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S PAR K :

The Tourism Educator


Resource Guide
Developed by Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE  1
1. INTRODUCTION  3
1.1 Objectives  3
1.2 Audiences  4
1.3 Background  4
1.4 Approach  6

2. QUALITY ASSURANCE AND TOURISM PROGRAMMING  8


2.1 Canadas Changing Postsecondary System  8
2.2 Quality Assurance: Why Go There?  11
2.3 Quality Assurance and Industry Involvement  13

3. A TOURISM MODEL OF QUALITY ASSURANCE  15


3.1 Strategic Planning  18
3.2 Curriculum  21
3.3 Instruction  68
3.4 Faculty  90
3.5 Extending Student Achievements  96

4. PARTNERSHIPS, MOBILITY AND RECOGNITION


OF PRIOR LEARNING  99
4.1 Encouraging Partnerships  99
4.2 Supporting Mobility  102

5. PROMOTINGQUALITY IN CANADIAN TOURISM


AND HOSPITALITY PROGRAMS  109
6. QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) CHECKLISTS 2012  113
6.1 Post-secondary Tourism Programs  115
6.2 Industry Advisory Committees  120
6.3 Faculty  122
6.4 Program Outcome Measures  124

Funded by the Government of Canada S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e i



7. RESOURCES:WHERETO FIND MORE INFORMATION
7.1 Quality Assurance 
 126
127 PREFACE
7.2 Program Development and Review  131
7.3 Work-based Learning  136
7.4 Instructional Resources  144 In 2011, an educator symposium was held in conjunction with the annual Canadian
Tourism Human Resource Council (CTHRC) HR Forum in Charlottetown. At this gathering,
7.5 Facultys Exposure to Industry  147
educators expressed a desire for a standing or ongoing national forum through which
7.6 Industry Advisory Committees  148
they could share information and ideas and promote quality tourism programming.
7.7 Industry Organizations  149
7.8 Industry Journals  155 The CTHRC has endeavoured to support this request, including allocating the
resources to produce the Tourism Educator Resource Guide.
7.9 Industry Standards Competency Analyses  157
7.10 Labour Market Information  160
7.11 Skills for the Future  163
7.12 Partnerships  165
The CTHRC would like to thank the following tourism educators who served as a
8. SAMPLES  168 member of the Advisory Group, providing direction and feedback from the projects
conception to completion:
9. GLOSSARY  206
Mark Elliott Douglas College British Columbia

Kerry Godfrey University of Guelph Ontario

Gary Hallam Conestoga College Ontario


of Applied Artsand
Technology

Judy Hebner Humber College Ontario

Terry Hood LinkBC British Columbia

Nathalie Landry Cgep de Saint-Flicien Quebec

Bruce MacNeil Nova Scotia Community College Nova Scotia

William Murray Mount Saint Vincent University Nova Scotia

Jean-Guy Robichaud Cambrian College Ontario


of Applied Arts and
Technology

Jonathan Rouse Okanagan College British Columbia

Grant Unger College of the Rockies British Columbia

ii S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e 1
The CTHRC would also like to express appreciation to the other tourism educators,
including those in attendance at the 2012 Educator Symposium, who provided
feedback on the draft:

Mary Dempster Ambassador Tours Nova Scotia

George Li Canadian Business Skills Ontario


College of Technology

Yanirys Medina Cambrian College @ Hanson Ontario


International Academy

Keith Mller School of Hospitality and


Culinary Arts, RedRiver College
Manitoba
INTRODUCTION
Robert Patterson Wilderness North Ontario

1
Leroy Russell NAIT School of Hospitality Alberta
and Culinary Arts

Cheryl Tourand GW Graham British Columbia


Middle-SecondarySchool

David Wright Seneca College Ontario

1.1 Objectives
The CTHRC appreciates the generosity of the many educators and their organizations
who contributed samples and other resources to the Guide. The content of the The Tourism Educator Resource Guide strives to achieve the following:
Guide draws from multiple sources: research reports, academic papers, government
1. Define some principles and possibilities for industry involvement and for what
publications, NGO studies, postsecondary institution documents and, of course,
being industry responsive can mean within a quality assurance framework
tourism educators themselves.
2. Provide general resources for program development and curriculum review that
outline criteria for quality assurance and quality enhancement

3. Provide a range of resources to assist tourism educators to:

develop or adapt curriculum

facilitate student learning

be industry responsive

incorporate common program benchmarks

provide unique programming and specializations beyond common program


benchmarks

4. Describe some examples and innovative practices for educators toexplore

5. Describe some types of possible industryeducation partnerships of


mutualbenefit

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6. Assist educators to communicate (to employers, students and potential students) Once programs have been approved and initial development has been done, a
the expected outcomes and benefits of Canadian-benchmarked and industry- continuous cycle of improvement begins. Review is continuous, with major reviews
responsive programs done regularly to ensure the program is current, continues to meet its objectives and
addresses emerging needs and new trends in the industry.
7. Define initial quality checklists for Canadian tourism programs
Industry is involved with education at each of these stages. Figure 1.3-1 below
demonstrates the continuous improvement cycle of program development, evaluation
1.2 Audiences and revision.

