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Selection and Design of Artificial Lift

Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University

Revised 2015
Learning Objectives

INTRODUCTION
Explain the importance of Artificial Lift for world oil
production.
List the different types of Artificial Lift .

SELECTION
Select appropriate type Artificial Lift based on ranking
criteria

Revised 2015
Learning Objectives
Rod (Beam) Pump
Describe the concept and component parts of a Beam
Pump.
Select well conditions suitable for beam pump installation.
Electric Submersible Pump (ESP)
Identify the components of an Electric Submersible Pump.
Describe the preferred applications and the mode of
operation of the (ESP).
Gas Lift
Describe the gas lift process
Identify application areas/advantages for gas lift
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Recovery mechanisms

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Need for artificial lift
Artificial lift is required when well:
will no longer flow
production rate is low to be economic

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Need for artificial lift
Is it possible for this well to flow
naturally under any conditions?
Well TVD=15000 ft

Yes, if the well PI is sufficiently


high and the produced reservoir
fluids contain enough gas that the
flowing fluid pressure gradient
gives a positive WHP.

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The need for Artificial Lift 7% of wells
produce under
natural flow
(1994)
However, the well
This well must first be kicked
off by swabbing.
is unable to
initiate
flow

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Well Start-up: Swabbing

Plunger inserted into well & pulled rapidly upwards


BHP reduced due to fluid removed from tubing
The process is repeated until a sufficient fraction of oil produced
Live reservoir fluid (with gas) flows into well which may continue
flowing if the producing GLR is sufficient
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Well Start-up: Coiled Tubing with gas Nitrogen
injection
When the well shut-in any gas in the
tubing will separate from the liquid and
collect at top of the tubing Heavy fluid
remains
Flow is initiated by pumping nitrogen gas
via a coiled tubing to reduce the BHP
Well may continue to flow if the producing
GLR is sufficient Otherwise a permanent
solution is required (Pump, Gas Lift, etc.)
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Pump initiates flow
Low drawdown only
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Place pump below perforations
- Maximum Drawdown
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Maximum Production Rate
Artificial
Lift
Techniques

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Pump Classification

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Artificial Lift Application
Selected type
of Artificial Lift
varies according
to particular
conditions of the
oilfield being
USA 1992
produced

Revised 2015 Major Int. company (2005)


Increased Artificial Lift Application
(maximum production with cost reduction)
Field Development Characteristics
Absence of pressure maintainance
Depleted / High Water Cut Production
Long (Sub sea) Flowlines-extra pressure drop
Business drivers
Maximise Well Rate:- Advanced Well Design +large diameter tubing
+ horizontal well
Early installation of artificial lift
Marginal Fields (possible subsea):- Minimise Well numbers with
little or no intervention (Reliability)
More realistic Design Software and Operational Control (down hole
measurement)
Better training of wellsite personal who install and operate
the equipment

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Integration of Artificial Lift into Field
Development
Tools for Thinking in Systems are now available (1995):
reservoir / well / production system models

Minimise total lifetime cost i.e. (CAPEX + OPEX)


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Real-Time Production Management Advantages

Implementation of a Supervisory, Control and Data


Analysis (SCADA) system in a large artificial lift
project (> 500 rod pumped wells) resulted in:
(a) 6% production increase
(optimise lift conditions + alarms when wells cease producing)
(b) 50% reduction in well entries
(early problem recognition allows preventive maintenance)
(c) 5% reduction in energy consumption
(wasteful over-lifting recognised immediately)
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New Technologies reduce Failure Frequency

Failure frequency of pumps in a field for wells which are


using automated systems and non-automated wells

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Artificial Lift Selection Criteria

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Well Characteristics
Production casing size & Oil Production Rate required
Maximum Size of tubing - required gross production rate
Annular / tubing safety systems
Depth
Deviation & doglegs - planned & unplanned
Nature of Produced fluids
Oil Viscosity & Gas - liquid ratio
Water cut (gross production rate & Emulsion formation)
Sand / Wax / Asphaltene deposition
Well Inflow characteristics
Some of the following discussion is after material from Lea and
Patterson[1] and Lea and Nickens[2].
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Reservoir Characteristics
Artificial lift considerations should ideally be part of the well planning process. Future lift requirements
will be based on the overall reservoir exploitation strategy, and will have a strong impact on the well
design.

