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JOS RIZAL UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL 1

JOSE RIZAL UNIVERSITY


Graduate School

APPROPRIATENESS OF SEVEN OCLOCK IN THE MORNING CLASSES


AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN FIRST ASIA INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY AND HUMANITIES

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to
The Faculty of the Graduate School of
Jose Rizal University

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER of ARTS IN EDUCATION
Major in Science

Christian Paul R. Gangan


February 2018
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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

The Philippine Education System is currently at the crossroads, faced with

many challenges brought by the new typology set by the Department of

Education which aims to produce quality education for the twenty first century

Filipino learners which are all part of the generation Y, also known as Millenials.

The term Millennial is usually considered to apply to individuals who

reached adulthood around the turn of the 21st century. The precise delineation

varies from one source to another, however. Neil Howe and William Strauss,

authors of the 1991 book Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to

2069, are often credited with coining the term. Howe and Strauss define the

millennial cohort as consisting of individuals born between 1982 and 2004.

According to Rouse (2015), millennials grew up in an electronics-filled and

increasingly online and socially-networked world. They are the generation that

has received the most marketing attention. As the most ethnically diverse

generation, millennials tend to be tolerant of difference. Having been raised


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under the mantra "follow your dreams" and being told they were special, they

tend to be confident.

Learning has always been very complex and cognitively taxing task for

millenials. The learning process is always been affected by different factors such

as the context of a students school and classes. There are recent educational

reform proposals which support the idea of focusing on how students learn rather

than what students should learn.

There are various researches which aim to improve the teaching

learning process in the Philippines, focusing on the changes in the characteristics

of entering students, development of new methods of teaching and learning, and

shifts in the knowledge that society values.

The researcher will look at the context of the school day schedule and will

find whether there may be potential significant improvement on student

performance in reorganizing the school day schedule. Previous research has

shown the benefits of similar academic contexts such as the impacts of moving

the first subject of the day, longer school days, and longer school years on

academic achievement (Hansen 2013, Carrell et al. 2011, Bellei 2009, Marcotte

2007).

The findings from these studies imply that the way in which the school day

or school year is organized is an important aspect of the education production


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function. Although the benefits of alternate school organization have been well

established across many disciplines and dimensions (Boergers et al. 2014,

Wahlstrom et al. 2014), school administrators have been hesitant to make

changes. Even relatively low-cost changes, such as start times, havent occurred

due to constraints caused by bussing schedules and after-school sports practices

and jobs.

Given the reluctance to change the way in which the school year or school

day is scheduled, the researcher seek to determine whether the way that

students courses are scheduled within the school day has any affect on their

academic achievement. By understanding the role of subject organization

throughout the day, school administrators may have the opportunity to improve

student outcomes with a very low cost intervention reorganizing the time in

which subjects are offered. Similarly, students with some control over their own

schedule could take matters into their own hands and follow a few rules-of-thumb

to put themselves in the best position to succeed.

Background of the Study

If students were found to perform better at one particular time of day, there

would be significant implications for school scheduling. Such a conclusion would

warrant studies of the feasibility of alternative scheduling such as half day

schoolsor school schedules in which academics were concentrated at this peak

time while other non academic subjects could be taught at a time when
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alertness was not as high, if, on the other hand, as research indicates, time of

day preferences are individual in nature, then every effort should be made to

schedule students for academic classes at times when their alertness is at its

peak level.

If scheduling prevents such a possibility, however, then the idea of

rotating schedule in which the time for each academic subject changes each day

would at least equalize the learning taking place in schools.

To fully understand how the organization of the school can influence

academic achievement, the researcher will take a great deal of related

researches done in other discipline to find whether the time of the morning

classes will affect their achievement in the class. It is important to have a basic

understanding of the biology of sleep and wakefulness.

According to Shapiro (2014), the biological rhythm that governs ones

sleep-wake cycle is called the circadian rhythm, a hard-wired clock in the brain

that controls the production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin. During

adolescence, there are major changes in ones circadian rhythm.

