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Honors Chemistry: Ch14 guided reading

Read 14.1 (all)


Define :
Kinetics
Reaction Rate (what are the units and formula?)
Try Practice Exercise on p. 472 - see example 14.2 for guidance
4PH3 -> P4 + 6H2

Read 14.2 (p.474-477)


Define :
Rate Constant
Rate Law ( formula?)
Reaction Order
Compare zero, first, and second order reactions.
What does zero order signify about the relationship between rate and concentration?
Explain:
How can the rate law be determined from experimental data (see Example 14.3)

Read 14.4(p.487-488)
Define :
Activation Energy
Transition State (activated complex)
Draw and explain graphs presented in Figure 14.4
Nice animation at : http://www.kscience.co.uk/animations/collision.htm

Read 14.5(p.492-494)
Define :
Elementary Steps
Reaction Mechanism
Intermediataes
Rate-determining step

Read 14.6(p.496-497)
Modify your drawing in 14.4 to show the role of a catalyst
Honors Chemistry: Ch15 Guided reading

Read the whole chapter!

15.1
Define:
Chemical Equilibrium
Physical Equilibrium
Law of Mass action (formula?)
Equilibrium constant
For reaction aA + bB <-> cC + dD write the equilibrium constant expression
What do a, b, c , and d represent?

15.2
Compare homogeneous vs. heterogeneous equilibrium
What units will be used for equilibrium constant?
Summize rules for writing equilibrium constant expression (p.524)

15.3
What does the size of K tell us?
Define:
Reaction Quotient
Go through examples presented on p.527-529

15.4
Define:
LeChatelier's Principle
Summarize factors that affect equilibrium position
Honors Chemistry: Ch16 Guided reading (and a little review of ch. 2 and 4)

First go back to p. 49 at the bottom Acids and Bases, read p. 49-52 and take notes
Define:
acid -
oxyacid-
base-
(The definitions of acid/base above are the Arrhenius definitions)

Next, go back to chapter 4, Section 4.3, p. 105 and read the section and take notes
4.3
List:
Acids Properties -

Base Properties -

Define:
Bronsted acid-
Bronsted base -
hydronium ion -

Differentiate between monoprotic, diprotic, triprotic acids-

Define:
Neutralization reaction -
salt -

Now, back to chapter 16. Read the whole chapter.


16.1
Define:
Conjugate acid-base pair

Try the practice exercise on the top of p.549


CN- + H2O <-> HCN + OH-
16.2
What is Kw? Set up the expression. What is the value?

16.3
What is pH?
How do you find the concentration of hydrogen ions if you know the pH?
What is pOH?
How are pH and pOH related?

16.4
Differentiate between strong and weak acids
Differentiate between strong and weak bases
List the strong acids
List the strong bases
Everything else is weak!
16.5
What is Ka? How is the expression set up? What does the size of Ka indicate?

16.6
What is Kb? How is the expression set up? What does the size of Kb indicate?

16.8
Compare strength of acids using molecular structure and electronegativity
hydrohalic acids (acids from halides) -
oxyacids with different central atom -
oxyacids with same central but different number of oxygens -

16.9
Define:
salt hydrolysis -

Which salts are acidic?


Which salts are basic?
Honors Chemistry: Ch17 Guided reading (and ch. 4)
Read chapter 17 as directed below
17.2 - Be able to understand what a buffer does (no math will be required)
What is a buffer? What is it made of?

Going back to chapter 4 again Read p.125


Define:
titration -
standard -
equivalence point -
indicator -

Ok back to chapter 17
17.3 You can skim through chapter 17.3 - we won't be going into as much detail mathematically

17.4
Define:
end point
What is an indicator made of?
What does Hin and In- in the equation below represent?
Describe how an indicator works using the equation:
HIn (aq) <-> H+(aq) + In-(aq)

17.5
If a solution is described as saturated, what is the extent of the reaction towards completion?

What is Ksp? How is the expression set up?

17.6
What is the common ion effect? (which priniciple are we applying???)
Honors Chemistry: Ch19 Guided reading (and a little of ch. 4)

First go back to chapter 4 and read section 4.4 starting on p.110 and take notes
Define:
REDOX -
half-reaction -
oxidation reaction -
reduction reaction -
oxidation number -
activity series -

In terms of REDOX, what happens to the


reducing agent?
oxidizing agent?

Summarize the rules on p. 112 for assigning oxidation numbers


Check your understanding of the rules by going through example 4.5 and the practice exercise.

Take a look at Figure 4.14


How can you use it to tell which substance will be a better reducing agent?

Could you use it to tell which substance will be a better oxidizing agent??? How?

Back to Ch. 19 - Read 19.1


Define:
electrochemistry-

Summarize how to balance a REDOX reaction in acidic medium (the example presented on p.665-66)

What additional step must you do if the reaction took place in basic medium?

Read section 19.2


Define:
galvanic cell -
anode -
cathode -
half-cell reactions -

What is the purpose of the salt bridge?


Look at the chart on p.673. How does it compare to the chart you looked at earlier from chapter 4?

Skim through 19.6-19.7 to see how REDOX reactions are used in the "real-world"
Define:
battery-

Read p. 690-691
Define:
electrolysis -
electrolytic cell -

What is the main difference between an electrolytic cell and a galvanic cell?