the walling is of masonry production and tied with stainless steel ties to an outer leaf of both block or brick.
Although current techniques of production are taking building practices into the future, traditional brick and
block strategies nevertheless stay one of the most widely used build kinds.

There are many varied forms of construction and blocks takes many different forms:

Dense concrete blocks


Lightweight aerated (aircrete) block
Thin joint systems
Single skin construction
Cob buildings

English cob traditional materials for soil and water was mixed with straw, sometimes sand is added. This is a
traditional building techniques, but as it is durable in some cases this technique is still used. Many of these types
of buildings are environmentally friendly. The cob walls, doors and windows in the building, which can be
embedded or after the hole just cut. Rock can bear weight as well. COB can make use of a two-story house. Cob
to dry out naturally during the rainy season when it gets wet or it will become an issue is to breathe.

Advantages

Good insulation for heat and noise

Can make even a two storey buildings

Very eco friendly

Walls can make any sharp shape according to required

Using lime in building techniques

Building lime is calcium carbonate, which is used in its original state is. This is an anti-bacterial, resistant to
ultra-violet light and moisture will evaporate from the surface. Lime absorbs carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere and forms a thick coat of limestone

The lime can be used as , lime washes, lime putty, and lime mortar.

Rain water harvesting systems

Houses, apartments or even in commercial buildings such as hotels, widely using this technology to collect rain
water, as it is this technology saves such laundry, water plant, to the bathroom, etc. some water needs of the day
may be used to cover a considerable amount of water. In most places the roof used to collect rainwater.

57. BENEFITS OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION

Increase in the energy efficiency

Low energy consumption, the building is properly insulated, cooling system and heating system, so a large
amount of energy is saved as there is no need to install mechanical systems.
Reusing the materials, to reduce energy consumption is reduced as the need to build content helps.
Using green materials, green building materials, less energy is embodied as a process that helps to save energy.
Solar panels and buildings of natural light and good natural ventilation can be used in open areas.

Increase in water efficiency

With the method of rainwater harvesting rainwater can be used for washing and also for watering plants, etc.
From this method, it reduces the amount of water that is wasted.

Materials

Distributing use of sustainably source material helps to maintain the environment and also for better health.

Less wastage

Reduced wastage through recycling and reuse of demolition and construction waste

Resisting to the climatic changes

By properly insulating buildings walls exchanges heat buildings can be minimized. For this purpose, such as
sheep wool, wood fibers, such as natural materials, as stated above, can be used.

Less construction impact

Decrease the impact of construction on the environment.

Protect the bio diversity

Using green roofs, ecofriendly paintings etc.

Climate change adaptation

Reduction of flood risk, water conservation and prevents over heating.

58. THE SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION METHODS THAT ARE USED FOR 60 STOREY
COMMERCIAL BUILDING TO BUILD ON COLOMBO MEGA POLISE DEVELOPMENT IN
SRI LANKA
As we know mega polis development in target to be erected on sustainable construction method so for o6 storey
commercial building most appropriate construction methods are as following,

Rainwater harvesting system

Rainwater harvesting, collection, storage and use of rainwater for landscape irrigation and other uses is a
technique used to doing. Such a roof rainwater and / or other hard surfaces, such as aboveground
manmade is collected from various hard surfaces.

VOC paints

Paints and finishes in the air for years after application of low level toxic emissions are released. These
toxins source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which until recently, were required to perform a
variey of colors is.

Designed solar panel curtain walls

In fact, the solar panels which have been modernized as curtain wall. The curtain wall multifunctional solution
not only clean and free energy to be generated in situ, but also provide natural light being.
QUESTION 09

59. TECHNIQUES USED TO ERECT MULTI STOREY BUILDINGS WHICH PROVIDE


FLEXIBILITY OF SPATIAL PLANNING IN TERMS OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION
PRINCIPLES
Sustainability is the one of the maximum mentioned words, but least understood in the
global. Its meaning is often obscured by means of differing interpretations and a bent
for the situation to be handled superficially. For most agencies, nations and folks who take the challenge
significantly the concept of sustainability encompasses environmental conservation and the critical
improvement problems such as aid efficiency, continuous social progress, strong financial boom and the
eradication of poverty.

As expected, Sustainable creation or green building each a structure and the the usage of of procedures which
can be environmentally responsible and resource efficient for the duration of a buildings existence cycle from
siting to layout, construction, operation, protection, renovations, and demolitions.

