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Table 1: three different concentrations of sodium alginate solution with their characteristics of
alginate beads formed.

ALGINATE 3% 6% 9%


Mass of 10
beads (g)
0.33 0.33 0.33 0.57 0.57 0.57 0.84 0.84 0.84

Size (cm)

0.3 0.7 1.5


Crystal Clear Slightly Yellow Yellowish


Circle Tear drop shape Tadpole shape


The purpose of the experiment was to determine the immobilization technique and to
study the technique of enzyme immobilization by gel entrapment. It was expected that the higher
the percentage of sodium alginate solution, the higher the level of enzyme will be immobilize.
The immobilize enzyme beads was prepared by preparing 3 different % solution of sodium
alginate. Then it will be mixed with 10ml enzyme. Moreover, 3 250ml beaker is prepared and
filled with 100ml 0.2M calcium chloride. The bead is formed by dripping the polymer solution
with 3 different percentage which is 3%, 6%, and 9% into the 3 beaker. The beads is then
collected for weighing and observation.
The data of the observation is recorded in table 1 above. From the table, it can be seen
that the result of the experiment can be compared because the three different percentage give
different result to the shape, color, texture, weight and length for every drop. Immobilization of
enzymes are enzymes that were attached to an insoluble support medium or enclosed by the
support medium which is also known as a carrier. Immobilization was the preferred process as it
was economic friendly as it use a continuous use of bio-catalyst and on the bright side the
separation of bio-catalyst and product was so much easier than conventional batch process.
Immobilized enzymes typically have greater thermal and operational stability than the soluble
form of the enzyme. In this experiment, the method of immobilization that was used is called the
gel entrapment. In entrapping method, the enzymes was trapped into the lattice of a semi
permeable polymer membrane.
The effects of enzyme entrapment efficiency and immobilization yield were determined.
An increase in alginate concentration can increase the efficiency but show a decreased in
immobilization yield. As the bead size decreased, immobilization increased, among the tested
parameters, alginate concentration and bead size were important for enzyme entrapment in
sodium alginate beads, In order to prevent enzyme leakage, the gel beads were coated with
chitosan and silicate. The surface coating provided the alginate beads with higher operational
stability compared to non-coated beads.
Besides the leakage of enzymes, another problem associated with the entrapment method
of immobilization is the mass transfer resistance to substrates, products, and inhibitors. Because
the size with high concentration of sodium alginate cannot diffuse deep into the gel matrix, as in
any other conventional non-biological immobilized catalysts. At the same time, the diffusional
resistance encountered by the product molecules can sometimes cause the product to accumulate
near the center of the gel to an undesirable high level, leaving to product inhibition for some