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Considered Load Frequency Control for Multi-Area Power System

Shashi Kiran R1, Veena H S2

1PG

Student, 2Assistant Professor

1,2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Banglore University/UVCE

------------------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract The penetration of wind energy conversion minimization of settling time.

system in power system becomes very important because of

green energy in recent power system. The incorporation of Intelligent Controls

wind energy conversion system using doubly fed induction

generator (DFIG) in load frequency control in multi-area Selection of controllers is important to make the response

power system is proposed with Area-1 and Area-2 consist of faster. Here PI controller, Fuzzy and PSO based tuning of

thermal reheat power plant where as area-3 and area-4 as Pi controllers are used and comparative performance

hydro power plant. The performance evaluation is carried analysis is made with setting time.

out using PI controller, PI-controller tuned with particle

swarm optimization technique and fuzzy logic controller is PI and Fuzzy based Control

presented. MATLAB software is used for evaluation and

comparison of results. In general, PI controllers are used in speed regulation of

electrical drives. The output of the conventional speed

Key words: DFIG, Control Scheme, Wind penetration, regulator is expressed in equation (1).

Artificial Intelligence, pi,pi-pso,fuzzy,4-area control. () ( ) (1)

Where, E is the error which should be minimized by the PI

INTRODUCTION controller. The output (out(t)) is the error minimized

proportional signal. Kp is the proportional constant and Ki

The load frequency control is mandatory in the field of is integral constant.

power system to Improve the controllability of the system.

Load frequency control (LFC) is being used for several The block diagram for fuzzy logic based speed regulation

years as part of the automatic generation control is shown in Fig.1. The fuzzy logic rules are developed by

(AGC)scheme in electric power systems [47]. A control absorbing the characteristic of the PI controller

strategy is needed that not only maintains constancy of performances.

frequency and desired tie-power flow but also achieves

zero steady state error and inadvertent interchange.

error

Among the various types of load frequency controllers, the E Out

most widely employed is the conventional proportional Fuzzy

1/Z

integral (PI) controller. The PI and PID controllers are).

very simple for implementation and gives better dynamic Ch.

response, but their performances deteriorate when the Figure 1. Fuzzy logic control of speed regulation

complexity in the system increases due to disturbances

like load variation boiler dynamics [8,9]. Therefore, there Table 1. Fuzzy logic rules

is need of a controller which can overcome this problem.

The artificial intelligent controllers like fuzzy and neural Error Low Medium High

control approaches are more suitable in this respect. Fuzzy Low Low High Medium

system has been applied to the load frequency control Medium Low High High

problems with rather promising results by Nanda [10]. High Medium Low Medium

The literature survey says that by the application of

conventional controllers such as PI and PID, though the The table 1 and figure shows the rules of the Fuzzy logic

steady state error is minimized to zero but it fails when the inference system and developed based on input and

system complexity increases due to many interconnections output parameters of FLC.

and non-linearity. The performance of fuzzy controllers is

much better than the conventional controllers [1115]. PSO Optimized PI based Controller

Particle Swarm Optimization is used in few literatures for

PI control parameter optimization. In this paper 4-area The random variation of PI controller parameters with

system with hydro and thermal plants, 4-area system is fixed limits shows the change in Error (E) characteristics.

controlled with PI, fuzzy and PSO tuned PI are used for So, there is infinite number of possibilities to choose the PI

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 924

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 09 | Sep -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

which should be found with the objective minimization of

Settling time. Scenario 1 is considered as DFIG-4 area system

Minimization of Setting Time implementation, scenario 2 is considered as 4-area,

( ) (1) where thermal, hydro and DFIG are hybrid.

with respect to constraints Then for different controls considered as different cases.

(2) Case1 is applied with PI controller, case 2 is applied with

(3) PI-PSO controller and case 3 is applied with fuzzy

controller.