More adult-like patterns of REM sleep develop, there are increases in

daytime sleepiness, and there is a shift in the circadian rhythm toward a more

own-like tendency for later bed and wake-up times Cardinali (2008), Crowley et

al. (2007), Carskadon et al. (1993), Wolfson & Carskadon (1998).


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The adolescent body does not begin producing melatonin until around 11

p.m. and continues in peak production until about 7 a.m., then stops at about 8

a.m. In contrast, adult melatonin levels peak at 4 a.m. School schedules affect

adolescent sleep patterns by imposing earlier wake-up times that are

asynchronous with the circadian rhythm.

That is, the way that most high schools are currently scheduled requires

students to wake up and be alert and focused at a time at which their body wants

to be asleep. There are two main sleep factors that affect mental performance

(Williams, 2014). The first is the duration; that is, the number of hours of sleep.

Early start times causes students to be sleep deprived. Several studies find an

inverse relationship between sleep and academic performance at both the

secondary and post-secondary level (Curcio et al. 2006, Wolfson & Carskadon

1998, Trocket et al. 2000).

Correlation studies comparing sleep-wake patterns and academic

outcomes for early versus late starting schools find that students attending later

starting schools self-report more hours slept, less daytime fatigue, and less

depressive feelings (Owens et al. 2010, Boergers et al. 2014).

The second sleep factor is the time of day one is expected to function.

Regardless of the duration of 4 sleeps, there are times of the day when a person

is more and less alert, which is related to their circadian timing (Blake 1967). For
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adolescents, alertness begins in the late morning, drops off mid-afternoon, and

peaks again in the early evening.

The way that classes are currently scheduled may be forcing students to

learn at a time that is asynchronous with their preferred time of day. If learning of

certain subjects is less adversely affected by being done when tired or out of

sync with ones circadian rhythm than other subjects, then there exists an

opportunity to rearrange the class schedule to improve overall achievement. A

number of studies have explored the role of school start times on academic

achievement.

Using student-level data from Clemson University, Dills & Hernandez-

Julian (2008) find that even when controlling for student and course

characteristics, students perform better in classes that meet later in the day.

Wahlstrom (2002) examined the effect of the start time change at Minneapolis

Public School district from 7:15 a.m. to 8:40 a.m. She finds that the policy change

had a positive effect on attendance and an insignificant improvement on grades.

Hinrichs (2011) takes advantage of the same policy change, instead

comparing the outcomes of students to those in St. Paul (Minneapolis twin city)

where start times were not changed. His results suggest no effect of school start

time on academic achievement.


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Edwards (2012) studied the effect of start times on middle school students

and found that a one hour delay in start times leads to a three percentile point

gain in both math and reading test scores for the average student.

Finally, Carrell et al. (2011) study the role of school start times at USAFA

by utilizing two policy changes in the daily schedule during a three year period.

They find that starting the school day 50 minutes later increases overall

academic achievement by about one-tenth of a standard deviation and that

performance throughout the day is affected by early start times.

Another related set of studies has focused on productivity in the

workplace. The most relevant of this research is the work on changes in

productivity and safety between day and night shifts (Smith et al. 1994). Folkard

& Tucker (2003) find that productivity and safety declines during the night shift

and is relatively constant for day shifts and that the likelihood of sustaining an

injury is 5 23 percent higher at night.

Additionally, many studies have found that sleep deprivation in medical

residents decreases their performance (Veasey et al. 2002). Philibert (2005) finds

as much as one standard deviation decrease in performance due to high levels

of sleep deprivation. However, no research has been done on how productivity

varies within a given shift.


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Two studies have assessed the differential impact of morning classes on

achievement across course subjects. Cortes et al. (2012) utilize the essentially

random variation between students in the ordering of classes over the day at

Chicago Public High Schools and find that having a class first period significantly

reduces grades in that course, and that having math in first period reduces test

scores in all subjects and reduces grades in future math classes as well.