The Resource Guide should be useful to public and private educators responsible
for identifying, developing, delivering and evaluating tourism programs. It contains
information of value to both new instructors and faculty, and to the more experienced. Figure 1.3-1
There is no consistent nomenclature in Canada for categorizing types of educational Program Development and Review Cycle
programs in the field. This guide uses tourism programs as the umbrella term for all
disciplines, including the following diverse range of programs:

1. Hospitality (accommodation and food and beverage services)


Considerations
2. Culinary and Feasability
3. Transportation (e.g. airlines, cruise lines)

4. Events, conferences and meetings

5. Ecotourism, adventure and leisure tourism (including recreation, sports


and ecotourism), or adventure tourism and leisure (including cultural,
outdoor and ecotourism)

6. Cultural (e.g. museums, Aboriginal, heritage)


Evaluation/ PROGRAM Development
7. Tourism management and entrepreneurship Review
8. Tourism services

9. Attractions

In many regions, they are collectively categorized as tourism, hospitality and


culinary programs.

1.3 Background
Delivery
Educational programs are initiated in response to a specific need or training void in
thecommunity. When a need is identified, an opportunity arises for a program to be
developed to meet that need.

But program development is not that simple for educational institutions. There
are provincial requirements to meet, feasibility studies to prepare, and a myriad of There are no specific guidelines followed by all postsecondary institutions in Canada
other steps to complete prior to the development of a comprehensive curriculum when developing programs in a field such as tourism postsecondary. Some provinces
and the hiring of faculty. In Canada, the required steps vary slightly by province and have standards for program outcomes that provide the overall minimum requirements
byinstitution. for content development; some do not. Institutions have their own process and quality
assurance processes in place. There are, however, no coordinated framework and
quality assurance requirements in Canada for the development and ongoing review

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of postsecondary education. The closest to this is the Canadian Degree Framework,1 Figure 1.4-1
which has been approved by all ministers of education across Canada.

Tourism educators in Canada have indicated a desire to work towards the establishment
of some Canadian benchmarks and guidelines to identify what constitutes quality Innovation/
tourism programming in Canadas postsecondary system. Quality Enhancement
There is a growing need for qualified individuals in the tourism sector. Educational
programming in tourism could support both increasing labour market needs and
the Canadian economy. Tourism represents approximately 10percent of the current Quality Assurance
workforce in Canada, with over 1.6 million full-year jobs.2 Labour shortages equivalent
to 3,709full-year jobs are expected to return for Canadas tourism sector as a whole by
2013. By 2030, 228,000 full-year jobs in the tourism sector will have gone unfilled.
Specialization
The continued growth of tourism-related spending over the next 20 years will bolster
thedemand for labour in the tourism sector. Projections for Canadas tourism sector
indicate labour demand could grow from just under 1.6 million jobs in 2010, to
2.1million jobs in 2030a potential increase of over 33 percent. Qualified employees
will continue to be in demand. Standards
and
Tourism educational programs exist in public colleges and universities, in private Benchmarks
colleges and in private training organizations. All have a stake in proving their programs
meet quality criteria.

1.4 Approach Quality assurance will result from ongoing program reviews against internal and
external standards, i.e. minimum benchmarks and standards of excellence.
This resource guide for postsecondary tourism program educators in Canada is based
on the dual perspective of quality assurance through benchmarking, and quality Quality enhancement will result, in part, from value-added curriculum and instruction
enhancement of programs through specialization and innovation. (unique offerings) beyond the identified minimum benchmarks.

In this guide we recognize that, as part of overall quality assurance, programs need This is not to suggest a national cookie-cutter approach to tourism programs. Rather,
to meet external standards as well as their own expected outcomes. They must also educators should be looking to follow a global model of excellence, striving to meet a
incorporate specialization and innovation as a way to demonstrate that their program set of agreed-upon benchmarksplus offer unique components reflecting individual
is unique and adds value and quality. program emphasis, along with meeting regional and national needs.

This guide provides resources that educators can use to meet quality assurance
components. It also provides ideas and resources they can adapt and integrate to make
their own institutional program unique. Figure 1.4-1 indicates the connections between
benchmarking, innovation and quality assurance.

1
See www.caqc.gov.ab.ca/pdfs/CDQF-FINAL.pdf.
2
Canadian Tourism Human Resource Sector Council. March 2012. The Future of Canadas Tourism Sector:
Shortages to Resurface as Labour Markets Tighten.