Where and are the minimum and the

maximum proportional gains, while and are Fig.2, 5, 7,9,12,14,16,19 and 21 shows the tie line power of

the minimum and maximum Integral gains obtained by three different scenarios and cases. Fig.

experience while PI controller is used 3,6,8,10,13,15,17,20 and 22 shows the frequency

deviation of three different scenarios and cases. Here it

Particle Swarm Optimization can be seen that all the tie line power and frequency are

made as zero which shows the controllability. But the

Particle swarm optimization algorithm works on the settling time is different for all the scenarios and cases.

behavior of swarm in food searching habit. The number of Fig. 4,11 and 18 shows the convergence graph of PSO

birds or fishes (Particle) searching for its food and the best algorithm.

particle shares it position to its neighborhood particle

(entire population is considered as neighborhood particle) Scenario 1: DFIG, 4-area

and the information is shared to entire swarm with best

position in the search space. Here, food is the objective Case 1: PI controller

function, the particles are the population and swarm is the -3

Tie Line power

total population in every iteration As PSO is based on the 6

x 10

area 2

birds. The procedure of the algorithm is given as follows 4

area 3

area 4

Tie Power in p.u

0

Step 3. Evaluate the objective function value.

Step 4. Find the velocities of particles. All velocities are -4

initially assumed as zero. All particles move towards the

optimal point. -6

Step 5. Find the historical best value of the particles, which

is known as local best, or particle best (Pbest) and find the -8

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

best particles of all the previous iterations called as global Time in sec

iteration as follows, Fig.2 Tie line power in p.u with PI controller

Frequency deviation in hz

(13) area 1

area 2

Where j = 1,2,N. -0.01

area 3

c1, c2= learning factor assumed as 2 area 4

range 0 and 1.

Frquency in Hz

-0.03

Now find the position or coordination of the jth particle in

the ith iteration -0.04

Now evaluate the objective values of the above Xj. -0.05

-0.06

Step 6. Check the convergence of the current solution, if

the positions of all particles converge to the same set of -0.07

values the method is assumed to have converged else 0 10 20 30 40 50

Time in sec

60 70 80 90 100

Fig.3 Frequency Deviation in hz with PI Controller

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 925

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 09 | Sep -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Frequency deviation in hz

PSO Algorithm 0

35

area 1

-0.005 area 2

30 area 3

-0.01

area 4

-0.015

25

Frquency in Hz

-0.02

Fitness Value

20 -0.025

-0.03

15

-0.035

10 -0.04

-0.045

5

-0.05

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

0 Time in sec

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Iterations

Fig.7 Tie line power in p.u with Fuzzy controller

Fig.4 PSO algorithm vs Iteration -3

Tie Line power

x 10

6

Frequency deviation in hz area 1

0 area 2

4

area 3

area 4

-0.01

2

Tie Power in p.u

-0.02 0

Frquency in Hz

-0.03 -2

-0.04 -4

-0.05 -6

-0.06 -8

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time in sec

-0.07

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time in sec Fig.8 Frequency Deviation in hz with Fuzzy Controller

Fig.5 Tie line power in p.u with PI-PSO controller Scenario 2: : Thermal, hydro 4-area

x 10

-3

Tie Line power Case 1: PI controller

2

Frequency deviation in hz

1

3

Area 1

0 Area 2

2.5

Area 3

-1 Area 4

Tie Power in p.u

2

-2

Frquency in Hz

1.5

-3

1

-4

-5 0.5

-6 0

-7

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -0.5

Time in sec 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Time in sec

Fig.6 Frequency Deviation in hz with PI-PSO Controller Fig.9 Tie line power in p.u with PI controller

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 926

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 09 | Sep -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

1 0.15

Area 1 Area1

0.8 Area 2 Area 2

Area 3 0.1

Area 3

0.6

Area 4 Area 4

0.4 0.05

Tie Power in p.u

0.2

0

0

-0.2 -0.05

-0.4

-0.1

-0.6

-0.8 -0.15

-1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Time in sec -0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Time in sec

Fig.13 Frequency Deviation in hz with PI-PSO

Case 2: PSO Controller

50

Frequency deviation in hz

45 0.035

40

0.03

35

0.025

30

Fitness Value

Frquency in Hz

0.02

25

0.015

20

15 0.01

10 0.005

5

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

0 Time in sec

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Iterations

Fig.14 Tie line power in p.u with Fuzzy controller

Fig.11 PSO algorithm vs Iteration Tie Line power

1

3.5

0.6

Area1

Area 2 0.4

3

Area 3

Tie Power in p.u

0.2

Area 4

2.5 0

-0.2

2

Frquency in Hz

-0.4

-0.6

1.5

-0.8

1 -1

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Time in sec

0.5

0

Controller

-0.5

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Time in sec

Table 2 shows the identified optimal values of kp and ki

parameters. Table 3 shows the performance comparison

Fig.12 Tie line power in p.u with PI-PSO controller

of setting time and other parameters. Here the analysis is

made for only settling time.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 927