In a similar vein, Pope (2014) uses data from Los Angeles County schools

to determine how secondary-school students perform in morning versus

afternoon courses. Pope found out that learning monotonically decreases

throughout the school day and that having a morning instead of afternoon math

or English class increases a students GPA by 0.072 and 0.032 points,

respectively.

While many studies have suggested changes to make to school schedules

based on knowledge about adolescents circadian rhythm and time preferences,

no study has been able to assess how these scheduling differences actually

affect students in practice.

Every day is always a challenge for First Asia Institute of Technology and

Humanities students to hit seven oclock in the morning classes on time, there is

an increasing number tardiness among high school students and it now causes a

major uproar in the institution.


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Adjusting the morning class schedule will benefit the students who are

finding difficulty to attend early morning classes. But, changing community habits

based on conventional wisdom can be difficult and needs to be handled

confidently. Current early start times have determined timing of other activities

(bus transportation and student athletics, for example) and organizers of these

activities may resist change.

There are undoubtedly pragmatic reasons to avoid change. These are not

reasons, however, for stakeholders to avoid considering options for reasonable

and appropriate changes to school start times.

Theoretical Framework

This study is based on the following theories and assumption:

Circadian Rhythm and Cycle

The biological rhythm that governs our sleep-wake cycle is called the

circadian rhythm, a hard-wired clock in the brain that controls the production of

the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin. During adolescence, there are major

changes in ones circadian rhythm. More adult-like patterns of REM sleep

develop, there are increases in daytime sleepiness, and there is a shift in the

circadian rhythm toward a more own-like tendency for later bed and wake-up
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times Cardinali (2008), Crowley et al. (2007), Carskadon et al. (1993), Wolfson &

Carskadon (1998).

The adolescent body does not begin producing melatonin until around 11

p.m. and continues in peak production until about 7 a.m., then stops at about 8

a.m. In contrast, adult melatonin levels peak at 4 a.m. School schedules affect

adolescent sleep patterns by imposing earlier wake-up times that are

asynchronous with the circadian rhythm. That is, the way that most high schools

are currently scheduled requires students to wake up and be alert and focused at

a time at which their body wants to be asleep.

According to Williams (2014), there are two main sleep factors that affect

mental performance. The first is the duration; that is, the number of hours of

sleep. Early start times causes students to be sleep deprived. Several studies

find an inverse relationship between sleep and academic performance at both

the secondary and post-secondary level (Curcio et al. 2006, Wolfson &

Carskadon 1998, Trocket et al. 2000). Correlational studies comparing sleep-

wake patterns and academic outcomes for early versus late starting schools find

that students attending later starting schools self-report more hours slept, less

daytime fatigue, and less depressive feelings (Owens et al. 2010, Boergers et al.

2014). The second sleep factor is the time of day one is expected to function.

Regardless of the duration of leep, there are times of the day when a person is

more and less alert, which is related to their circadian timing (Blake 1967). For
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adolescents, alertness begins in the late morning, drops off mid-afternoon, and

peaks again in the early evening.

The way that classes are currently scheduled may be forcing students to

learn at a time that is asynchronous with their preferred time of day. If learning of

certain subjects is less adversely affected by being done when tired or out of

sync with ones circadian rhythm than other subjects, then there exists an

opportunity to rearrange the class schedule to improve overall achievement.

Conceptual Framework

The direction that this study will follow is presented in Figure 1 using a

flowchart. It includes the input construct which is the profile of the respondents in

terms of their age, gender and grade level.

Moreover, the process construct includes that of the activities of the

respondents before sleeping and after waking up whether there is a significant

relationship between these activities and the academic achievement of the

respondents. Furthermore, the study also includes the identification of the

positive and negative effects of having seven oclock in the morning classes and

relate

Lastly, is the output construct wherein an intervention program will be

proposed based on the findings of the positive and negative effects of having
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seven oclock in the morning classes to obtain the most appropriate time for the

first subject of the day for the students.

