Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

IAETSD JOURNAL FOR ADVANCED RESEARCH IN APPLIED SCIENCES, VOLUME 4, ISSUE 5, OCT /2017

ISSN (ONLINE): 2394-8442

DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS A REVIEW


M Kutraleeswaran#1, M Venkatachalam2, M Saroja3 P Gowthaman4 S Shankar5
Thin film Research Centre, Department of Electronics, Erode Arts and Science College, Erode.
E-mail: kutralees.ks@gmail.com

ABSTRACT.

The majority of the communities around the world rely heavily on oil, natural gas and coal for their energy
needs. These fuels draw on lots of resources that will finally reduce, which in turn makes them too costly or too
environmentally damaging to recover. Among all of the renewable energy technologies, including hydro, solar, wind,
geothermal heat, and biomass, photovoltaic (PV) technology which converts solar energy into electricity is likely to
be the most capable strategy for sustainable energy supply. Solar energy is the source of almost all energy on earth, of
all renewable power sources. Photovoltaic cells (PVCs) are device that directly converts sunlight into electricity
without pollution, which makes them long-lasting and dependable. Dye sensitized solar cells offer an efficient and
easily implemented technology for future energy supply, it provides comparable power conversion efficiency at low
material and manufacturing costs. DSSC materials such as titanium oxide (TiO2) are inexpensive, abundant and
innocuous to the environment.

INTRODUCTION

The rapid increase in the world population and developing consumer habits can be enumerated among the main reasons of
rising energy requirement and electricity consumption nowadays. Today, fossil fuel has been mainly used to heat, power homes and
fuel cars [1]. It is suitable to use coal, oil and natural gas for gathering human's energy needs [2], but the limited supply of these fuels
has become the main constraint for people to persist them as the continuous sources on Earth [3], [4]. As energy plays a crucial role in
the daily needs of humans [5], there are many replacement energy sources that can be used as an alternative of fossil fuels [6], [7], and
one of them is renewable energy (RE) [8]. The further in the use of clean and renewable energy sources, generating electricity from
renewable, and improving energy efficiency are gaining importance because of the rapid decline of fossil fuels and their negative effects
on the environment [9], [10]. Application of any renewable energy requires a sustainability analysis, which has dependence on three
main components are environmental effects, externalities costs, economics and financing. Each one of these variables has a major
impact on the application of renewable energies; therefore before committing communities to different sorts of renewable energies,
through research must be done in order to have an assertion that no social, environmental or economical problems begin or
compromised because of them [11].

I. RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable energy (RE) can be described as energy that can be generated by natural sources such as sunlight; which is a main
source of energy [12]. The major gains of RE is that no fuel is essentially required, which eradicates the emission of carbon dioxide
(CO2); one of the factors in air pollution. Insufficient fossil fuel supplies and disproportionate gas emissions resulting from rising fossil
fuel consumption have become the worst contribution to the current universal energy problem. Considering renewable energy sources
such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power and geothermal, is vitally important in this sense as they are eco-friendly [13].

To Cite This Article: M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE
SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5,
Oct-2017; Pages: 26-38
27. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

However, solar energy could be a finest option for the future world because of a number of reasons: First, solar energy is the
most abundant energy source of renewable energy and sun emits it at the rate of 3.81023 kW, out of which around 1.81014 kW is
intercepted by the earth [14]. Solar energy reaches the earth in different forms like heat and light. As this energy travels, bulk of its
portion is lost by spreading, reflection and absorption by clouds. Studies revealed that worldwide energy demand can be satisfied by
using solar energy acceptably as it is abundant in nature and freely accessible source of energy with no cost [15]. Solar energy is the
most extremely potential of the alternative energy sources, and commonly available sources. It is therefore essential to go for eco-
friendly energy sources for the betterment of the future world [16]. Second, it is a promising source of energy in the globe because it is
not exhaustible, giving solid and increasing output efficiencies than other sources of energy [17].