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Iterations

kp1 ki1 kp2 ki2 kp3 ki3 kp4 ki4

Used

Scenario 1.005

1 7 1.3527 1.531 1.0095 1.3447 1.7769 1.7169 1.4238 500

Scenario

2 0.122 0.52315 0.27923 0.61005 0.18447 0.76725 0.16441 0.62216 500

Scenario 1 Scenario 2

All time in secs PI PSO-PI Fuzzy PI PSO-PI Fuzzy

RiseTime 4.2902 2.2254 0.28787 3.41E-05 0.0030782 0.3546

SettlingTime 29.811 12.085 14.475 8.885 9.0049 7.698

SettlingMin 0.14117 0.14117 0.051171 -0.010046 -3.0543 0.021181

SettlingMax 0.26273 0.25985 0.17738 0.53476 0.051205 0.030697

Overshoot % 86.101 84.058 246.64 76757 116600 30.462

Undershoot 0 0 0 5709700 1956.4 0

Peak 0.26273 0.25985 0.17738 2.71E+00 3.0543 0.030697

PeakTime 6.5547 3.0436 1.36 3.8072 4.0817 5.8927

From the above tabular column, it can be noted that the [4] D.P. Kothari, Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis,

PSO is performing better in scenario 1 and in scenario -2 3rd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India, 2003.

fuzzy is working better. So, the fuzzy makes the system

response faster. [5] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control,

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994.

Conclusion

[6] C.L. Wadhawa, Electric Power System, New Age

The load frequency control is made with three different International Pub., New Delhi,India, 2007.

controllers, PI, PI-PSO and fuzzy for 4-area. The

performance is compared with high speed response after [7] O.I. Elgerd, Electric Energy System Theory: An

fault assurance. In this paper comparison of Setting time is Introduction, McGraw-Hill, 1971.

made and with the fuzzy it is better in higher area system

and PI-PSO is better is lower area system. So the choice can [8] J. Talaq, F. Al-Basri, Adaptive fuzzy gain scheduling for

be made according to the number of area of power system. load frequency control,IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 14

(February (1)) (1999).

References

[9] P. Aravindan, M.Y. Sanavullah, Fuzzy logic based

[1] Surya Prakash & S.K. Sinha, Simulation based neuro- automatic load frequency con-trol of two area power

fuzzy hybrid intelligent PI control approaching four-area system with GRC, Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res. 5 (1)

load frequency control of interconnected power system, (2009)3744.

Applied Soft Computing.

[10] J. Nanda, J.S. Kakkarum, Automatic generation control

[2] Wei Zhang, Yinliang Xu, WenxinLiu, and Frank Ferrese, with fuzzy logic c controllers considering generation

Fully Distributed Coordination of Multiple DFIGs in a constraints, in: Proceeding of 6th InternationalConference

Microgrid for Load Sharing IEEE Transactions On Smart on Advances in Power System Control Operation and

Grid Managements, Hong Kong, November 2003.

[3] G. Gross, J.W. Lee, Analysis of load frequency control [11] A. Magla, J. Nanda, AGC of an interconnected hydro-

performance assessmentcriteria, IEEE Trans. Power Syst. thermal system using conventional integral and fuzzy

16 (August (3)) (2001). logic control, in: Proceedings of IEEE Electric

UtilityDeregulation, Restructuring and Power

Technologies, April 2004.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 928

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 09 | Sep -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Appl. Sci. 4 (September (7)) (2009).

area interconnectedhydro-thermal reheat power system

using artificial intelligence and PI controllers, Int. J. Eng.

Sci. Technol. 4 (1) (2011) 2337.

in load frequency controlof interconnected power system,

Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 3 (4) (2011) 264275.

frequency control ofinterconnected power system, Int. J.

Comput. Sci. Emerg. Technol. 1 (December(4)) (2010)

377384 (E-ISSN: 2044-6004).

of automatic generation control strategies in power

systems, IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 20 (1) (2005)346357.

control strategies: astate-of-the-art survey for the

researcher, Energy Convers. Manage. 50 (2009)344353

interconnected hydro-thermal system in deregulated

environment considering generation rateconstraints, in:

International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control

andRobotics, 2010, pp. 148158.

Trans. Ind. Electron. 40(February (1)) (1993).

load frequency control, Int.J. Emerg. Electr. Power Syst. 3

(2010) 5.

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