Some of the key factors that influence the selection of an artificial lift method.

IPR: A wells inflow performance relationship defines its production potential

Liquid production rate: The anticipated production rate is a controlling factor in selecting a lift method;
positive displacement pumps are generally limited to rates of 4000-6000 B/D.

Water cut: High water cuts require a lift method that can move large volumes of fluid

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Reservoir Characteristics
Gas-liquid ratio: A high GLR generally lowers the efficiency of pump-assisted lift

Viscosity: Viscosities less than 10 cp are generally not a factor in selecting a lift method; high-viscosity
fluids can cause difficulty, particularly in sucker rod pumping

Formation volume factor: Ratio of reservoir volume to surface volume determines how much total fluid
must be lifted to achieve the desired surface production rate

Reservoir drive mechanism: Depletion drive reservoirs: Late-stage production may require pumping to
produce low fluid volumes or injected water.

Water drive reservoirs : High water cuts may cause problems for lifting systems

Gas cap drive reservoirs : Increasing gas-liquid ratios may affect lift efficiency.

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Well Inflow Characteristics

Production increase with artificial lift depends on:


Increase in drawdown
Revised 2015 well inflow characteristics
Hole Characteristics
Well depth: The well depth dictates how much surface energy is needed to move fluids to surface, and
may place limits on sucker rods and other equipment.

Completion type: Completion and perforation skin factors affect inflow performance.

Casing and tubing sizes: Small-diameter casing limits the production tubing size and constrains multiple
options. Small-diameter tubing will limit production rates, but larger tubing may allow excessive fluid
fallback.

Wellbore deviation: Highly deviated wells may limit applications of beam pumping or PCP systems
because of drag, compressive forces and potential for rod and tubing wear.

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Surface Characteristics
Flow rates: Flow rates are governed by wellhead pressures and backpressures in surface production
equipment (i.e., separators, chokes and flowlines).

Fluid contaminants: Paraffin or salt can increase the backpressure on a well.

Power sources: The availability of electricity or natural gas governs the type of artificial lift selected.
Diesel, propane or other sources may also be considered.

Field location: In offshore fields, the availability of platform space and placement of directional wells are
primary considerations. In onshore fields, such factors as noise limits, safety, environmental, pollution
concerns, surface access and well spacing must be considered.

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Field Location
Onshore
Urban / Farming / National Park / isolated
Desert / Jungle / Mountainous / Arctic
Offshore
platform size & facilities
distance to processing facilities
Isolated Well or Close Spacing
Power source for prime mover
natural gas /mains electricity /diesel powered
electricity generating set
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Operational Problems
Sand / formation fines production
Solid deposition: Remove or Inhibit depositsby
chemical injection formation
Paraffin (Temperature reduction)
Asphaltenes (Pressure reduction)
(Inorganic) Scale (CaCO3, BaSO4, NaCl etc.)
Hydrates (low temperatures)
Construction Materials
Bottom Hole Temperature
Corrosive conditions (e.g. H2S, CO2 )
extent of solids production
producing velocities (erosion)
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Field Operating Characteristics
Long-range recovery plans: Field conditions may change over time.

Pressure maintenance operations: Water or gas injection may change the artificial lift requirements
for a field.

Enhanced oil recovery projects: EOR processes may change fluid properties and require changes in
the artificial lift system.

Field automation: If the surface control equipment will be electrically powered, an electrically
powered artificial lift system should be considered.

