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Design of Drip and Sprinkler

Irrigation Systems

Engr. Sikandar Ali

Department of Irrigation and Drainage
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Designing Procedure

ET0 Maximum Evapotranspiration mm/ day From


Blenny Criddle Equation ETo = p (0.46 T mean + 8)

P = Mean daily percentage of annual daytime hours for

different latitudes from Table
Evapotranspiration or Crop Water
ET or CWR = Kc * ETo

ET = Evapotranspiration in mm/day

Kc = Crop Coefficient (Table)

ETo = Reference Evapotranspiration in mm/day

Peak daily consumptive use per day

PDCU mm/day = CWR * Canopy factor at maturity

Irrigation System Efficiency

Canopy Factor = Canopy Area

(p*p) (R*R)

Total No. of Plants = Area under system m2

(p*p) (R*R)
(p*p) = Plant to plant spacing m
(R*R) Row to Row spacing m
Number of Emitters require for each plant

This depends on the area of wetting (nearly 40% of total

area) and radius of wetted area of single emitter.

The Number of emitters = A/R


A = total area to be wetted.

r = radius of wetted area of single emitter
Area Divide in Equal Hydrozones

Equal Operating Time

Q = AV where V = 1.5 m/s A = Area of pipe


Reduce Cost by
1. Smaller Pump

2. Small Diameter Pipes

Hydrozones under one Pump
Total no. of Emitters
T.E = No. of plants * no. of emitter per plant

Total flow rate of 1 zone = T.E of 1 zone * Emitter flow

rate (lph)

Application rate = Flow of 1 zone mm/hr/day

1 zone Area

Operating Time hrs = Peak Daily Consumptive Use

Application rate

Should be less than 12 hr per day of all zones

Max. depth of irrigation water that can be applied

Max. Depth mm = Drz * MAD * WHC


Drz = Depth of Root zone m

MAD = Management Allowed Deficit %

WHC = Water Holding Capacity mm/m

Max. irrigation interval

Max. Irrigation Interval days

= Max. Depth of Application of water mm

Peak Daily Consumptive Use mm/day
Total Drip line Length

Total drip line m = Area * No. of Drip lines per Row

Row Spacing
For all zones

No. of Plants = Plants of 1 zone * no. of zones

Drip line = Drip line of 1 zone * no. of zones

No. of Emitters = Emitters of 1 zone * no. of zones

Loop Around the Plant

Irrigation up to whole Canopy

Wetting Pattern
Storage Reservoir
Total Flow = Flow of 1 zone*Total no. of zones m3/ day

Irrigation Cycle Daily

Warabandi Days

Storage Capacity = Total flow * Warabandi m3

Safe Depth = 1.5 m

Area of Reservoir = Capacity


Select Length and find out Width of Reservoir

Head Loss Calculation
Hazen William Equation

Head Loss m/100m = K ( Q/C)1.85 * (D) - 4.87

K = Hazen William Constant = 1.21 * 1012

C = Pipe Friction constant

Q = Total Flow lps

D = Internal Diameter in mm

Total Head Loss m = Head Loss (m/100m) * Total Length


Repeat Procedure for all Lateral , Sub main line and Main Line.
Lateral Head loss Should be =< 2m

Main line and Sub main Line m /100m =<2m

Velocity Calculation

Main line and Sub-main velocity (m/s) =Q/A

Where Q= Discharge in LPS

A=Area of main and Sub main line sub-main in m2

Main line and Sub Main line Velocities=<1.5m/sec

Head loss gradient (Watter & Keller)

Head Loss m/100m = K * (Q)1.75

K = 7.89 *10 7 (Constant)

Q = Flow in lps

D = Internal Diameter mm

Emitter Operating Pressure is 10 m

Fitting Losses
Fitting Losses are taken as 20 % of Pipe Network losses

Lateral Fitting Losses = 20% of Lateral Head Loss

Submain line Fitting Losses = 20% of Submain line Head Loss

Main line Fitting Losses = 20% of Main line Head Loss

Suction and Delivery line Fitting Losses = 20% of Suction and

Delivery line Head Loss
Other Losses
Head loss in

Filtration System = 8m

Fertigation System = 2m

Flow Meter = 1m

Field Fitting Losses = 2m

Miscellaneous Losses = 2m

Pumping Lift = At the Spot

Total Dynamic Head
(Pipe Network Losses = Lateral Sub main and Main line ) +

(Fitting Loses = 20% of Pipe Networks) + Field fitting losses

Head loss in filter + Head loss in fertigatin system + Pump lift +

Head loss in flow meter + Emitter operating Pressure (1bar) + Misc Head Losses

Total Dynamic Head = Sum of All Head losses

Pump hp Requirement

Pump hp = Q (lps) * Head (m)

75 * Ep * Em

Ep = Pump Efficiency

Em = Motor Efficiency
Irrigation Scheduling of Drip Irrigation System

Operating Time = Peak Daily Consumptive Use per day

Application Rate

For any month reading of ETo from table and Kc of Crop

Peak use = ETo * Kc & Application rate of Emitter mm /hr/day

Time to Open one zone Valve hrs = Peak Daily Use mm/day
in that month Application Rate mm/hr/day
Application rate of each Emitter

(E) = q/nt
q = daily water requirement (mm)
n = number of emitters
t = time of operation (hour per day)
Difference between Drip & Sprinkler Irrigation Design

There are no Lateral in Sprinkler System

There Canopy factor is 1 because this system

is used in Field or Broadcasted Crops

There is no Plant to plant spacing and no Row to Row


There are Hydrants on which Sprinkler is Mounted

Design Difference
Peak Daily Use = ETo * Kc
Eirrg * (1-Lr )
Where Lr is Leaching Requirements

Lr = ECw
5ECe - ECw

ECw = Quality of Irrigation Water dS/m

ECe = Estimated water quality of root zone

Sprinkler operating pressure is 4 bar = 40m

In Rain gun Sprinkler system no Filter is used

Spacing of Hydrants

spacing along lateral = 100% Overlap of Wetted Radius

Hence along lateral they are spaced at Wetted Radial Distance

Across the Lateral = 65% overlap of wetted Radius

Hence Sub main to Sub main line Distance is 65% of

Wetted Diameter
Any Question