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The Canadian Council on Learning (CCL) 2009 report Part 1: Beyond the Binary Model:
Canadas Postsecondary Institutions and Credentials explains:

QUALITY
In the past, Canadian postsecondary education has been described as binary,

ASSURANCE a term that indicates the presence of two separate institutional sectors: public
universities offering academic and professional programming at the degree-level;
and public colleges providing diplomas and certificates in programs of a more

AND TOURISM technical or vocational nature. However, this conceptualization overlooks private
postsecondary institutions and significant growth in the number and types of
degrees offered by a wider variety of Canadian postsecondary institutions. As

PROGRAMMING a result, the distinction between the university and college sectors has become
increasingly blurred, and the nature of some Canadian postsecondary institutions
is no longer made clear by their names

2
There are various categories of universities, community colleges, institutes and
polytechnics, university colleges, private institutions, indigenous institutes of
higher learning, and unregulated institutions. As for the credentials granted, there
are a variety of non-restricted credentials and restricted credentials (authorized by
governmental authority).3

Since Canadas education system places responsibility for education within each
province and territory, there are no common policies and procedures available to This lack of consistency makes it difficult for students, parents and educators across
form the basis for quality assurance (QA) in tourism programs across Canada. Canada and internationally to understand and compare program equivalencies and
differences in Canada.
Because this guide deals specifically with postsecondary tourism programs (and all
types of qualifications), it will begin the process of describing some voluntary QA
guidelines for Canadian tourism programs, as established by tourism educators.

2.1 Canadas Changing Postsecondary System


Demand for postsecondary education has increased greatly over the past few decades,
and a broader spectrum of students is seeking access. New and changing types of
institutions and credentials have emerged. The landscape continues to get more
complicated as different types of institutions and credentials become available. The fact
that the types of institutions, qualifications (credentials) and types (descriptive names)
for qualifications differ in each jurisdiction adds to the complexity of the Canadian
postsecondary education (PSE) system.

3
Canadian Council on Learning. (2009). Challenges in Canadian Postsecondary Education. Part 1: Beyond
the Binary Model: Canadas Postsecondary Institutions and Credentials. www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Reports/
PostSecondaryEducation/PSEHome/PSEChallengesMonograph2Part1.html.

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 igure 2.1-1 below demonstrates the range of types of postsecondary institutions
F The following principles outlined in the Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology
in Canada and the continuously changing environment in postsecondary education. Policy Framework 2005 reflect the philosophy of other jurisdictions, as well. They state:

Colleges play a major role in the achievement of economic prosperity in the


Figure 2.1-1 province of Ontario through the provision of programs of instruction that prepare
Conceptual Model for Sorting Canadian Postsecondary Institutions4 graduates to meet the needs of the workplace, the economy, and society.

A college is best positioned to determine the programs of instruction it should


Single Sector College Dual Sector Single Sector University offer based on its own strategic direction and the needs of its community. A
college is also best positioned to ensure the ongoing relevance and quality of its
programs of instruction.

Credentials awarded in the college system must be credible and meaningful for,
Career / Vocational Programming Academic / Professional Programming and understood by, students, employers and the general public.
Public collleges Transfer colleges Special purpose Primarily
non-degree (AB, BC, NL) universities undergrad A colleges decision making processes can be made more effective by enabling
granting Applied degree-
granting colleges
New universities
(AB, BC, ON)
Comprehensive
large, research
students, external stakeholders, establishment, delivery and review of its
Indigenous
institutions Polytechnics intensive programs of instruction.5
New, non-AUCC Indigenous and
universities special purpose
Public (AB, BC) CEGEPs Foreign public
universities 2.2 Quality Assurance: Why Go There?
Indigenous Indigenous University
Quasi-public institutions institutions Private colleges that offer colleges Navitas-type
CEGEP programs (QC) (AB, ON) relationships

Private not-
Union trades Foreign private
degree granting
University Some faith-bases Canadian private Based on the underlying principles for quality program development, quality
schools colleges (AB) colleges and universities
for-profit Some indigenous
institutions universities Foreign private assurance can be viewed as a process to ensure any program at an institution
institutions universities
meets its identified purpose and stated outcomes. Beyond quality assurance,
Public career Private colleges Foreign and
Canadian private
programs should also seek continuous improvement (quality enhancement).
Private colleges (degree granting)
(non-degree) universities
for-profit
Languages
Canada schools
The primary aim of quality assurance is to demonstrate that a service or product
fulfills or meets a set of requirements or criteria. Actual processes and outcomes are
AUCC Non-members AUCC Members AUCC compared with pre-defined criteria or pre-selected requirements.
Non-members
From a university perspective, there is often less emphasis on involving industry and
Differentiation & Stratification professional bodies at all stages of development, delivery and review; however, the
quality assessment standards for undergraduate degree programs in Alberta6 for
(including applied degrees) for example, directly refer to the need for faculty to be
Academic
AcademicDrift
Drift current and competent in their disciplines or fields. It also includes a requirement for
Vocational
VocationalDrift
Drift inclusion of a work-related experience component in applied degrees, and policies
Isomorphism
for transfer of academic credit as well as for program delivery, content, structure and
evaluation, where assessments would normally include the advice of external experts.