Availability of operating and service personnel and support services: Some artificial lift systems
are relatively low-maintenance; others require regular monitoring and adjustment. Servicing
requirements (e.g., workover rig versus wireline unit) should be considered. Familiarity of field
personnel with equipment should also be taken into account.

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General Guidelines (Weatherford 2005)

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General Guidelines (Weatherford 2005)

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General Guidelines (Weatherford 2005)

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Economics
Initial CAPEX
Centralised Facilities?
Operating Costs
Equipment Life
Energy efficiency
Run lifetime
downhole
monitoring
training

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Relative Advantages of Artificial Lift
Methods

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Relative Disadvantages of Artificial Lift
Methods

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Artificial Lift:
Rod Pumps

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AD&DISAD.

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Sucker Rod or Beam Pump

Most frequently used artificial lift method


Land oil fields only
Main Application to reservoirs with:
Shallow to middle-depth (< 10,000 ft )
Low to medium (< 1,000 BLPD) production rates
Surface pumping unit is connected via steel sucker rods
to a downhole pump.
Surface pump unit is well known
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Sucker Rod or Beam Pump
85% of artificially lifted USA wells use beam pumps
(72% are stripper wells making <10 bopd)
Mechanically simple (can operate with inexperienced staff)
Relatively low production rates:
1,000 bfpd @ 7,000 ft to 200 bfpd @ 14,000 ft
(API) Standard interchangeable equipment
Rods, pumps etc. subject to fatigue (choice of materials /
corrosion protection)
Incompatible with solids (sand, scale, paraffin & asphaltenes)
& crooked or reasonably deviated holes
Gas - liquid separation capability limited (gas locking)
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Sucker Rod Pump
Pump is driven by the surface unit
Pump and surface unit connected by sucker rods
The downhole pump does the actual pumping and
lifting of the produced liquid.
The pumping capacity is controlled by the:
Pumping speed,
Stroke length,
Pump type
Pump diameter
Pump efficiency.
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The Pumping Unit
Gearbox reduces electric motor (prime mover)
rotation from 600 rpm to 20 strokes/min
Stuffing box seals on polished rod

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Sucker Rod Pump
Pump is driven by the surface unit
Pump and surface unit connected by sucker rods
The downhole pump does the actual pumping and
lifting of the produced liquid.
The pumping capacity is controlled by the:
Pumping speed,
Stroke length,
Pump type
Pump Diameter and
Pump efficiency.
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The Sucker Rods

Sucker Rods are the connection between the


surface and the Downhole pump
Length:- 25 30 ft, Diameter:- 0.5 - 1.125 in
Screwed together via couplings with Square Flat
surfaces so that they can be tightened by a wrench
Rods are subject to fatigue from weight of fluid and
the Sucker Rods themselves
Load minimized by tapered string
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Sucker Rod Pump
Pump is driven by the surface unit
Pump and surface unit connected by sucker rods
The downhole pump does the actual pumping and
lifting of the produced liquid.
The production capacity is controlled by the:
Pump speed,
Stroke length,
Pump type
Pump diameter and
Pump efficiency.
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Insert Pump

The Insert Pump fits inside the production tubing


Pump unit is run inside the tubing
Pump attached to sucker rods
Seated in tubing nipple
Smaller diameter than tubing
Lower flow rate than tubing pump
BUT Can be repaired without removing tubing (Rods only)

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Tubing Pump
The Tubing Pump is
installed at the bottom of
the production tubing
Plunger moves against
polished Pump Barrel of
same diameter as the tubing
Larger pump rate than insert
pump
BUT Tubing has to be
recovered to repair pump
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How a Downhole
Pump Works
Hollow plunger seals against
pump barrel
Traveling & Standing valves
consist of Ball & Seat in a cage
Fluid moves from casing to
tubing by UP & DOWN motion
of plunger & valve operation
Travelling Valve Open &
Standing Valve Closed during
downward rod movement
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The Downhole Pump
Valve operation is reversed when
rod begins to move upwards
Travelling Valve Closed &
Standing Valve Open during
UPWARD rod movement
UPWARD movement of plunger:
Lifts fluid above plunger to
surface
Reduces the pressure in the
barrel (drawdown).
Sucks fluid from perforations
into the barrel
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The Downhole Pump