Profile of the Significant


The activities of the relationship between
respondents in terms
respondents before the before sleeping
of:
sleeping and after and after waking up
- Age; waking up
- Gender; activities and
- Grade level academic
achievement of the
respondents

Positive and negative effects of


having seven oclock in the
morning classes

Proposed intervention
program to attain the
most appropriate time
for the start of morning
classes based on the
findings

Figure 1
The Research Paradigm
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Statement of the Problem

This study will seek to assess the appropriateness of seven oclock in the

morning classes among the high school students of First Asia Institute of

Tehcnology and Humanities.

Specifically, it will determine the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in term of:

1.1 . Age

1.2 . Gender

1.3 . Grade level

2. What are the activities of the respondents before sleeping and after

waking up?

3. Is there a significant relationship between the sleeping and after waking

up activities and academic achievement of the respondents?

4. What are the positive and negative effects of having seven oclock

classes?
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5. Based on the findings, what intervention program can be proposed to

attain the most appropriate time for the start of morning classes.

Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the seven oclock in the

morning classes and the academic achievements of the students.

Significance of the Study

Some school districts have responded by starting schools a little later, but

traditions are difficult to change and many have been reluctant to have high

schools start later in the morning and end later in the afternoon. Starting at

puberty, many childrens biological circadian rhythms change.

Millenials start staying up later at night and sleeping later in the

mornings. There are individual differences, but most millenials naturally feel

awake later at night, making it difficult to go to sleep before 10 p.m.

According to the research conducted By Zuckerman (2017), most

adolescents need more than 9 hours of sleeps, but our brains and bodies wont

be doing as well with less sleep. Those people who routinely get 6 hours of

sleep or less are functioning just like someone who stayed up 48 hours straight

after getting 8 hours of sleep on a regular basis.


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Falling asleep in class makes it impossible to learn, but that is not the

biggest problem for sleepy students.

More common, less noticeable, and therefore much more of a problem is

that students who dont get 8-9 hours of sleep find it more difficult to concentrate

in class and their ability to remember on things that they heard or read.

This study envisions to provide intelligible and significant insights for the

academe, research and extension, most specifically for the following people.

Students. For them to complete the 8 10 hours sleep and the shift in

their circadian rhythm will happen on the most appropriate time, so that their

body will operate at a maximum level of alertness during classes.

Parents. For them to have more time to rest as they will be the ones who

will assist their kids in preparation to school.

Teachers and Administrators. For them to have more time with their

families at home, and more time preparing for their first class in the morning. This

will also improve the ultimate goal of education which is to bring the best

academic environment and situation to the students thru the teachers and

administrators as they improve the education system of the school.


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Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study will check the appropriateness of seven oclock in the morning

classes in First Asia Institute of Technology and Humanities considering the

before sleeping and after waking up activities of the respondents and find the

significant relationship of these activities to the academic achievements of the

respondents.

Moreover, the proposed intervention program will only be based on the

findings of the positive and negative effects of seven oclock in the morning

classes, profile and the activities before and after sleeping and the significant

relationship of these activities to the academic achievement of the respondents

only.

The academic achievement of the respondents will be measured in terms

of their individual performances.

This study says nothing about how teaching and learning ability change

throughout the day.


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Definition of Terms

The following are the terms which are used conceptually and operationally

to give a deeper understanding of the problem at hand.

Academic Achievement. This means conceptually, the extent to which a

student, teacher or institution has achieved their short and long term educational

goals (Ward, 1996). Operationally, it is the extent to which a student performs

inside the class.

Millenials. Conceptually and operationally, this means the demographic

cohort following Generation X. This is usually considered to apply to individuals

who reached adulthood around the turn of the 21st century (Strauss, 1991).