However, there is enough similarity of purpose among particular types of institutions,


as well as similarity of principles and philosophies of education, that we can use one
jurisdiction as a sample of a common approach.

5
Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. (2005). Colleges of Applied Arts and
Technology Policy Framework. Framework for Programs of Instruction. p 2. www.accc.ca/ftp/es-ce/
4
Canadian Council on Learning. (2009). Challenges in Canadian Postsecondary Education. Part 1: Beyond
MTCUCollegeFramework.pdf.
the Binary Model: Canadas Postsecondary Institutions and Credentials. www.ccl-cca.ca/CCL/Reports/
PostSecondaryEducation/PSEHome/PSEChallengesMonograph2Part1.html. 6
See www.caqc.gov.ab.ca/media/1098/quality_assessment_standards_-_program_-_december_2011.pdf.

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Tourism programs are developed complying with provincial and institutional Although Canada lacks a coordinated external quality
requirements, and with the quality assurance criteria of their systems. Benchmarking assurance process for postsecondary educational
the quality of Canadian tourism programs requires an agreement on the quality criteria institutions, educators in a sector such as tourism can
to be included, or at least the range of criteria to be used for benchmarking. come together to establish benchmarks for assuring
the quality of national tourism programs. Work on this
The following excerpts from the 2009 Canadian Council on Learning (CCL) report Up to
resource guide is a step towards cooperative action
Par: The Challenge of Demonstrating Quality in Canadian Post-Secondary Education,
in discussing and establishing voluntary national
demonstrate some of the challenges:
benchmarks for quality Canadian tourism programs.
These benchmarks could be used for the purposes
While Canadian postsecondary education (PSE) enjoys a reputation for quality, of both quality assessment/assurance and quality
Canada lacks an informational framework through which to understand, measure improvement. The quality assurance checklists in this
or clearly demonstrate the quality of its PSE sector. This situation poses challenges guide are the first step in this process (see section 6).
on several fronts for institutions that want to demonstrate clearly the quality of
their services to the public, for students who need to access the information they
2.3 Quality Assurance and Industry Involvement
require to make the right PSE choices, and for governments who are accountable
to the public for the systems under their stewardship.
Inherent in quality assurance measurements and accreditation programs is a range of
The OECD recommends that countries consider the implementation of quality criteria related to industry involvement and participation in tourism programming. One
assurance systems that combine internal and external quality assurance portion of this is demonstrating industry responsiveness through a variety of means.
mechanisms. A balance between accountability and improvement is more likely
The Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council conducted a survey of postsecondary
to be successfully addressed, the OECD suggests, through distinct evaluation
tourism educators8 to explore the current practices, challenges and needs in terms of
processes. Canadas colleges and universities have strong internal quality
offering an industry-responsive curriculum.
assurance procedures, but external quality assessment agencies and processes
are still emerging. This approach is not consistent with models of quality assurance The first question asked them to rate how important 14 different characteristics were
emerging globally, and may have implications. To sustain a strong Canadian to industry-responsive tourism and hospitality programming.
PSE sector and global recognition of its credentials, CCL believes it necessary
All of the characteristics were rated between 2.39 and 2.96 out of 3.00, indicating
to develop a more comprehensive system for external quality assurance that is
a perception of high correlation between these characteristics and industry
consistent with emerging international frameworks.
responsiveness. Below are the 14 characteristics ranked from highest to lowest level
Measurements of quality are important for accountability, student and graduate of importance according to the survey results.
mobility, and continuous improvement. An increasingly diverse milieu of PSE
1. Prepare learners for the workplace
institutions and programs must continue to meet the needs and expectations
of Canadians. Accountability measures will ensure that the quality of our PSE 2. Expose learners to the workplace, e.g. guest speakers, field trips, work experience
institutions will be sustainable in an increasingly competitive, mobile and global
3. Are delivered by educators and trainers having current knowledge of the industry
higher-education marketplace. Canada must be able to communicate clearly to
domestic and international students why studying in Canadian institutions provides 4. Prepare learners for career development
a high-quality education.
5. Prepare learners for lifelong learning
We must understand where and how to improve our programs and
6. Reference curriculum to industry standards (e.g. occupational standards)
institutions so that broader goals may be achieved. A pro-active stance is
critical if Canada is to avoid the risk of falling behind other countries that 7. Seek informal input about programming from industry
embraced this important imperative of economic and social well-being
8. Are delivered by educators and trainers with current knowledge in program
quality and improvement in postsecondary education.7
development and delivery

8
Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council. (2012). Industry-Responsive Curriculum: A CTHRC Survey of
7
See www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/PSE/2009/PSEChallengesInPost-SecondaryEducationNOV2009_EN.pdf. Tourism Educators.