Rod falls downwards due to gravity


Rods downward movement forces
the fluid in the barrel to flow through
the hollow plunger
The Travelling Valve is Open &
The Standing Valve Closed during
DOWNWARD movement of plunger
Any solids in the produced fluid
result in excessive pump wear

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The Downhole Pump

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Rod Pump equipped with Pump-Off Control
powered by Solar Energy

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Sonolog or Echometer Fluid Level Survey

Measurement of
fluid level in annulus
allows monitoring of
pump efficiency
Maximum
production requires
pump speed just
sufficient to pump
well-off i.e. fluid
level in annulus is
just above pump
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Gas Separators
A rod pump is designed to pump and lift liquids (no gas)
Gas should be separated from the produced liquids and
vented to annulus before it can enter the pump.
Gas entry into pump reduces pumping efficiency
Excessive gas entry will cause damage due to gas lock or
fluid pound.

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Gas Influx:
A simple Gas Anchor
Gas Influx reduces
pump efficiency

Placing pump
below perforations
maximises gas
separation capacity

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Gas Anchor

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Centralisers are
required in deviated /
crooked holes

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Pump Problems

Downhole pump failures result from:


Normal wear
Abrasion from solids
Corrosion (galvanic, H2S, CO2 or acid)
Scale buildup
Gas locking

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Dynamometer
Identifying Problems with Rod Pumps

Dynamometer load cell measures


the load applied to the polished rod
at the top of a string of sucker rods
A dynamometer card records the
load on the polished rod during the
pump cycle (up- & down-stroke)
The load cell is permanently
installed as a Pump-off Controller
for continuously monitoring the
dynamic rod loads during pumping

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Diagnosis of Pump
Operating Problems
Problems such as excessive
friction, sticking plunger, gas
lock etc. need to be detected
Diagnosed from deviations
from ideal shape of the
dynanometer card
Upper & middle slides
illustrate theoretical cards
Lower picture is full
simulation
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Dynanometer
Cards
Inelastic rods
reflect perfect
up & down
movement
Stretching of
Elastic Rods
results in
gradual load
uptake
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Complete Dynanometer Card

Complete Simulation of a perfectly operating pump


Operational problems (gas, worn seals, stuck valves etc.)
can be diagnosed from the shape of the dynanometer card
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ROD-PUMP DESIGN
The design of a Sucker Rod Pump installation is a trial and error
procedure that consists of:

starting from assumptions on the pump hardware (pump and rod type,
depth, size), flow conditions and design stroke rate or production rate,
and then

determining the operating parameters, like: pump displacement, peak


polished rod load, minimum polish rod load, peak torque, polished rod
horsepower, counterbalance effect (CBE) etc.

verifying how the pump installation behaves through the


dynamometer card and torque chart

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ROD-PUMP DESIGN

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ROD-PUMP MODELLING

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ROD-PUMP MODELLING

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ROD-PUMP MODELLING

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Artificial Lift:
Electric Submersible Pump (ESP)

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AD&DISAD.