Typology. Conceptually, it is a classification according to general type,

especially in archaeology, psychology, or the social sciences (Merriam

Webster). Operationally, it is the type of education set by the Department of

Education, K to 12 specifically.
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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the summary of literature and studies that have

relevance to the present study. They are viewed by the researcher to gain deeper

insights into the field of study. It is from these materials that the concept of this

work was based and formed. It also bears the conceptual framework where this

study was anchored.

Related Literature

The following key concepts are all related literature, both foreign and local,

about appropriateness of seven oclock in the morning classes among high

school students in First Asia Institute of Technology and Humanities are

presented in this review.

Foreign

Often people are quick to say whether they believe they are a morning

person or a night owl. Sayings such as the early bird catches the worm promote

this time of day preferences and are spoken by millions.


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Dunn et. al (1989), asserted that people do have peak times of the day.

Circadian rhythms are affected by such biological functions as changes in body

temperature levels of testosterone or estrogen over the course of the day.

Variations in alertness because of biological factors potentially have direct

repercussions for all students.

In the early 1990s, medical research found that teenagers have

biologically different sleep and wake patterns than the preadolescent or adult

population. On the basis of that information, in 1997, the seven comprehensive

high schools in the Minneapolis Public School District shifted the school start

time from 7:15 a. m. to 8:40 a. m. Wahistrom (2002) examined that change,

finding significant benefits such as improved attendance and enrollment rates,

less sleeping in class, and less student-reported depression.

According to Barron (1994), alertness and attentiveness are affected by

the time of day preferences. A review of relevant literature indicated that

preferences are significant in predicting performance levels for students and that

matching students with peak times is not only beneficial for academic subjects,

but also influences discipline and test taking. Teachers are also shown to have

ideal times of day that may affect their teaching abilities. Biological data has

emphasized specific times of day in which people are most alert. One of the first

daily rhythms noted by scientists was the progressive rise in body temperature

over the course of the day. According to Biggers (1980), for the majority of
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people, a low point is reached around 2:00 a.m., and a peak is reached in the

middle of the afternoon followed by another gradual fall until bedtime. Many

scientists have related this body rhythm to job performance over the span of the

day. Not all people have this particular type of temperature rhythm, though.

Biologists suggest that the peaks and slumps in temperature are related to

task performance. If this is the case, school schedules do not benefit all students

because not all students reach their peak times during the power morning hours

in which most educators try to tackle the most important and difficult subjects.

Local

As reported by the Philippine Star Global on their news report dated

September 26, 2014, a group of private school owners proposed to the

Department of Education to start classes after 8:00 in the morning for students to

absorb the subjects better.

The Federation of Association of Private Schools and Administrators

stated that high school students who report to school at 6:00 or even 7:00 in the

morning need to be shaken up or have to be told of funny anecdotes by teachers

for them to start listening in classes for major subjects, usually given in the first

hours of the day. This antiquated belief in the schools wherein the major subjects

such as English, Math, Science, Filipino and History are placed early in a day as
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recommended by experts that the absorptive power of students is quite

effective in the morning.

The current set up of the Philippine Education schedule will show that the

minor subjects are taught later in a day which according to the finding is the time

when kids are all perked up only to learn Physical Education, Home Economics

and Livelihood Education.

According to Kasilag (2014), most of our teenagers finish the last full show

on televisions, browse the net and update every minute on their Facebook

accounts and sleep only around past midnight.

So, in the early morning, they listen to the lesson as they daydream in the

classroom from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m.. More than two long hours are lost every day

among high school students.

By simply telling students to go to bed earlier so that they are fully

functional at such an early hour is ineffective because biological changes brought

about by puberty make it impossible for the students to fall asleep before 11 p.m.

Starting at 8:30 a.m. will also help in decongesting the monstrous traffic in

Tanauan City because of the time that students begin to get into the streets and

all workers and employees are already in their respective offices.


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Related Studies

The following key concepts are all related studies, both foreign and local,

about appropriateness of seven oclock in the morning classes among high

school students in First Asia Institute of Technology and Humanities are

presented in this review.