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9. Use labour market information to identify programming needs

10. Seek recognition from industry and professional associations

11. Facilitate labour and learner mobility, e.g. articulation agreements, credit transfer
systems, PLAR programs in place

12. Incorporate industry qualifications (e.g. certification) into programs 3.


13. Seek formal approval of programming from industry

14. Offer flexible delivery options A TOURISM MODEL OF


In reality, the approach to education linkages with industry varies by institution, and is
often centred on specific periods of work placement within a program. According to
research by Solnet, Robinson and Cooper (2007) in An Industry Partnerships Approach
QUALITY ASSURANCE
in Tourism Education:

Tourism-related fields such as hospitality, leisure, sport and events, are applied
subject areas, demanding that academics, students and curricula develop, and
benefit from, close links with industry. However, strategies for industry engagement
in many education institutions are often haphazard and lack focus, commitment and
resources. This traditional and often indiscriminate approach to industry linkages is
3
As a starting point for discussion about quality assurance for national tourism programs
no longer adequate for the contemporary educational institution where there is an
in Canada, the authors of this guide have identified a composite model10 that was
imperative for community engagement and curriculum relevance.9
developed for evaluating the quality of undergraduate hospitality, tourism and leisure
programs (HTLP). The model, developed by Horng et al, integrates total quality
Industry-education partnerships and cooperation are one key element of industry management (TQM) and context-input-process-product (CIPP) perspectives, resulting
responsiveness in relation to the quality assurance of educational programs. This guide in six standards: Strategic Planning; Curriculum and Instruction; Resources; Faculty;
provides an overview of and resources for quality program development, instruction, Student Achievement; and Administrative Management, together with 12 dimensions
and program review, with an ongoing emphasis on industry-responsive approaches. and 63indicators.

The Horng model is a QA framework for tourism programs as a whole, but this resource
guide highlights resources that relate most directly to the four industry-responsive
standards of the model (see Figure 3.1). The Curriculum and Instruction category
(standard) is the key component, and is emphasized in this guide. The authors of the
model note that:

The consolidation of curriculum and teaching and learning standards is


consistent with curriculum and instruction principles (Lumby, 2001). Since
curriculum, teaching and learning complement each other, these critical
components would affect the teaching effectiveness and student outcomes
to a considerable degree, which may in turn influence the quality performance

10
 orng, Jeou-Shyan; Chih-Ching Teng and T.G. Baum. (2009). Evaluating the Quality of Undergraduate
H
Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure Programmes. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education,
9
See www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/subjects/hlst/vol6no1_an_industry_partnership_approach.pdf. 8(1) pp3754. ISSN 1473-8376.

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of educational institutions (Kaplan and Owings, 2001). In addition, this new Table 3.2
standard is in line with the curriculum dimension of TedQual (UNWTO, 2007)
Summary of Major Evaluation/Accreditation Systems for HTLPs13
and ACPHA (CHRIE, 2007), which contains not only curriculum content and
design, but also teaching, learning and assessment aspects.11 Evaluation/ US ACPHA UNWTO. British QAA US NRPA
Accreditation Accreditation TedQual subject review National
System Commission Certification in HLRS&T Recreation and
Figure 3.1 for Programs Quality Hospitality, Park Association
in Hospitality assurance Leisure,
Administration; for tourism Recreation,
Commission on education, Sport and
Quality Assurance Model for Accreditation training and Tourism
of Hospitality research (20002001)
Undergraduate Programs in Tourism Management programs
Programs

Established Council on Hotel, World Tourism Quality Assurance National


Organization Restaurant and Organization Agency for Higher Recreation and
Institutional of the United Education (QAA) Park Association
Education (CHRIE) Nations (UNWTO) (United Kingdom) (NRPA)

Year of 1988 1995 1997 1974


1 2 3 4 5 6 Establishment

Strategic Curriculum Resources Faculty Student Administrative Quality 1. Mission and 1. Employers 1. Curriculum 1. Unit
Planning and Achievement Management Standards objectives (society and design, characteristics
Instruction 2. Evaluation and industry) content and 2. Philosophy and
planning 2. Student organisation goals
3. Administration 3. Curriculum 2. Teaching, 3. Administration
and governance (pedagogic learning and
4. Faculty
system) assessment
For the complete model, including all dimensions and indicators, see the paper itself. 12 4. Curriculum 5. Students
4. Faculty 3. Student pro-
5. Faculty/instruc- 6. Instructional
Many of the indicators for each dimension reflect industry responsiveness, and support tional staff 5. Infrastructure
gression and
achievements resources
the approach and focus of this guide. 6. Student service 6. Management
4. Student 7. The curriculum
and activities (foundation
Cross-referencing the general QA processes of program development and review of support and
7. Resources guidance understand-
individual provinces, there are many similarities to the Horng model. The Horng model
ings and
was chosen as the basis for this resource guide because it was developed for tourism, 5. Learning
professional
resources
is based on international research, and is focused on the comparison and enhancement competencies)
6. Quality man-
of four recognized sets of international standards related to accreditation programs in agement and
tourism as demonstrated in Table 3.2. enhancement

Review 1. Programme 1. Programme 1. Programme 1. Programme


Procedures self-study self-study self-study self-study
2. Review team 2. Review team 2. Review team 2. Review team
visitation visitation visitation visitation
3. Team judgment 3. Team judgment 3. Team judgment 3. Team judgment
4. Follow-up
review

Sources: CHRIE (2007), NRPA (2007), QAA (2000a, 2000b) and UNWTO (2007).