Solar radiation distribution and its intensity are two key factors which decide efficiency of solar PV industry. Third, utilization
and tracking of solar energy do not have any dangerous impact one co system in which natural balance is kept consistent for the
betterment of living organisms. Exploitation of fossil fuel leads to eco systems break which in-turn damages natural balance [18].
Forth, solar system can effectively be used for village system, industrial operations and homes, since it is easily affordable and relevant.
In addition, globe is now in a curry to look for solar energy because of increasing independence of universal population on fossil fuel
for energy revival in order to perform various activities. Use of this technology in a correct way would be a finest option for future
world to avoid unnecessary consequences arising from energy crisis. Many researches are now undertaken in order to enlarge efficiency
of solar industry form a king the future world useful in terms of energy utilization [19]. The growth of renewable sources of energy
may lead towards clean green technology for a strong environment. Solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal are main sources of
the renewable energy [20]. The solar energy is the most essential renewable energy source easy to get today as it provides energy for all
living creatures on earth during the process of photosynthesis for increase and development. However, it also varies geologically on the
earth. Solar radiation can be directly transformed into useful heat or electricity. Electricity is a form of energy that can be made most
effortlessly available. Hence, scientists and engineers today seek to utilize solar radiation directly in generating electricity through
economic devices [21].
II. NEED OF PHOTOVOLTAICS

The clean, abundant, and renewable environment of solar energy is potential for the diversification of the energy supply,
development of the air quality, decrease of the fossil fuels dependence, and economic development [22], [23]. A photovoltaic cell
converts solar radiations directly into electrical energy. The first generation of solar cell consists of monocrystalline silicon solar cell as
shown in Fig. 1 [24]. Silicon is the material working for fabrication of the crystalline solar cells. It is abundant material and secure for
the environmental. These crystalline solar cells are made-up by Czochralski method. These solar cells are made up of silicon wafers and
the efficiency of these solar cells is higher than other solar cells. However, their fabrication cost is very high which makes high in
general cost of commercially available crystalline solar cell. The performance of crystalline solar cell is affected by the temperature and
thus affects the efficiency of the cell [25].

Fig. 1 Structure of monocrystalline solar cell

The thin film solar cells are referred to second generation of the solar cells. These are essentially amorphous silicon solar cell.
The solar materials used in thin films are in the powder form that makes the cell more flexible and light in weight. The structure of thin
film solar cell is shown in Fig. 2. The main obstacle in front of thin film solar cell is the less efficiency. Cadmium telluride (CdTe),
Copper indium gallium selenite (CIGS) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) are the various categories of thin film solar cells [26].
28. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

Fig. 2. Structure of thin film solar cell

The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is considered as the third generation of the solar cell. The efficiency of these solar cells is
more than thin films while less as compared to the crystalline solar cells.

Fig.3. Structure dye sensitized solar cell

III. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) have attracted substantial attention due to the simple preparation procedure, architectural
and environmental compatibility and good performance under diffuse light conditions. The concept of DSSC was first proposed by
Gratzel and his co workers in the year 1991 [27]. The first DSSC developed was found to absorb visible light up to approximately
800nm and the energy conversion efficiency exceeding7%. In the year 2011, the conversion efficiency reported was 11.4% by
employing nanostructured semiconductor electrodes [28], [29]. Recently a conversion efficiency of 13%was reported by Mathewetal
[30], by using mesoporous semiconductor electrodes and porphyria sensitizers. The structure of the DSSC consists of a titanium
dioxide layer (semiconductor) coated photo anode electrode, a counter electrode used as a cathode, a sensitizer and an electrolyte as
shown in comparison of synthetic and natural dye solar cells. Variety of sensitizer is discussed being key parameter that affects
performance of DSSC. Among all renewable energy technologies, photovoltaic technology is particularly attractive for direct
conversion of sunlight into high-quality electricity energy. However, the existing silicon-based solar cells are restricted to the terrestrial
PV market due to their high production and environmental costs. In comparison with high-cost conventional silicon solar cells, dye
sensitized solar cells are well known as a cost-effective photovoltaic device because of inexpensive materials and simple fabrication
process. Dye-sensitized solar cells are composed of titanium oxide (TiO2) semiconductor which is commonly used as a paint base in
pigment industry, and the dye sensitizer that can be extracted from a variety of natural resources with minimum costs. In addition,
carbonaceous materials could be used to replace platinum catalyst which can further reduce the material cost. As such, DSSCs are easy
to fabricate since they are insensitive to environment contaminants and processable at ambient temperature. These unique features are
favored in roll-to-roll process which is a continuous, low-cost manufacturing method to print dye-sensitized solar cells on flexible
substrates. [31].

Furthermore, DSSCs work better even during darker conditions, such as in the dawn and dusk or in cloudy weather. Such
capability of effectively utilizing diffused light makes DSSCs an excellent choice for indoor applications like windows and sunroof [32].
Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are currently under intensive investigation for application as low cost photovoltaic devices [32]-[40].
29. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

IV. NATURAL DYE SENSITIZERS

The efficiency of light absorption in solar cells depends on the source and chemical structure of the dye that is used, as well as
the interaction between the dye and the photoelectrode [41]. Over the past two decades, many components of plants have been
studied as suitable photosensitizers to provide a potential alternative to expensive synthetic dyes. The pigmentation of plants is derived
from the interaction between the electronic structure of pigments and sunlight, which modifies the wavelengths of light that are either
absorbed or reflected by plant tissue [42]. The natural photosensitizers (natural dye) are classed mainly as carotenoids, battalions,
flavonoids or chlorophyll (see Table 1).