Range: 150-60,000 bfpd

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General Characteristics of ESPs

Can be designed to pump at very high flow rates (up to


100,000 BPD) & high pressure boost (up to 6,000 psi)
Often more efficient than other AL techniques
Relatively expensive
Sensitive to solids and free gas
ESPs can run several years with favorable conditions
ESP repair almost always requires a Heavy Workover

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Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP)
A downhole centrifugal pump which lifts the
produced fluids to the surface.
Subsurface equipment
Electric motor, Downhole Sensors,
Protector or seal, Gas separator, Pump,
Cable
Surface equipment
Junction box, Switchboard or Variable
speed controller, Pump Monitoring
Instruments, Transformers

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-High Voltage electricity supply
- Variable Frequency-speed Drive
(VFD): soft start & speed control
- Vent box: seperates the surface
cable from the downhole cable
- Downhole Cable
- Pump unit {many (range of
impeller/diffuser pairs 10-100)
rotating centrifugal impellers with
stationary diffusers driven by shaft }
- Pump intake
- Protector/Seal
(barrier, motor oil expansion, thrust
absorber)
- Electric Motor
- Sensors (signal via cable)
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Centrifugal Pump
Multiple stages
Each stage consists of an
impeller and a diffuser
Impeller provides kinetic
energy by throwing fluid to
the edge of the impeller
Diffuser changes kinetic
energy into potential energy
(pressure) by reducing the
fluid velocity
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Electric Submersible
Pumps Applications

ESPs can be installed in deviated


wells at angles up to 80o

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ESP Motors
Generally 3 phase alternating current and 2 pole motors.
Consists of two main parts: the Rotor and Stator.
Pump performance is dependent on the frequency of the
electrical power.
The higher frequency the better the performance
Designed to run at 60 Hz in USA & 50 Hz (Europe)
may run at other frequencies (VFD).
Requires sufficient cooling from fluid flow past the motor to
operate properly-lack of cooling degrade the motor
Size ranges from 20 Hp to 1200 Hp
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Motor Protector or Seal
An important ESP downhole component (often overlooked)
Provides pressure equalization system for the motor
pressure and well annular pressure
Provides seal system to protect the motor winding from
the well fluids
Absorbs a significant portion of the up- & down-thrust
force.

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Gas Handling
Efficiency of standard ESP
centrifugal impeller reduces
when gas fraction > 20%
Mixed flow impellers can
handle up to 40% vol. gas
Greater Gas / Liquid ratios
require rotary gas separator
or gas anchor (shroud)
Vented casing required
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Junction Box
Vents gas that diffuses out of well via the cable
Prevents the gas from diffusing through cable and
creating an explosion hazard in the switchboard
Motor Controller
Starts and stops the motor
Provides current recording (amp chart)
Downhole sensor readout possible
Enables remote monitoring and control
Provides under and overload protection
Automatic shutdown following pump-off or gas-lock
Provision for automatic restart possible
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Check and Drain Valves
Check valve is installed to:
prevent back spin
reduce the volume of debris falling through
pump
reduce pump out time
Drain valve:
avoids pulling wet string
enables well killing by circulation
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Sensor Package
Measurements include:
Fluid intake & motor temperature
Pump suction / discharge pressures & temperatures
Vibration
Current leakage
Provides data on pump / motor operating conditions
Prevents dangerous motor conditions e.g. well pumped
off & attempt motor restart under backspin conditions
due to unloading of fluid in string
Data triggers alarms - analysed at wellsite or main office
Provides continuous FBHP measurements - data
transmitted to the surface via the power cable
Well test analysis after each pump shut down
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Basic Pump Selection
Max. Pump pressure difference
above annulus is +6,000 psi
Total Dynamic Head equals
difference between pump discharge and
suction pressure:
+ Fluid Hydrostatic head from ESP to
the surface is product of:
- (average) fluid density ()
- ESP vertical depth (TVD)
- acceleration due to gravity (g)
Friction loss in the tubing (Pfth)
The surface pressure (Psurf)
required to overcome flowline
back pressure (may be a high value
e.g. satellite wells 50 miles from the
host platform)
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Pump Performance
The pump head (P), or increase in pressure per stage,
is expressed in terms of the pressure generated by an
equivalent column of water (h).
P = *g*h
N.B. This needs correction for any changes in viscosity
Pump power = pump rate * the generated pump head or
Hydraulic Power = work done / time = q*P
Converted to required electric motor power via pump
efficiency (E)
E = hydraulic power (pump) / mechanical Power (motor)
Operate Pump operation within +10/-10% of max.
efficiency
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Pump Performance Chart