Sustainable construction includes pre-fabricated merchandise. Reusable and recyclable creation substances as it
have to be selected anticipate. Sustainable production starts with planning and designs.

There are a few blessings of sustainable structures.

They are,

Water preserving

The recycling of rainwater with the aid of the approach of amassing rainwater, they can be used for washing
purposes, water vegetation, urinal movement,and many others. This may save widespread amount of water. The
performance of water resources and different strength performance saves extra money.

Space making plans could be used to order space of rainwater collection device. To use the roof as rain water
amassing location to save the space

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Improved health

Poor indoor environmental exceptional, inadequate air move, resulting from horrific mild, soil, temperature
variances, carpeting and fixtures substances, pesticides, poisonous paints and adhesives, and high awareness of
pollution, hypersensitive reactions, headaches, allergic reactions, reasons a pores and skin rash spreading the
construction. But with the idea of green building ventilation, non-poisonous, low-emission substances that
targeted on developing healthier and more relaxed environment.

With proper spatial making plans strategies can be located over the doorways and windows and greater herbal
air flow with out wasting energy in the building may be moved

Energy efficiency

Pollutants are released from fossil fuels-based strength ends in international climate exchange and acid rain are
harmful to human fitness, air first-class troubles like causes. Plus window and door, curtain walls, sun panels,
glazed panels to the ceiling overhead, and so on., using sun energy and natural day light such as ore using
sustainable inexperienced constructing techniques used in can be

An energy-green era, along with putting in sun panels on the roof pinnacle, and store energy inside the form of
solar panels cover the new technology. Curtain partitions and to get extra herbal light can be used because the
constructing envelope.

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Increased property values

Easy to maintain of green buildings results low operating costs and increasing the value
of the inheritance.

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QUESTION 10

60. THE PLAN FOR FUTURE OCCUPIER NEEDS AND THE ALTERATION AND REPAIR
TECHNIQUES USED TO MEET SUCH NEEDS AND THE LEGAL CONSTRUCTIONS ON
THE ABOVE PROCESSES.

The needs to plan for the future occupier needs

When a constructing is built, sometimes constructing up can be for your own use, or on the market may
be employed. Therefore, the developer should ensure that the destiny occupants of the constructing in
addition to to the desires of the design phase and creation paintings are in the early degree may be
crammed. If the developer building, usability and functionality of the occupants of the constructing in
the early stage of the design technique is straightforward. So builders a more bendy fashionable and
destiny desires of citizens can offer a type of constructing.
In some instances, due to economic issues occupant can trade the type of its commercial enterprise to
some other, in such instances, the building must be so one can adapt the brand new characteristic and the
constructing's usability. If the constructing was no longer designed to conform to the new requirements,
the occupant can visit another constructing that may meet the requirements. The results of it with
massive amount of construction waste. This is one of the primary reasons the occupants to are seeking
for durable homes which are built to adjust as wished.
It is crucial to insure that the constructing isn't only designed to be appealing. The layout of the space,
the building envelope, the constructing structure, the combination of construction, finishes of the
constructing, and so forth. Have to no longer be designed simplest to the general requirements of the
built environment and occupants. If the design is executed on this way the constructing can turn out to
be old style in no time.
Not best the present day desires of the occupiers of the constructing plans, the destiny wishes of the
contractor have to additionally be considered. Building for the destiny in addition to the want to adapt
may be made the usage of the strategies stated underneath.
Using metal structural frame of the building to create shape. Steel is a durable cloth such columns,
beams, and etc. Can be constructed the usage of metal creation components. The method and structure
destiny desires of metallic systems may be used again can be modified in keeping with.

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For the constructing envelope, precast concrete cladding panels, glass fiber
cement panels, curtain walls, and many others. Can be used bolstered, without
demolishing the entire building because they can be modified according to want.
Multi-storey buildings precast slab and the weight bearing capacity of the nuts and bolts are assured, in
order that they have an area and construct them into a re-use can be used are constant to the ground may
be used as.
For the department of space within the building correctly, brief demountable partition walls or partition
device as a room or region to raise any contractor break up them, may be moved or removed, changed
with the aid of every other loss the need, then, may be used. This technique is right for the department of
the permanent walls the usage of contractor wishes about every other future is asking.
Raised floors and suspended ceilings may be, the carrier strains aesthetic look without detrimental them
thru spatial planning structures may be moved to any location, any future needs that could stand up can
be met is.
Building services is organized in one of these way within the rest of disassembly and reuse it need to be.
Sustainable creation techniques need to be observed as tons as feasible, and pollutants such green paint,
blocks, etc. Need to get replaced with long lasting fabric