Table 1: Chemical structures of several natural dye classes.


30. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

The most common anthocyanins, (b) chelation mechanism of anthocyanin molecule with TiO2 nanoparticles.

Chlorophyll. The very first evidence of using chlorophyll derivatives for photosensitization of nanoporous TiO2 was reported
by Kay and Grtzel [43]. Since the first report by Kay and Grtzel there are many research being conducted to demonstrate the use of
chlorophyll as sensitizer in DSSCs [42], [44][46].
31. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

Chlorophylls are highly symmetrical metal-complexes of magnesium ion that consist of a tetrapyrrolic macro cycle,
encompassed by several pigments with common structural elements [44]. Moreover, the chlorophylls (Chl a and Chl b) are derived
from chlorophyll ides (Chla and Chl b) and pheophytins (Pheo a and Pheo b). They absorb light from red, blue and violet wavelengths
with an absorption maximum at 670nm while reflecting green [47]. Generally, the carboxylic acid groups in the photosensitizers
establish an electronic coupling with the conduction band of TiO2, which in turn helps to anchor the dye molecules and to inject
electrons efficiently to the conduction band of TiO2. Thus, the carboxylic acid groups are essential elements in a dye for it to make a
DSSC efficient [45]. However, Chl-a, Chl-b and the pheophytins do not make strong bonds with the TiO2 surface, due to the weak
interaction of the phytylester group and keto carbonyl groups [43], Chlorophyll c1(Chl-c1) and Chlorophyll c2 (Chl-c2) with terminal
carboxylic acid groups are able to join through a conjugated double bond of the porphyrin macro cycle thus making a strong bond
with the TiO2 surface. A strong bond is needed to ensure electron is efficiently injected into the TiO2 conduction band, and prevents
gradual electron leakage by the electrolyte [42]. Interestingly, the most efficient mode of chlorophylls as sensitizer is Chl (chlorine2)
derivative-methyl trans- 32-carboxypyropheophorbide . According to Xiao et al. Chl-a derivative has an ability to bind with TiO2 and
ZnO surfaces via different modes such as the bidentate chelating and monodentate modes [48]. Flavonoids. Flavonoids are the most
important floral pigments associated with the angiosperms and they provide most of the colors in the visible spectrum. In many
flowers, the development of a certain color is initiated with the production and accumulation of flavonoid chromospheres, and
thereafter the other intrinsic and extrinsic factors determine the actual color of the flower. Moreover, flavonoids are responsible for
attracting insects to the plants, protecting plants from UV-B, signaling between plants microbes, and regulating auxin transport.
Flavonoids has a chemical structure comprising of a C6-C3-C6 carbon framework with two phenyl rings connected by a three-carbon
bridge that usually forms a third ring or more specifically a phenylbenzopyran functionality. Usually the colour of the particular
flavonoid is dependent on the degree of oxidation of the C-ring. They can, however, be further sub grouped into three classes
depending on the position of the linkage of the aromatic ring to the benzopyrano (chromano) moiety. All the three sub-groups share a
common chaconne precursor, since they are being biogenetically and structurally related to each other. These sub-groups are known as,
flavonoids (2-phenylbenzopyrans), isoflavonoids (3-benzopyrans) and neoflavonoids (4-benzopyrans) [49]. The flavonoids (2-
phenylbenzopyrans) itself has the following subclasses; anthocyanins, aurones, chalcones, flavones and flavonols. Among them, the
anthocyanins play a major role in DSSC as sensitizers, while chalcones, aurones, flavones and flavonols serve a more limited role as
sensitizers [49][51]. However, most of the naturally existing flavonoid pigment molecules are characterized by having unbound or
loosely bound electrons, whereas the amount of energy required for excitation of such electrons to a higher energy level is lower
comparing to the others. Therefore, those pigment molecules can be energized by light within the visible range. Nevertheless, even
with similar structural characteristics, not all the flavonoids can absorb the visible light but only some have the ability while those that
do not have that ability appears as colorless molecules. In that sense, the different pigment colors depend on the particular wavelengths
of visible light that are absorbed by the particular molecule [49, 51]. Anthocyanin. Anthocyanins are the most abundant and widespread
pigment type of the flavonoids and they are the most important group of water-soluble pigments in plants. They absorb light at the
longest wavelengths and are the basis for most orange, pink, red, magenta, purple, blue and blue-black floral colors [51]. The hue and
structure of anthocyanins depend on pH and the presence of copigments [52]. According to the anthocyanin structures that have been
compiled by Mazza and Miniati in 1993 and Harborne and Williams (1995, 1998, 2001) they are glycoside with an anthocyanidin
(flavonoid) C6-C3-C6 skeleton. Particularly, the most common anthocyanidins are pelagonidin (orange), cyanidin (orange-red),
delpinidin (blue-red), peonidin (purplish-red), petunidin (blue-red) and malvidin (blue-red) (see Fig. 8(a)) [53][56]. In an equilibrium
solution, the anthocyanin occurs in four molecular forms; as the flavylium cation, the quinoidal base, the hemiacetal base and chalcone.
The relative amounts of these four forms vary with either pH of the solution or the structure of the anthocyanin.