Foreign

In 1974, Dunn and Price developed a self report tool by which students

could identify their own learning styles called the Learning styles Inventory. The

Learning Styles Inventory, or LSI, is a self report instrument based on a rank

ordering of choices for each of 104 items for use with grades 3-12. The inventory

is made up of true/false questions , many of which are similar in nature to allow

checking for a students consistency in answering. Questions are geared to

assess all the learning style preferences mentioned in Dunns definition of

learning styles (1951). Twenty out of the one hundred four questions included in

the inventory questions were about time of day preferences. The inventory went

through six years of testing and revision in order to substantiate that it could

validly and reliably indentify grade 3-12 students preferences in learning styles
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Educators have come to acknowledge that each student carries around a

unique set of preferences that define his or her optimal mode of learning.

Traditionally, educational researchers have tried to ascertain the best method of

education for all students. Today, research is moving toward focusing on

individual students rather than one best method for all students. Advocates of

learning styles theory ascertain that one type of learning format is not going to

meet the needs of all students because each individual learns best through an

educational approach that matches his or her unique learning style.

According to Dunn (1985), one-fifth of high school students are most alert

in the early morning, one third only after 10:00 to 10:30 a.m., and another one-

third not until the afternoon. By the time students reach adulthood, their ideal

times are usually late morning or afternoon. High school students peak times

shift more to late morning and late night. Many studies report this general trend in

preferred time of day and the associated change with age, but there are

significant differences in individual preferences for all age groups, while group

averages are important to note, it is impossible to say that all students in one

particular age group will learn best at one particular time of day.

Several researchers have suggested that the traditional school schedule

favors students who are most alert in the mornings,(Dunn et. al. 1979, Marcus

1979, Price et al. 1981). In a study designed to test whether or not students with

high reading achievement scores showed a preference for certain learning styles,
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preferred time of day was found to be one of the learning styles that did

correspond to student achievement in reading. Those students with the highest

reading achievement scores indicated a preference for learning other than the

traditionally acknowledged morning power time. Students with lower scores

showed a preference for late morning learning.

Several studies report that when students are matched with their preferred

time of day, they perform significantly better in school. In a study conducted by

an elementary school in Suffolk County, New York, elementary students were

placed in a two year program for their math and reading classes in which they

were matched with their peak time for one of the subjects and mismatched for

the other each year. Students performed significantly better both years in the

subjects that matched their preferred time of day (Bruno and Dunn, 1985). Other

research goes so far as to suggest the best times of day for teaching specific

subjects based on short and long term memory retention. Morton and Kreshner

devised a study in which thirty six normal learning disabled, and educable

retarded children were assigned randomly to morning and afternoon sessions of

a lesson calling for memorization. Both normal and learning impaired students

were able to recall more information processed incidentally in the afternoon

group (1985) . Time of day preferences can also affect other school issues such

as discipline and standardized testing. In a study conducted by a New York

principal, truancy was greatly reduced by assignment the truant population, the
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majority of whom, when tested, showed that early morning was their least

energetic time of day, to classes after 10:00 a.m. (Dunn and Bruno 1985).

A principal in Greensboro, North Carolina used a learning style inventory

which showed many different kinds of preferences among students (lighting, time

of day, kinesthetic preferences, etc. ) to implement a program to help boost

standardized test scores. After studying the inventories, teachers decided to

schedule subjects in order to teach at times when the majority of students were

most alert. The most immediate outcome of the changes was a vast

improvement in behavior. Test scoreds also steadily gained after the program

was approved and implemented (Klavas, 1994).

Local

Philippine schools are always looking for innovations that increase

productivity with little to no increase in inputs. History has proven that simple

innovations such as assembly lines, rotation, changes in incentive structures,

and other simple practices have been successful at increasing students learning

efficiency. By using such methods, students are becoming more academically

prepared.