The occupiers of the constructing production wishes to be modified approximately the functionality and
usefulness of the building as defined above after a certain time period to construct. In such instances,
what modifications are required for the development. Replace the complete constructing, making some
adjustments to satisfy the necessities of occupiers aside from replacing the entire constructing are higher
than.
If the building occupier needs to change the air conditioning systems from split air conditioners to a
central air conditioning system to air condition the whole building, the building must be designed to
accommodate these changes according to the requirement. This change will not be a critical issue if
suspended ceilings are used, duct work can be installed in the suspended ceiling and the slab
If the natural ventilation and natural light coming inside the building is less, the modification, as other
windows and the opening could be placed.
If the floor covering, existing ceiling finish used for the building envelope as a coating, not suitable for
the needs of the occupants, which may be modified with an appropriate material, construction of the
initial stage, it must be designed to replace if necessary

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A long-term repair of the building may require some changes after the addition of the
use of the building. As building repair structural damage, there will be a necessary, if
maintenance is through a regular inspection.

Building maintenance to keep to an acceptable level, maintaining or building or structure helps to maintain.

Basically three categories of building maintenance such as,

Planned maintenance

Cyclical maintenance

Reactive maintenance

Functions of maintenance

Adaptation
Modernization
Rehabilitation
Renovation
Repair and replace
Rectification
Servicing and cleaning.

As stated in Sri Lankan housing and town improvement ordinance.

Planned changes to the range, except for the buildings within a local authority should not be administered by the
president of the specifications approved by.

In the section the word alternations are referred to the work acting as,

The construction of a roof or any part such as external or a party wall.


The closing or construction of any door or window in an external wall.
The construction of internal wall partitions.
Any other alteration of the internal arrangements of a building which effect any change in the open
space attached to such building or its drainage, ventilation or sanitary arrangements.
The addition of any building room, outhouse or any other structure.
The roofing of any space between one or more wall buildings
The conversion into a dwelling house of any building not originally constructed for human habitation.
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The conversion into more than one place for human habitation of a building
originally constructed as one place.
The conversion of two or more places of human habitation in to greater number of such places.
The alteration of a building for the purpose of effecting a partition among joint owners.
Re-erection of any part of the building demolished for the purpose of such re-erection or else destroyed.

Law in requiring maintenance is not usually to preserve facilities or to safe guard investment, but to protect
persons from risk.

QUESTION 11

61. THE CONSTRUCTION METHODS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEMOLITION OF A GIVEN


STRUCTURE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE ASSOCIATED DOCUMENTS
AND COMPLIANCE WITH ALL RELEVANT LEGAL CONSTRAINTS INCLUDING
HEALTH AND SAFETY LEGISLATION, CDM REQUIREMENTS

Demolition paintings demolition or dismantling of a shape or a part of a shape refers to is concerned with.
Demolition paintings shape of labor, fake paintings, scaffolding or other structure, layout or production and
electricity, light or for the duration of the removal of telecommunication poles used to provide support Access
or termination of the contaminants isn't always included.

There are some demolition methods. They are,

Hand demolition
Wrecking ball demolition
Pusher arm demolition
Deliberate collapse demolition
Wire rope pulling demolition
Explosion or implosion demolition
high reach (long reach) demolition excavators

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Hand demolition

After a brief technique of demolition by way of hand, using handiest hand gear are not. Sometimes shear leg
crane and during reducing beams can be used to maintain or lower. Safe use, have to be provided if the work on
the building can be effectively completed, raised a scaffold or platform of the gadget have to be used. Only one
tale at a time and safest way to make it within the reverse order to demolish the constructing demolished, the
roof need to pass first means.

Wrecking ball demolition

Most systems may be demolished by means of balling, but it's miles a professional practice that can't be self-
taught. Balling is a viable and powerful method of demolition whilst demolishing multi storey structures which
have suffered structural harm, wherein all other strategies had been taken into consideration, and a hazard
assessment has determined that this approach is the most appropriate.