11
Horng et al. (2009). p 46.
12
See www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/johlste/vol8no1/AP0200Format37to54.pdf. 13
Horng et al. (2009). p 47.

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These criteria fit well with the indicators identified in the educator survey on industry Care does need to be taken, however, to recognize the role of the institution and
responsiveness noted in the previous section. Cooperation between education and faculty in developing a curriculum that includes all intended outcomes and purposes
industry is a key component of quality assurance in tourism programs. not just those related to meeting direct labour market needs. The paper Generic
competences and tourism graduates by Munar and Montano, notes that:

3.1 Strategic Planning It is in the procedure of curriculum making that the demands and judgments
of the labour market, such as the ones expressed in this study, can be a
Under the Horng quality assurance model for tourism programs, there are two useful and necessary contribution to the deliberative process of curriculum
dimensions for strategic planning. One is to set the vision, mission, aims and objectives development. However, a danger exists whereby these types of studies
of the program. The second focuses on ongoing self-improvement on an ongoing basis. investigating the adapting of programs to Bologna could possibly be used
The first dimension is important to both program development and program review. to press the academic community to develop a type of curriculum which is
The aims and objectives (purpose) of the program remain the main pillar against which tailored to meet the demands of the labour market. It will be a task for those
to develop programs and to review programs. responsible for tourism HE (higher education) to remember that preparing
students to enter and stay in the labour market should be just one among
Standard 1: Strategic Planning several goals of education. It is good to bear in mind that the EQF (European
Dimension 1.1: Vision, Mission, Aims and Objectives Qualifications Framework) identifies three other main issues as being
important in underlying aims of HE: preparing students to be active citizens
1. The program has a clear vision and an explicit mission, aims and objectives.
in democratic societies, helping the personal development of the students,
2. The vision, mission, aims and objectives of the program fit the goals of higher education. and developing and maintaining a broad and advanced knowledge base.
3. The vision, mission, aims and objectives of the program fit the mid-term and long-term goals (Bologna Working Group on Qualifications Framework. 2005.)14
oftheinstitution.

4. Faculty members and students understand the aims and objectives of the program. As programs are developed and measurable
expected outcomes established, there
5. The program makes its aims and objectives clear to the public (e.g. by posting them on the
needs to be consideration of the measures
Internet).
to be used for review and evaluation for
6. The program has established specific learning outcomes. improvement. See section 3.2.3 Program
Dimension 1.2: Self-improvement Review for more detail on this aspect of
planning for program quality assurance
7. Expected learning outcomes are established by teachers, students and external auditors.
and improvement.
8. The program has its own self-evaluation mechanism.
As institutions develop programs, they need
9. The program effectively operates and assesses its own self-evaluation mechanism.
to identify what they are trying to achieve,
10. The program seeks feedback from stakeholders (i.e. students, alumni, practitioners) to improve that is, measurable outcomes that can be
the quality of the program.
used as indicators of success. One needs
to ensure, as well, that a range of perspectives is included. Key success factors from
The highlighted criteria above reflect the most industry-responsive criteria. the student perspective may include good employment in their field or entrance into
Both dimensions refer to the importance of industry/external stakeholder involvement. further training programs. Additional success factors from an institutional perspective
There are two indicators of particular interest in industry responsiveness for continuous may include articulation agreements, increased numbers of partnerships, or employer
improvement: demand for graduates. For reference, see the Resources section and the QA checklist
for Canadian tourism program outcome measures.
Expected learning outcomes are established by instructors, students and external
auditors.

The program seeks feedback from stakeholders (e.g. students, alumni,


practitioners) to improve the quality of the program.

See the Resources section and Quality Assurance Checklists in this guide for ideas
and examples of advisory committee involvement and input in developing and 14
See www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/johlste/vol8no1/AP0206Format70to84.pdf.
reviewing programs.