ESP is a dynamic pump:


pump rate is high for low pressure head generation
pump rate is low for high pressure head generation
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Simplified Pump Design (1)
The pipe friction loss (Pf) is given by:
L
2
pf = f f
d 2g
where f is the friction factor, v is the fluid velocity and g
the acceleration due to gravity {32.173 (ft/s2) (lbm/lbf)}
v is calculated from the pipe dimensions while the
friction factor is found from the Moody Diagram
Pd =Pm +Pf +PHH is the pump discharge pressure
where Pm is the safety margin
Pump intake pressure = Pin = FBHP = Pres - Q/PI
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Pump Performance Chart

ESP is a dynamic pump:


pump rate is high for low pressure head generation
pump rate is low for high pressure head generation
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Simplified
Pump
Design (2)

Pump performance chart shows head per stage (H) and


Power {Kilowatt} or brake horsepower per stage (BHP)
{where 1 BHP = 0.746 KW}
Check robustness of design against a wide range of
(possible) future operating conditions
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Simplified
Pump
Design (4)

Reliable ESP operation requires correct ESP design


Reliability or Mean time before failure increases with
evaluation of failed equipment
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ESP DESIGN

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ESP DESIGN

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ESP DESIGN

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ESP DESIGN

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ESP DESIGN

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Artificial Lift:
Gas Lift

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Gas Lift
Basics
Problem: The bottom hole pressure is too low to
support the fluid column in the well
Remedy: Reduce the density of the fluid column by
injecting gas into the tubing
Dilemma: Excess gas injection creates additional
back pressure which reduces production rate
Necessity: Optimise extra production for gas
injected
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A Continuous Flow
Gas Lift Completion
Gas Injection through
the operating valve
increases the
producing GLR
sufficiently to allow
the well to flow
Slug flow efficiently
moves liquid to the
surface
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Nodal Analysis for Gas Lift
Wellbore at perforation depth is node for Nodal Analysis
Inflow to Node (the perforations):
Preservoir Pdrawdown = Pperforations
Outflow from Node (the perforations):
Pseparator + Pflowline + Pchoke + P(tubing above operating
valve) + Ptubing below operating valve = Pperforations
Calculate using Multiphase flow correlations/gradient curves:-
Ptubing below operating valve: use the natural gas liquid ratio &
Ptubing above operating valve: use the enhanced gas liquid ratio
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achieved after lift gas injection
Benefit of deeper gas injection
Valve 4 - 500 psi drawdown
Valve 7 - 700 psi drawdown

30 psi/1000 ft

0.27 psi/ ft
0.44 psi/ ft
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Effect of gas rate on well
production rate

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The Gas Lift System

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The Gas Lift
System: metering &
control equipment

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Gas Lift Applications

Continuous Flow gas lift works well with:


high GOR/GLR produced fluids
high Productivity Index completions
relatively high bottom hole pressures
(water drive/aquifer support or water injection)
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Gas Lift: Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
Solids tolerant Lift gas may not always
Large volumes lifted in high available throughout field life
Productivity Index (PI) wells Not suitable for viscous crude
Unobtrusive surface location (15 API)oil or emulsions
/remote power source Lift gas sensitive to gas hydrates
Tolerant of high well at low temperatures
deviations/doglegs Lifting of low fluid volume is
Tolerant of high GOR insufficient because of gas
reservoir fluids slippage
Low installation cost Casing must withstand lift gas
Low operational cost pressure
Low cost wireline
maintenance for wells with
deviation <65
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Gas Lift projects require an adequate supply
of lift gas at all times
Considerations:
Gas supply decreases as water cut increases
Will gas be available to start up the first well after
facility shutdown?
Lift gas supply pressure often fixed by sales gas
pipeline pressure
gas compressor specifications specified at an
early stage of the oil fields design
High pressure separator operation creates a high
back-pressure (FBHP), restricting well production
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Describe the
advantages &
disadvantages
of these Middle East North Sea

completions

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Describe the
advantages &
disadvantages Difficult to
achieve Low flow rate Interventio
of these Prevent liquid is difficult
optimum lift
completions fallback