When the pH is < 2, anthocyanins exist as the stable flavylium action. In fact, it is a very unique and one of the most
important characters in the anthocyanin chemical structure which leads to a high absorption response at low pH [57]. Anthocyanidin
molecule bind with TiO2 semiconductor particle through the carbonyl and hydroxyl functional groups, which transfer the excited
electron from the sensitizer (anthocyanin molecules) to the conduction band of porous TiO2 film [58]. Fig. 8(b) shows the chelation
mechanism of anthocyanidin molecule with TiO2 nanoparticles. Table 2 summarizes the latest photovoltaic parameters such as Jsc,
Voc, ff and , from a range of natural dyes as photosensitizers. In addition, methods of dye extraction and the names of identified
pigments are included in the table. As shown in the Table 2, the ECE for the DSSCs sensitized with anthocyanin pigments are below
1% except in a few cases. However, the best performances were obtained for the DSSC sensitized with modified chlorophyll/-
carotene pigments [59]. Apart from the reports from few research groups (e.g. Wang et al. in 2006), most reports are based on
unmodified natural dyes. However, the extraction method varies, and so are the solvents used for the extraction, and the pH of the
extract. The research reports also showed the fractionation of the extracts, and isolation of the compounds in the extract, and
including the use of different sensitization methods (e.g. cocktail of dyes, co-sensitization layer by layer) to optimize the performances
of natural sensitizers in order to obtain efficient DSSCs.
32. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38
33. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38
34. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38
35. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

V. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF DSSC

DSSCs are becoming the future of energy because of its cost- effectiveness and increasing conversion efficiency levels.
Conversion efficiencies over 11% have already been obtained with single-junction solar cells and efficiency levels are predicted to reach
15% universally with tandem liquid-electrolyte cells, but there is profusion space for further amelioration [102]. The advantage of
developing DSSC is that they are easy to synthesize and simple to control. They also perform better under diffuse light conditions and
even at higher temperatures when compared with other solar cell technologies [103], [104]. Mesoscopic DSSCs are well suited from the
low-power market to large-scale applications and for building-integrated photovoltaic technology. Using the principle derived from
natural photo synthesis, mesoscopic injection solar cells, and in particular the DSSC, can become a credible alternative to solid-state p
n junction devices [105]. Recently, polymer substrates have been used as are placement for the glass substrates of DSSC expanding
possible commercial applications [106]. Polymer substrates allow roll-to-roll production, which helps in achieving high throughput.
Polymer substrates also reduces the sintering temperature of TiO2 paste approximately to 1501C when used in DSSC producing
mechanically stable TiO2 films[107]. Furthermore, experiments can be carried out using different substrate materials to improve the
stability of TiO2 films [108]. Thus potential of DSSCs can lead way to a more environmentally conscious future.