18 S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e 19
All measures should be a reflection of the declared mission and purpose of the specific It is worth noting that the statement of approach for the Australia project reflects much
program, as noted in the Quality Assurance section. Setting the assessment process of what Canadian tourism educators and industry are trying to achieve. It states:
and measurable indicators of success should have industry involvement as well, as a key
stakeholder in the educational process.
The project is underpinned by a commitment to establishing collaborative
For a program to be considered industry responsive, respondents to the educator dialogue between industry, higher education and the academic community
survey (see section 2.3) placed a high level of importance on seeking the following about the future of tourism and hospitality education and practice. It also
fromindustry: responds to a raft of policy developments that are having transcendental impacts
informal input about programming on international and Australian higher education environments. The project is
founded on respect for the diversity of tourism and hospitality degree offerings
recognition from industry and professional associations and the independence and autonomy of higher education institutions, and
formal approval of programming responds to the growing need for a collective vision for tourism, hospitality and
events in Australian higher education.
Through their strategic plans, educators can ensure ongoing industry involvement at
applicable stages of development and review.
In Canada, we can follow the Australian review and consultations with interest,
In Australia, they describe tourism (defined as the tourism, hospitality and events
recognizing that, in many ways, their concerns and desire to provide some better
sectors) as key to economic and social development, and they recognize the
transparency and organization of tourism programs reflects the same issues and
importance of both vocational and higher education in those sectors. There is work
challenge we face here.
underway through a project named Building a Stronger Future: Australian Tourism,
Hospitality & Events Education15 to map the tourism, hospitality and events curriculum Strategic planning takes place at the institutional and program levels, but it also takes
space and to build a foundation of information from which they will start to discuss place in a collective manner through provincial and national consultations such as that
important issues about curriculum design, content, delivery, academic standards and undertaken by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC), the
graduate outcomes across the country. Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), the CTHRC Educators Group
and provincial articulation committees.
The project notes that the question, What constitutes a tourism, hospitality or events
undergraduate education? has received widespread attention across the world, with
significant debate focusing on issues such as core knowledge requirements, practical 3.2 Curriculum
skills, graduate outcomes and accreditation. The project states that, In Australia,
despite having a range of well-established and internationally recognized degrees for This section provides readers with:
over 20 years, there is still little clarity over what constitutes a tourism, hospitality or
background material on various components of curriculum development
events degree, or what such a degree should deliver.
andreview
The objectives of the project in Australia are to:
general resources for curriculum development and curriculum review within
1. Promote better understandings about the globallocal context aquality framework
2. Conceptualize and map the tourism, hospitality and events curriculum space some examples, ideas and links of interest for exploration and reflection
concerning program development and review
3. Develop baseline data about programs and curriculum space
Referencing the Horng model of quality16 that was introduced at the beginning of
4. Explore and document stakeholder interests and values
section3, the standard on Curriculum and Instruction includes criteria for curriculum
5. Inform discussions about the future of tourism, hospitality and events education quality as seen in Figure 3.2-1.

15
See https://sites.google.com/site/tourismandhospitalityeducation. 16
Horng et al. (2009).

20 S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e S PA R K : T h e To u r i s m E d u c a t o r R e s o u r c e G u i d e 21
Figure 3.2-1 From a global perspective, most countries and
regions have developedor are in the process
Horng Model (Curriculum)
of developingqualifications frameworks
to make it possible to link, compare and
Standard 2: Curriculum and Instruction articulate qualifications from various types
Dimension 2.1: Curriculum of postsecondary institutions (university, and
11. The design of the curriculum and core courses is consistent with the aims and objectives of
technical and vocational institutions), and
theprogram workplace learning. All of these frameworks are
based on learning outcomes that define level
12. Program curricula are consistent with international trends.
descriptors of increasing complexity as the
13. Program curricula are in line with program development features. main vehicle for translation and linkages as
14. The program reviews the effectiveness of its own curriculum planning. the learningprogresses.
15. Curriculum planning meets students needs for a wide range of choices. Canada is just beginning to establish qualification frameworks in an attempt to
16. Curriculum design follows the principles of continuity and logical order (including the course define common outcome descriptors for various levels of learning and resulting
sequence, the appropriateness of courses being provided, the ratio of required to elective qualifications. These frameworks are key for linking qualifications or demonstrating
courses, etc.) various paths for continuous learning across regions and countries. The Canadian
17. At the beginning of each term, students are provided with explicit course information Degree Framework17 is the only national (public sector) qualifications framework. All
(including a syllabus) provincial ministers of education have signed on to this in principle. The Maritime
18. The principles of general education, professional management, and practical experience are provinces have established the Maritime Degree Level Qualifications Framework,18
incorporated into the curriculum. which is designed to provide descriptions ofand variants amongtypes of degrees
19. Curricula will enhance students problem solving ability, both in generic subjects and in the such as general degrees, degrees with majors, honours specialization, professional
professional hospitality, tourism and/or leisure domains. areas of study and applied areas of study. Ontario is the only province to have a
complete framework. Called the Ontario Qualifications Framework,19 it covers all types
20. Curricula will develop students ability to apply what they have learned.
and levels of qualifications (i.e.certificates, apprenticeship, diplomas, degrees and post-
graduate qualifications).
The highlighted criteria reflect the most industry-responsive criteria. All criteria are
incorporated into the information provided in the following pages of this section. The tourism industry, through the coordination and leadership of the Canadian
Tourism Human Resource Council working with educators and industry, has developed
Canadian culinary and hospitality qualifications frameworks20 in the absence of a national
3.2.1 Outcomes-based Education qualifications framework to follow. These frameworks outline types of qualifications,
available education and training programs and how they link with oneanother.
The world of teaching and learning has changed. In todays global environment,
programs are described in terms of what graduates should know and be able to The CTHRC has also begun developing an international events qualifications
do upon successful completion. This learner-centered approach takes a different framework to link postsecondary educational qualifications with industry qualifications
perspective from the earlier teacher-centered approach, which defined a program (e.g.certification) in the events sector on a global basis.
in terms of what a teacher would deliver. The learner-centered approach makes the
program description more transparent and clear for learners, faculty and employers.
This approach is based on the inclusion of learning outcomes. Learning outcomes
are statements that describe the knowledge, skills and abilities that students should
be able to demonstrate at the end of a learning experience. Learning outcomes
make curriculum goals clear and transparent to all stakeholders. They also provide
measurable statements for assessment.