According to Montinola (2014) in a study in De La Salle University

Manila, Mathematics in the first two periods of the school day instead of the last

two periods increases the grades of the students. The increase of student grades
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is equivalent to the increase of teacher quality by one-fourth standard deviation

or half of the gender gap. There are no clear systematic difference in the time of

day effect between boys and girls, older and younger students, students with

high and low educated parents, or low and high performing students. The time of

day effect may be caused by changes in teachers teaching quality, changes in

students learning ability or differential student attendance. The time of day effect

my be interpreted as differential productivity during different parts of the day due

to the circadian rhythm; stamina effects, with decreasing productivity the longer a

student is at school; or structure effects such as lower productivity after lunch

break. The finding that productivity is higher in the late morning than the

afternoon allows for efficiency gains to be obtained. There are two dimensions in

which students and schools can move along to create efficiency gains.

The first is by moving tasks and classes that are more affected by the time

of day to the morning and moving other tasks and classes to the afternoon. The

results show that moving some math classes to the late morning and other

classes, like English, to the afternoon could increase students grades and test

scores. The second dimension to create efficiency gains is by moving classes

believed to be more important by individuals or schools to the morning.

Constraints on the supply of teachers in a given subject limit how many middle

schools and high schools can move along both of these dimensions. These

constraints are less binding for lower graders.


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Relevance of the Related Literature and Studies to the Present Study

The related literature and studies is somehow relevant to the present

study in a sense that the literatures and studies mentioned above talks about the

most appropriate time of the day for the start of classes. Research has indicated

that due to changing sleep patterns during adolescence, academic gains can be

achieved by starting school later. Carrel, Maghakian, and West (2011) use

random assignment of college classes and find that having one hour earlier start

times decreases students GPA by 0.031 to 0.076 standard deviations. Similarly,

Dills and Hernandez Julian (2008) find that even when controlling for course

and student characteristics, students perform worse in earlier classes. Edwards

(2012) uses variations in school start times produced by staggered busing

schedules and finds that starting school an hour later increases test scores by 2

percentage points.

The mentioned studies and researchers have common conclusion, later

start times increase students achievement because students are less sleep

deprived. School start times affect the average learning in a day but not

differential learning throughout the day.


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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design

This research will employ the descriptive survey method. The survey

method will use to check the appropriateness of seven oclock in the morning

classes for high school students of First Asia Institute of Technology and

Humanities.

According to Kowalczyk (2013), descriptive research is a study designed

to depict the participants in an accurate way. More simply put, descriptive

research is all about describing people who take part in the study.

Descriptive research endeavors to describe systematically, functionally,

accurately and objectively a situation, problem or phenomena (Garcia, 2003).

The elements of design included identification of the variables of interest,

the group of subjects/respondents where the variables were applied, and the

estimation procedure to determine the extent of relationship.


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Setting and Respondents

The participants of the study will be the 889 students or the 100% of the

total population of the students in FAITH Catholic School High School

Department of First Asia.Institute of Technology and Humanities.

Research Instruments

The scales and items that will be use in the questionnaire will be

formulated accordingly. Part 1 will describe the profile of the respondents in

terms of age, gender and grade leve. Meanwhile, part 2 will illustrate the

activities of the respondents before sleeping and after waking up. Furthermore,

part 3 will describe the relationship between the before sleeping and after waking

up activities to the academic achievements of the students. Lastly, for part 4, it

will describe the positive and negative effects of having seven oclock in the

morning classes.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher will formulate the objectives, body and questionnaire of

the study. Then, the board of panelists will screen and validate all the necessary

information that has been formulated.


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Then, the researcher will send a letter of request to the institution that will

undergo the study. After the approval of the school head, the researchers

identified the students who answered the questionnaire.

After the series of evaluation and validation of the instrument, the

researcher will distribute it to the participants after discussing the main objective

of the study.

Then, after the collection of the answered questionnaire, the researcher

will tally and interpret the results.

Statistical Treatment of Data

All data gathered will be tallied, encoded and interpreted using descriptive

and correlation statistics. These include frequency distribution, weighted mean

and Pearsons Correlation analysis.