VI. CONCLUSION

It is essential that we take precautions when distributing and consuming the earths resources. The current use of natural gas and fossil
fuels combined with increasing global population has caused the earths resources to be abused and depleted. Solar energy strongly
influences all the lives on the earth. Moreover, it is the basis for almost every kind of energy we demand and benefit. Solar radiation
causes several natural events such as weathering, wind, wave, etc., and seems to be one of the main points for renewable energy
researches. Photovoltaic solar energy a renewable energy source, seen as an alternative to dealing with the challenges of shortage of
energy generated from traditional sources. The power consumption worldwide is increasing every year and among different
technologies that are competing for power generation we can highlight the renewable energies, especially photovoltaic solar technology
that is growing rapidly in current decades and can play an important role in achieving the high demand for energy worldwide.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Kalogirou, Thermal performance, economic and environmental life cycle analysis of thermosiphon solar water heaters, Sol.
Energy 83 (1) (2009) 3948.
[2] K. Chang, T. Lee, K. Chung, Solar water heaters in Taiwan, Renew. Energy 31 (9) (2006) 12991308.
[3] A.H. Al-Badi, M.H. Albadi, Domestic solar water heating system in Oman: current status and future prospects, Renew. Sust. Energ.
Rev. 16 (8) (2012) 57275731.
[4] A. Shukla, D. Buddhi, R.L. Sawhney, Solar water heaters with phase changematerial thermal energy storage medium: a review,
Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13 (8) (2009) 21192125.
[5] K.C. Chang, W.M. Lin, T.S. Lee, K.M. Chung, Local market of solar water heaters in Taiwan: review and perspectives, Renew. Sust.
Energ. Rev. 13 (9) (2009) 26052612.
[6] J. Blanco, S. Malato, P. Fernndez-Ibaez, D. Alarcn, W. Gernjak, M.I. Maldonado, Review of feasible solar energy applications
to water processes, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 13 (67) (2009) 14371445.
[7] K. Goli, V.Kosori, A.K. Furundi, Generalmodel of solar water heating system integration in residential building
refurbishmentpotential energy savings and environmental impact, Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 15 (3) (2011) 15331544.
[8] H. Dagdougui, A. Ouammi, M. Robba, R. Sacile, Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar water heater flat plate
collector: application to Ttouan(Morocco), Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 15 (1) (2011) 630638.
[9]Guney MS. Evaluation and measures to increase performance coefficient of hydrokinetic turbines. Renew Sustain Energy
Rev2011;15:366975.
[10]Guney MS, Kaygusuz K. Hydro kinetic energy conversion systems: a technology status review. Renew Sustain Energy
Rev2010;14:29963004.
[11] Mann, M, 2011. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US Department of Energy http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/
sustainability_analysis.html.
[12] P. Veeraboina, G.Y. Ratnam, Analysis of the opportunities and challenges of solar water heating system (SWHS) in India:
estimates from the energy
[13] Herzog AV, Lipman TE, Kammen DM. Renewable energy sources. Encyclopedia of life support systems (EOLSS) forerunner
volume-perspectives and overview of life support systems and sustainable development; 2001.
36. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