Pusher arm demolition

For demolition work hydraulically operated excavators and loaders may be geared up with numerous
attachments. Excavator bucket, boom-set up hydraulic breakers and pusher hand percussion devices had been
used successfully with those machines.

The essential advantage of such machines is that they may be very cellular, has a excessive output, and the
vertical faces and standing above the level so one can work on the floor. Their disadvantage is that the machines
use sufficient, need to work with a firm base and is especially flat, and can work well inside the attain of the
growth. These machines paintings effectively when completely extended above the peak of the building need to
be at least 1.5 meters length of the boom is being demolished.

Pusher arm method isn't restricted to web sites suitable for large buildings, however it is right for masonry infill
structures. Building gadget via a horizontal pressure is pushed over in levels. Instead of a bucket in one hand
healthy for a low soar. Hands in opposition to the wall going through the pressing pressure pushing forward and
dig in addition offers.

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Deliberate collapsed demolition

This intentional collapse demolition method which key structural components must be
removed to fix a collapse engineering expertise is needed. When the system started, the entire structure is
unstable until it is completely down. This method of demolition at bridges, silos, chimneys and structures
suitable for highly controlled sites.

Wire rope pulling demolition

This method is a form of intentional collapse. Cable and wire ropes are fixed to the key structural members,
dragged down by a tractor or winches. It has lots of different buildings around the room to where appropriate.
The method of wood-framed buildings, bridges, brick, masonry or steel fireplace, and can be used for the tower
and mast.

Explosion demolition

Diversity is an effective and efficient manner of fragmentation or fission explosion, and the ground than
conventional demolition strategies risky to carry multi-storey structures can lessen each value and time.

It is a technique favored in the United States, wherein good sized threats structures thoroughly and speedy via
the show all through the procedure of demolition are delivered for people is to demolish. In maximum
instances, if you want to break the building to permit clean shape is stripped; However, in many instances, have
a better chance for the personnel, it is not necessary.

In many cases, most of the people of time range after the duration of preparation and smooth-up is being spent
in variety with up to eighty% can reduce the duration of the demolition.

The structures, wood-framed and brick structures, besides on this way may be demolished. Even shape that
correctly already been compromised in this way may be demolished; However, diversity professional on any
collateral damage that may arise will supply commands.

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High reach demolition excavator

A high reach excavator, a particularly long boom that is defined as a safe altitude where
traditional excavators can continue to multi-storey or high structures allowing controlled fission. Boom length
in size from 19 to over 50 meters vary and precision and accuracy allowing the operator during the process of
demolition expert can come up with a variety of attachments.

There is another 2 demolition method, one of is

demolition using grapples and shears.

Power shears, such as reinforcing steel or beams can be used to harvest and cut through concrete and metal in
particular where the risk of fire, or where a more precise cutting torch required may have. While noise reduction
is an added feature. Take care to ensure that any member to be severed either endorsed or effectively, be
allowed to fall, the remaining structures or personnel at risk should not be taken.

Power grapples to handle waste, either on site or to move it to the disposal of waste can be used to load other
vehicles. Some demolition debris generated as a high density, care must be taken to avoid overloading the
device. Device self-harm should be avoided. Machine driven by a heavy burden as a result of instability to
avoid the risk of overturning.

At all times, only the machines must be operated in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations

Other one is

underwater demolition

Divers also have the ability, which is issued by the Department of Labor must hold a construction diving
certificate. Underwater demolition is notifiable under the rules.
Divers who are cutting or welding work on the primary danger of being struck by lightning, explosion of gas is
trapped in the structure. Divers doing this type of work to secure the necessary precautions should be familiar
with.
Underwater electrical circuits used in the tender immediately a positive on / off switch should be. The diver is
actually welding, switch open or "off" position should be.
All the welding machine frame must be earthed before starting operation. An earth wire to work should be used
to connect directly to the machine.
The power supply cable must be kept clear of welding cables. Insulated gloves underwater electric welding or

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welding operations should be used by the diver.
Any underwater compartments unknown or explosive gases, or residues that may
release gases, purge or water before cutting or welding operations should be.
Structures, which can deposit welding gas cans, should be removed prior to the start of the campaign.

62.

63. THE DOCUMENTS, AND COMPLIANCE WITH ALL RELEVANT LEGAL CONSTRAINTS
INCLUDING HEALTH AND SAFETY, LEGISLATION, CDM REQUIREMENTS

Demolition paintings without negative belongings or humans's lives have to be a way. In almost each us of a of
the demolition work is practiced safely. So there are numerous documents that the health and buddies, for the
safety of assets and demolition paintings have to be taken and are accredited by means of the government, are to
be considered workers.

