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DIGITAL SYSTEM

W01 Design concepts


By : C. E. Panjaitan

Electrical Engineering Study Program


INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI DEL (IT DEL)
DIGITAL HARDWARE

About 30 years a go,


Gordon Moore,
Chairman of Intel
Corpo
ration, observed that
integrated circuit
technology was
progressing at an
astounding rate,
doubling the number
of transistors that
could be placed on a
chip every 1.5 2
years. 2
DIGITAL HARDWARE

A sample of the international technology roadmap for semiconductors

Year
Items
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2012

Technology 78 nm 68 nm 59 nm 52 nm 45 nm 36 nm
Feature size
Transistors 283 M 357 M 449 M 566 M 714 M 1,133 M
per
Transistors 2,430 M 3,061 M 3,857 M 4,859 M 6,122 M 9,718 M
per chip

A sample data from the ITRS (http ://www.itrs.net)

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DIGITAL HARDWARE

The switches are programmed by


the end user and names as
programmable logic devices (PLDs).
Most types of PLDs can be
programmed multiple times and
later when the prototype hardware
is being tested, can make
corrections by reprogramming the
PLD. One of the most sophisticated
types of PLD is known as a Field-
Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

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THE DESIGN PROCESS
Required
Product

Define Specifications
After the general structure is
The development process

Initial Design
established, CAD tools are
Simulation Redesign
used to work out the details.
Design No
Correct
Yes CAD tools enable designers
Prototype
Make Corrections
Implementation to simulate the behavior of
Testing Yes
incredible complex products
Minor
Errors
Meets No
No
Specification

Yes
Finished
Product
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DIGITAL HARDWARE

Motherboard
Each unit is plugged into a
main PCB called the
motherboard.
It provides slots for connecting
other PCBs, such as audio,
video and network boards.

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BINARY NUMBERS
Decimal Binary
00 0000
In a binary number the right-most bit is 01 0001
usually reffered to as the least-significant bit 02 0010
(LSB). 03 0011
The left-most bit, has the highest power of 2
04 0100
associated with it, is called the most-
significant bit (MSB). 05 0101
MSB LSB 06 0110
07 0111
08 1000
09 1001
A group of four is called nibble and a group of
eight bits is called byte 10 1010
11 1011
12 1100
13 1101
14 1110
7
15 1111
BINARY NUMBERS
The least-significant bit (LSB) is generated first and the most significant bit (MSB) is
generated last.

Conversion from decimal to binary


Division Remainder Information
857 : 2 = 428 1 LSB
428 : 2 = 214 0
214 : 2 = 107 0
107 : 2 = 53 1
53 : 2 = 26 1
26 : 2 = 13 0
13 : 2 = 6 1
6:2=3 0
3:2=1 1
1:2=0 1 MSB

Results = 1101011001 8
BINARY NUMBERS

Examples :
8547 = 8 10 + 5 10 + 4 10 + 7 10

5185.68 = 5 10 + 1 10 + 8 10 + 5 10 + 6 10 + (8 10 )

= .

1101 = 1 2 + 12 + 02 + (1 2 ) = 13 (1101) = (13)

101.001 = 1 2 + 02 + 12 + 02 + 02 + 12 = (5.125)

= .2
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OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBERS
Decimal 4 Bit
0 0000
1 0001
Decimal 3 Bit 2 0010
0 000 3 0011
1 001 4 0100
5 0101
2 010
6 0110
3 011
7 0111
4 100 8 1000
5 101 9 1001

6 110 10 1010 (A)

7 111 11 1011 (B)

12 1100 (C)

13 1101 (D)

14 1110 (E)

15 1111 (F)
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OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBERS
Binary to Octal :
100011001110 = 100 011 001 110 = 4316

11101101110101001 = 011 101 101 110 101 001 = 355651

Binary to Hexadecimal :
100011001110 = 1000 1100 1110 = 8CE

11101101110101001 = 0001 1101 1011 1010 1001 = 1DBA9

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OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBERS

Binary to Octal
10.1011001011 = 010. 101 100 101 100 = 2. 5454
= 0010. 1011 0010 1100 = 2. B2C

Octal to Binary
1357 = 001 011 101 111

2046.17 = 010 000 100 110. 001 111

Hexadecimal to Binary
BEAD = 1100 1110 1010 1101

9F. 46C = 1001 1111. 0100 0110 1100

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HEXADECIMAL + OCTAL DECIMAL

= .

ICE8 = 1. 16 + 12. 16 + 14. 16 + 8. 16 = 7400

F1A3 = 15. 16 + 1. 16 + 10. 16 + 3. 16 = 61859

436.5 = 4. 8 + 3. 8 + 6. 8 + 5. 8 = 286.625

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ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

190 = 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0
141 = 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
101001011
+

229 = 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
46 = 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0

10110111
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MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
1011
11 1101
13 x
x 1011
33 0000
11 1011
+
143 1011
+
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 = (1 ) + (1 ) + (1 )+
(1 ) + (1 )=

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MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION

19 10011
11 217 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1= 13
11 1011
- -
107 0101 =5
99 0000
- -
8 01010 = 10
00000
-
0 1 0 1 0 0 = 20
1011
-
1 0 0 1 1 = 21
1011
- 16
1000 =8
TASKS :

Task : Addition Task : Multiplication


173 + 44 = ? 33 * 3 = ?
127 + 63 = ? 41 * 3 = ?
170 + 85 = ?

Task : Subtraction Task : Division


173 - 44 = ? 33 / 3 = ?
127 - 63 = ? 41 / 3 = ?
170 - 85 = ?

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