[14]Panwar N, Kaushik S, KothariS. Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection:are view. Renew Sustain Energy
Rev2011;15(3):1513 24.
[15] Lewis N S.Toward cost-effective solar energy use. Science2007;315 (5813):798801.
[16]Alanne K, Saari A. Distributed energy generation and sustainable development. Renew Sustain Energy Rev2006;10(6):53958.
[17]Nozik A J. Photoelectrochemistry:applications to solar energy conversion. Annual Rev Phys Chem1978;29(1):189222.
[18]Schlamadinger B.et al. Towards a standard methodology for greenhouse gas balances of bioenergy systems in comparison with
fossil energy systems in comparison with soddil energy systems. Biomass Bioenergy 1997;13960:359-75.
[19] Armaroli N, Balzani V. The future of energy supply: challenges and opportunities.Angew Chem Int Edition 2007;4691-20:52-66
[20] Fukurozakia SH, Zillesa R, Sauera IL. Energy payback time and CO2 emissions of 1.2 kWp photovoltaic roof top system in Brazil.
Int J Smart Grid Clean Energy 2013:1649.
[21] Kumar A, Richhariya G, Sharma A. Solar photovoltaic technology and its sustainability. In: Sharma Atul, Kar SK, editors. Energy
sustainability through green energy. Springer India; 2015. p. 325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2337-5_1, [ISBN: 978-81-
322-2336-8].
[22] Park NG. Dye-sensitized metal oxide nanostructures and their photoelectrochemical properties. J Korean Electrochem Soc
2010;13:108.
[23] Chung I, Byunghong L, Jiaqing H, Chang RPH, Mercouri GK. All-solid-state dyesensitized solar cells with high efficiency. Nature
2012;485:48690.
[24] Goodrich A, Hacke P, Wang Q, Sopori B, Margolis R, James TL. A wafer based monocrystalline silicon photovoltaics road map:
utilizing known technology improvement opportunities for further reductions in manufacturing costs. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells
2013;114:11035.
[25] Tobnaghi DM, Madatov R, Naderi D. The effect of temperature on electrical parameters of solar cells. Int J Adv Res Elect Electro
Inst Eng 2013:64047.
[26] Green MA. Review of technologies and commercial status. Thin Film Sol Cells 2005:110.
[27] Ludin NA, Alwani Mahmoud AM-Al, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AAH, Sopian K, Karim NSA. Review on the development of
natural dye photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2014;31:38696.
[28] ORegan B, GrtzelM. A low-cost, high-efficiency solar-cell based on dye sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature1991;353:73740.
[29] Suhaimi S, ShahiminM M, Alahmed ZA , Chysky J, Reshak AH. Materials for enhanced dye-sensitized solar cell
performance:electrochemical application. Int J Electrochem Sci2015;10:285971.
[30] TayaS A, El-Agez TM, El-Ghamri HS, Abdel-latif MS. Dye-sensitized solar cells using fresh and dried natural dyes. Int Jater Sci
Appl2013;2:3742.
[31] Ono T, Arakawa HY. Study on dye-sensitized solar cell using novel infrared dye. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 2009;93:8315.
[32] Mathew S, Yella A, Gao P, Humphry-Baker R, Basile F, Curchod E, StaniN A, et al.Dye-sensitized solar cells with 13% efficiency
achieved through the molecular engineering of porphyry in sensitizers. NatChem2014;6:2427.
[33] Jiawei Gong, K. Sumathy, Qiquan Qiao, Zhengping Zhou Review on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): Advanced techniques and
research trends Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017) 234246.
[34]B. ORegan and M. Grtzel, Nature London 353, 737 1991.
[35]M. K. Nazeeruddin, A. Kay, I. Rodicio, R. Humphry-Baker, E. Mller, P.Liska, N.lachopoulos, and M. Grtzel, J. Am. Ceram.
Soc. 115, 6382 1993.
[36]G. Schlichthrl, S. Y. Huang, J. Sprague, and A. J. Frank, J. Phys. Chem.B 101, 8141 1997.
[37]J. van de Lagemaat, N. G. Park, and A. J. Frank, J. Phys. Chem. B 104,2044 2000.
[38]M. Adachi, Y. Murata, J. Takao, J. T. Jiu, M. Sakamoto, and F. M. Wang,J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 126, 14943 2004.
[39]J. T. Jiu, F. M. Wang, S. Isoda, and M. Adachi, Chem. Lett. 2005, 1506.
[40]M. Zukalov, A. Zukal, L. Kavan, M. K. Nazeeruddin, P. Liska, and M.Grtzel, Nano Lett. 5, 1789 2005.
[41]Shahid M, Islam S, Mohammad F. Recent advancements in natural dye applications:a review. J Clean Prod 2013;53:31031.
[42]Narayan MR. Review: dye sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2012;16:20815.
[43]Kay A, Grtzel M. Artificial photosynthesis. 1. Photosensitization of TiO2 solar cells with chlorophyll derivatives and related
natural porphyrins. JPhys Chem1993;97(23):62727.
[44]Wang XF, Tamiaki H. Cyclic tetrapyrrole based molecules for dye-sensitized solar cells. Energy Environ Sci 2010;3(1):94106.
[45]Amao Y, Yamada Y, Aoki K. Preparation and properties of dye-sensitized solar cell using chlorophyll derivative immobilized TiO2
film electrode. J Photochem Photobiol A: Chem 2004;164(13):4751.
[46]Kay A, Humphry-Baker R, Graetzel M. Artificial photosynthesis. 2. Investigation on the mechanism of photosensitization of
nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells by chlorophyll derivatives. J Phys Chem 1994;98(3):9529.
[47]Ludin NA, et al. Review on the development of natural dye photosensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells. Renew Sustain Energy
Rev 2014;31(0):38696.
37. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