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Gas lift design requirements
Maximise value of net oil production
inject gas at maximum economic rate as deep as possible
Maximise design flexibility due to uncertainties in
reservoir performance without sacrificing
production.
Range of reservoir pressures & PIs over well life
Range of watercuts over well life
Range of gas injection rates
Minimise well intervention
Particularly subsea wells!
wireline change of gas lift valves for dry trees < 60o
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Gas Lift Design: Questions to be Answered

How many unloading valves are required?


What depths should they be installed?
What are the Unloading Valve settings?
What is the depth of the operating injection valve?
What is the gas injection (or casing head) pressure?
How much lift gas should be injected?
What is the tubing head pressure at target flow rate?
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Gas Lift Design
DD -11 Quyu 168
Qazma balayb: 22.12.87 stismara verilib 29.03.88
Qazma qurtarb:26.03.88 Szgc: 3082-3030m Hor.FLD
Max. yrilik 1890m 1730' Q/kl. xardlb

176m 720mm

294m 508mm
161m Q/kl. nipeli Camco

995m 339,7mm

2476m 219 x 245mm

1437m 114mm 73mm

1459m MDK amco 92,86/59,72


976,46m 139,7mm P110 D-10,54mm
1046,58m 146,1mm L D-10,7mm
1296m 146,1mm L D-10,7mm
487,28m 168,3mm L D-12,1mm
485,59m 168,3mm B D-10,6mm
3136m 204,35m 168,3mm L D-10,55mm

2513m Quyu kameras KBMG 115/59,61

2982m MDK amco 92,86/59,72

2992m Kalon ayrc KUSA 112/52

2994m 73mm 60mm

3004m Quyu kameras KBMG 107,95/48,29

3015m Paker amco 114,3/48,8

3027,4m Nipel amco 97,3/46

3027,76mKsiln klapan Camco

Szgc: 3082-3030m Hor. FLD


3120m
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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

0 MMscf/d

1 MMscf/d

2 MMscf/d 10 MMscf/d

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Modelling

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Gas Lift Valve Mechanics
3 basic types of gas lift valve, each available in 1 & 1-1/2 sizes:

Dummy valves Orifice valves Unloading valves

Square edged Injection pressure (casing) operated valves


Venturi (nova) production pressure (fluid) operated
valves
Throttling/proportional response valves

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Unloading Valves
Diaphragm/
Atmospheric Bellows

Spring

Stem Upstream/
Casing
Stem Tip
Upstream
Downstream

Port

Downstream/Tubing

Pressure Regulator Spring Operated Gas Lift Valve

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Unloading Valves
PRODUCED FLUID

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500


INJECTION GAS

2000

4000

DEPTH FTTVD
6000

8000

10000

12000

14000
DRAWDOWN

TUBING PRESSURE
CASING PRESSURE FBHP SIBHP

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Unloading Gas Lift Valve
Normally required during unloading phase only
Open only when annulus and tubing pressures are high
enough to overcome valve set pressure
Valve closes after transfer to next station
May be spring or nitrogen charged

Revised 2015
Orifice Valves

THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF ORIFICE VALVE:


SQUARED EDGED ORIFICE
VENTURI (NOVA)

Valve designed for accurate gas passage


prediction.
One-way check valve for tubing integrity.

Revised 2015
Operating Gas Lift Valve

Typically an orifice type Gas lift valve


always open - allows gas across Passage whenever correct
differential exists
Gas injection controlled by size and differential across
replaceable choke
Back-check prevents reverse flow of well fluids from the
production conduit

Revised 2015