Load-bearing structure that is being dismantled and is associated with the physical integrity of the shape, the
demolition paintings is notifiable, and specifically to allow the demolition paintings is to inform the authorities.

Risk management

Demolition work before demolition work begins to be planned. Therefore it can be safely carried out. To
manage the risks associated with demolition work, the best way is to carry out a risk assessment.

Identify the hazards

Demolition work to identify specific risks step. A site survey, demolition can be found and any potential
hazards associated with the risk that they have suffered in consultation with the workers and the previous record
of accidents can be found by checking injuries before the demolition.

Current types of demolition hazards appeal to,

Unplanned structure collapse


Falls from one level to another
Exposure to hazardous chemicals
Falling objects etc

NG/HNDQS/10/17
Assessing and controlling the risk

After identifying the hazards, it is essential to carry out a risk assessment. Through the risk assessment and
professional workers that they have a sound idea of what control measures should be taken. The risk assessment
is essential when working with explosives. And measures should be taken to control risks.

Demolition licence

A license to start demolition work is necessary when it is communicable. In particular license is required when
working with explosives are connected.

Safe work method statements

As noted above, the demolition work, demolition of the structure to work before the contractor began work to
create a safe work method statement should be is notifiable.

NG/HNDQS/10/17
CONCLUSION
Described the several types of structural layout may be used for multi storey building. Described numerous sort of
creation strategies that comprised Foundations, Flooring structures, Cover-up systems and many others. Described
used suitable information, the machine used flexibility of inner spatial making plans for high rise homes erected
atmegapolise in Negombo. Analyzed the constructional manner used within the installation of above structures.
Defined constructing offerings which includes water deliver, drainage, electrical, air circumstance and fire
preventing and so on. Discussed the proposal of buildability for the assignment to be constructed in Port City.
Analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of buildability. Conversed the key features of sustainable production
strategies and make clear how sustainable creation techniques advantages both present day and traditional
construction technique utilized in megapolise in NegomboProject. Described new ecological creation strategies that
has been designed with power maintenance and sustainability. Analyzed version used timeworn homes for the use of
present day generation. Estimated the techniques used to demolish such systems regarding related documentation
and compliance with criminal restraints.

NG/HNDQS/10/17
Figure table
Figure 1: shear wall ............................................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 2:Bracings .................................................................................................................................................. 18

Figure 3: structures of the frame tubes ................................................................................................................. 19

Figure 4: frame tubes ............................................................................................................................................ 19

Figure 5: ancient construction techniques............................................................................................................. 20

Figure 6:A brick .................................................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 7:standard brick size .................................................................................................................................. 21

Figure 8: Curtain walls.......................................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 9: Solar panel claddings............................................................................................................................. 23

Figure 10: Metal claddings ................................................................................................................................... 23

Figure 11:precast slab lifting and fixing ............................................................................................................... 24

Figure 12: precast wall .......................................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 13:prefabricated walls ............................................................................................................................... 25

Figure 14: demountable partition .......................................................................................................................... 27

Figure 15: raised floor ........................................................................................................................................... 28

Figure 16: suspended ceiling ................................................................................................................................ 29

Figure 17: Vertical service ducts .......................................................................................................................... 30

Figure 18: buildability........................................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 19: Green roofing ...................................................................................................................................... 48

Figure 20: non toxic paints ................................................................................................................................... 50

NG/HNDQS/10/17
REFERENCES

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/Shehab%20Mourad/Samples%20of%20Students%20Project%20Presentations/Types%
20of%20loads.pdf

http://www.seaoc.org/what-structural-engineer

http://site.iugaza.edu.ps/sshihada/files/2012/02/Handout-3-12.pdf

https://books.google.lk/books?id=MCjMBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=advantages+and+disadvanta
ges+of+coupled+wall&source=bl&ots=jAhF578S40&sig=NFJOjqUTGnFhNSUOiPbLYz7Xslc&hl=en&sa=X
&ved=0CDcQ6AEwBGoVChMI-
8mdtLiXxwIVhQSOCh0Sdw3l#v=onepage&q=advantages%20and%20disadvantages%20of%20coupled%20w
all&f=false

NG/HNDQS/10/17