[48]Wang X-F, et al. TiO2- and ZnO-based solar cells using a chlorophyll a derivative sensitizer for light-harvesting and energy
conversion. J Photochem Photobiol A:Chem 2010;210(23):14552.
[49]Marais JPJ, et al. The stereochemistry of flavonoids. In: Grotewold E, editor. The science of flavonoids. New York: Springer; 2006.
p. 146.
[50]Mateus N, de Freitas V. Anthocyanins as food colorants. In: Winefield C, Davies K,Gould K, editors. Anthocyanins. New York:
Springer; 2009. p. 284304.
[51]Davies MK. Flavonoids. In: Schwinn. K, Davies MK, editors. Plant pigments and their manipulation. 9600 Garsington Road,
Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2004.
[52]Stintzing FC, Carle R. Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition. Trends Food
Sci Technol 2004;15(1): 1938.
[53]Mazza GME. Anthocyanins in fruits, vegetables, and grains. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1993.
[54]Harborne JB, Williams CA. Anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Nat Product Rep 2001;18(3):31033.
[55]Harborne JB, Williams CA. Anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Nat Product Rep 1998;15(6):63152.
[56]Harborne JB, Williams CA. Anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Nat Product Rep 1995;12(6):63957.
[57]Prior RL, Wu X. Anthocyanins: structural characteristics that result in unique metabolic patterns and biological activities. Free
Radic Res
2006;40(10):101428.
[58]Hao S, et al. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. Sol Energy 2006;80(2):20914.
[59]Wang X-F, et al. Effects of plant carotenoid spacers on the performance of a dyesensitized solar cell using a chlorophyll derivative:
enhancement of photocurrent determined by one electron-oxidation potential of each carotenoid. Chem Phys Lett 2006;423(46):470
5.
[60]Shanmugam V, et al. Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with extracts from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red
frangipani as sensitizers. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2013;104(0):3540.
[61]Kumara NTRN, et al. Layered co-sensitization for enhancement of conversion efficiency of natural dye sensitized solar cells. J
Alloy Compd 2013;581(0):18691.
[62]Maurya IC, Srivastava P, Bahadur L. Dye-sensitized solar cell using extract from petals of male flowers Luffa cylindrica L. as a
natural sensitizer. Opt Mater 2016;52:1506.
[63]Kumara NTRN, et al. Efficiency enhancement of Ixora floral dye sensitized solar cell by diminishing the pigments interactions. Sol
Energy 2015;117: 3645.
[64]Zhou H, et al. Dye-sensitized solar cells using 20 natural dyes as sensitizers. J Photochem Photobiol A: Chem 2011;219(23):188
94.
[65]Wongcharee K, Meeyoo V, Chavadej S. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from rosella and blue pea flowers. Sol
Energy Mater Sol Cells 2007;91(7):56671.
[66]Hao S, et al. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. Sol Energy 2006;80(2):20914.
[67]Hernandez-Martinez AR, et al. New dye-sensitized solar cells obtained from extracted bracts of Bougainvillea glabra and spectabilis
betalain pigments by different purification processes. Int J Mol Sci 2011;12(9):556576.
[68]Yusoff A, et al. Impacts of temperature on the stability of tropical plant pigments as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells. J
Biophys 2014;2014:8.
[69]Park KH, et al. Photochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cell using mixed natural dyes extracted from Gardenia Jasminoide
Ellis. J Electroanal Chem 2013;689:215.
[70]Kumara NTRN, et al. Equilibrium isotherm studies of adsorption of pigments extracted from Kuduk-kuduk (Melastoma
malabathricum L.) pulp onto TiO2 nanoparticles. J Chem 2014;2014:6.
[71]Teoli F, et al. Role of pH and pigment concentration for natural dye-sensitized solar cells treated with anthocyanin extracts of
common fruits. J Photochem Photobiol A: Chem 2016;316:2430.
[72]Polo AS, Murakami Iha NY. Blue sensitizers for solar cells: natural dyes from Calafate and Jaboticaba. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells
2006;90(13):193644.
[73]Calogero G, et al. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells using red turnip and purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruits. Int J Mol Sci
2010;11(1):25467.
[74]Kumara NTRN, et al. Study of the enhancement of cell performance of dye sensitized solar cells sensitized with Nephelium
lappaceum (F: sapindaceae). J Sol Energy Eng 2013;135(3), [31014].
[75]Garcia CG, Polo AS, Murakami Iha NY. Fruit extracts and ruthenium polypyridinic dyes for sensitization of TiO2 in
photoelectrochemical solar cells. J Photochem Photobiol A: Chem 2003;160(12):8791.
[76]Chang H, Lo Y-J. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Sol Energy
2010;84(10):18337.
38. M Kutraleeswaran, M Venkatachalam, M Saroja, P Gowthaman and S Shankar,. DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR
CELLS A REVIEW. Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 5, Oct-2017 Pages: 26-38