17
See www.cicic.ca/714/qualifications-frameworks.canada.
18
See www.cicic.ca/714/qualifications-frameworks.canada.
19
See www.tcu.gov.on.ca/eng/general/postsec/oqf.pdf.
20
See www.cthrc.ca/en/research_publications/credential_recognition/qualifications_frameworks.

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a. Types of learning outcomes In Ontario, work is being doneconnected to the Ontario Qualifications Framework21
to identify sector-based outcomes and common competency program outcomes that
There are three types of learning outcomes related to programs of learning: institutional
encompass certain programs.
outcomes, program outcomes and course outcomes.
These program-level outcomes reflect the outcomes and learning level expected
Institutional outcomes at the applicable level of the Ontario Qualifications Framework. In this manner, all
qualifications are described in terms of the outcomes expected at increasing levels of
Institutional outcomes describe what all graduates of that institution should know
learning complexity. The program outcomes can then be more easily compared with
and be able to do upon graduation. They are broader in nature and describe the core
the qualifications of other institutions, other jurisdictions and other countries. For more
skills and abilities graduates need to succeed in a world that demands continuous
information, see the Ontario Tuning Project Symposium presentation.22
learningskills like critical thinking, problem solving, writing, speaking, researching
and using technology. Institutional outcomes are transferable to various industries and As an example, in the social sciences sector in Ontario, Table 3.2-2 below demonstrates
workplace settings. Sometimes, these institutional outcomes reflect recognized generic how, reflecting the level descriptors of the Ontario Qualifications Framework, a
competencies (e.g. Canadian employability skills) or sector-wide outcomes (such as general competency can be written in learning outcome format in progressive levels.
Ontarios new social sciences competencies and related outcomes). Progressive learning outcomes assume incorporation of lower-level outcomes.

Program outcomes
Table 3.2-2
Program outcomes describe what graduates should know and be able to do as Example of Progressive Learning Outcomes
a result of learning experiences within a specific program. They will overlap with Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs): An Example in Social Sciences
institutional outcomes. When that is the case, program outcomes typically require
students to demonstrate higher levels of a particular outcome, or perform the SLOs 2 year diploma* 4 year Bachelors Masters*
outcome in a context unique to that discipline. Program outcomes also include an example in social degree*
sciences Competency
industry- or subject-specificoutcomes.
Verbal/presentation Graduates with a Graduates with a Graduates with a
It is essential that program outcomes describe holistic outcomes for the entire program skills 2year diploma will 4year baccalaureate Masters degree can
leading to the relevant qualification. When writing outcomes, one must consider: can

Informal discussions, Present, alone or as Present alone or as Articulate complex


program purpose (entry to further education or entry to work)
formal presentations, part of a team, on part of a team, the theory and termin-
level (or complexity) of learning required for the qualification, subject or arguing points, effect- defined topics to a results of research, ology to colleagues
ive use of technology group of peers in a reflection or analysis including experts in
professional benchmark (e.g. certificate, diploma or degree) and media coherent and organ- to a group of peers the field
ized form in a coherent and Answer questions
program specialties or focus (e.g. meetings and business events)
Modify pres organized form succinctly and effect-
Program outcomes should include: entation to suit Articulate an under- ively and defend or
a specific lay standing of a subject elaborate a position
knowledge requirements (described at required level of difficulty or complexity, audience as well as manage a on the fly
breadth and depth) Where appropri- question and answer
ate, use pres sessionWhere
practical or functional skills of the profession or program area (described at entation software appropriate, use
effectively presentation soft-
expected level of performance or ability at completion of the program)
ware effectively
transferable skills gained in the program such as communication, teamwork, * Reflects required outcomes of the Ontario Qualifications Framework
critical thinking and analysis

21
See www.tcu.gov.on.ca/pepg/programs/oqf.
22
See www.cou.on.ca/news/news-views/cou-news-and-events/quality-council-symposium-on-learning-
outcomes/symposium-files/final-tuning-presentation.

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