[77]Wattananate K, Thanachayanont C, Tonanon N. ORAC and VIS spectroscopy as a guideline for unmodified redpurple natural
dyes selection in dye-sensitized solar cells. Sol Energy 2014;107(0):3843.
[78]Calogero G, et al. Anthocyanins and betalains as light-harvesting pigments for dye-sensitized solar cells. Sol Energy
2012;86(5):156375.
[79]Kushwaha R, Srivastava P, Bahadur L. Natural pigments from plants used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells. J
Energy 2013;2013:8.
[80]Sanjay S, et al. Enhancing the efficiency of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells utilizing natural dye extracted from Azadirachta indica.
Mater Res Express 2015;2(10):105903.
[81]Chang H, et al. Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea. J Alloy Compd 2010;495(2):606
10.
[82]Lai WH, et al. Commercial and natural dyes as photosensitizers for a water-based dye-sensitized solar cell loaded with gold
nanoparticles. J Photochem Photobiol A:Chem 2008;195(23):30713.
[83]Chien C-Y, Hsu B-D. Performance enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells based on anthocyanin by carbohydrates. Sol Energy
2014;108(0):40311.
[84]Noor MM, et al. An optimized poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)NaI gel polymer electrolyte and its application in
natural dye sensitized solar cells.Electrochim Acta 2014;121(0):15967.
[85]Wang X-F, et al. Effects of plant carotenoid spacers on the performance of a dyesensitized
solar cell using a chlorophyll derivative: enhancement of photocurrent determined by one electron-oxidation potential of each
carotenoid. Chem Phys Lett 2006;423(46):4705.
[86]Kumara NTRN, et al. DFT/TDDFT and experimental studies of natural pigments extracted from black tea waste for DSSC
application. Int J Photoenergy 2013;2013:8.
[87]Park K-H, et al. Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized
solar cells. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014;128(0):86873.
[88]Calogero G, et al. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Mol
Biomol Spectrosc 2014;117:7026.
[89]nanth S, et al. Natural dye extract of Lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells.
Spectrochim Acta Part A: Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2014;128(0):4206.
[90]Huizhi Z, WuL, GaoY, MaT. Dye-sensitized solarcells using 20 natural dyes as sensitizers.J. Photochem Photobiol A
Chem2011;219:18894.
[91]Grnwald R, Tributsch H. Mechanisms of instability in Ru-based dye sensitized solarcells.J Phys Chem1997;101:256475.
[92]Tributsch H. Reaction of excited chlorophyll molecules at electrodes and in photo synthesis. PhotochemPhotobiol1972;16:2619.
[93]Hernandez-Martinez AR, Estevez M, Vargas S, Quintanilla F, Radriguez R. Dye sensitized solarcells from extracted bracts
bougainvillea betalain pigments. Int JMolSci2011;12:556576.
[94]Zhou H, Wu L, GaoY, MaT. Dye-sensitized solarcells using 20 natural dyes as sensitizers.
J.PhotochemPhotobiolAChem2011;219:18894.
[95]Boyo AO, Abdulsalami IO, Oluwa T, Oluwole SO, Umar A. Development of dye sensitized solarcells using botuje green
leaves(Jathopha curcas linn). SciJ Phys2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.7237/sjp/182 Article IDsjp-182,4Pages,2013.
[96]Aduloju KA, Mohamed BS, Simiyu J. Effect of extracting solvents on the stability and performances of dye-sensitized solarcell
prepared using extract from Lawsonia inermis. FundamJModPhys2011;1:2618.
[97]Singh R, Jadhav NA, Majumder S, Bhattacharya B, Singh PK. Novel biopolymer gel electrolyte for dye-sensitized solarcell
application. CarbohydrPolym 2013;91:6825.
[98]Taya SA, El-Agez TM, El-Ghamri HS, Abdel-latif MS. Dye-sensitized solarcells using fresh and dried natural
dyes.IntJMaterSciAppl2013;2:3742.
[99]El-Agez TM, ElTayyan AA, Al-Kahlout A, Taya SA, Abdel-Latif MS. Dye- Sensitized solarcells based on ZnO films and natural
dyes. IntJMaterChem 2012;2:10510.
[100]Moustafa KF, Rekaby M, ElShenawy ET, Khattab NM. Green dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solarcells.J
ApplSciRes2012;84393-04.
[101]Jasim KE. Natural dye-sensitized solarcell based on nanocrystalline TiO2. Sains Malaysiana2012;41:10116.
[102]Hara K, Arakawa H, Luque A, Hegedus S. Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering. John Wiley & Sons Ltd;
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ 0470014008.ch15.
[103]Hagfeldt A. Brief overview of dye-sensitized solar cells. AMBIO2012:1515.
[104]Uddin J, Islam JMM, Karim E, Khan SMM, Akhter S, Hoque E, etal. Preparation and characterization of dye sensitized solar cell
using natural dye extract from red amaranth(amaranthus sp.) assensitizer. Int J Thin Film Sci Technol2015;4:1416.
[105]Odobel F, Pellegrin Y, Gibson EA, Hagfeldt A, Smeigh AL, Hammarstrm L. Recent advances and future directions to optimize
the performance sof p-type dye-sensitized solarcells. Coord Chem Rev2012;256:241423.