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CHALLENGES TOWARDS SECURE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT) AND WEB OF THINGS (WoT)

SCHOOL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTING

ODEGBESAN OMOBOLAJI AYOMIDE (A00018467)

April 24, 2017

Abstract and capable enough to interact and


communicate with each other and also
The Internet of things (IoT) and Web of they can easily share data and
things (WoT) as revolutionized information via the Internet.
information technology, IoT/WoT as
Internet of things (IoT) is been viewed
become as important topic in the world of
and seen as Web of things (WoT), where
information technology and the global
the open web standard is been utilized
world. The Internet of things which is
and supported for device information
also know and IoT is becoming the future
sharing, Interaction and communication.
of the cyber world and the internet in
By adding the smart things and devices in
general. The aim of the internet of things
the web (Internet and the cyber world),
(IoT) and the Web of things (WoT) is to
they are enriching the traditional web
amalgamate and unify everything in the
service with real and physical world
present world under a common and
service. The Web of things (WoT) aims
conventional framework, thereby giving
and envisions to break the barrier
individuals, people and organizations full
between virtual world and the real world.
control of things and also to provide them
The Smart devices and things allow for
with adequate information about the
pervasive and universal data and
state/status of the things and its impacts.
information gathering, collection and
In the conception and vision of IoT and tracking.
WoT, there is a rise in the number of
As useful and advantageous as this
embedded devices and materials of
technology and features are, there are
different types such as smart cars, smart
also several forms of threats and issues
phones, traffic light, cameras etc., This
that poses a large amount of challenges to
devices are now intelligent, proficient
the privacy and security of the smart appliance, amongst others ,
data/information of the individuals and together with this development and
organization. This threat to privacy, advancement the communication
security challenges and issues are techniques, devices and mechanism have
limiting the successful adoption and also in the recent years progressed and
implementation of internet of things advanced [1][3].
(IoT) and Web of things (WoT).This
The cyber world and the internet would
threat and security challenges and issues
become accessible by smart and
includes information and data
intelligent devices and materials which
compromise, privacy issues and
would foster the IOT and WOT. The
challenges, authorization challenges
Internet of things (IoT) and the Web of
amongst others.
things (WoT) have the next big possibility
The main aim of the paper is to examine prospect and challenges to the internet
and provide an overview of the internet and the cyber world. The internet would
of things (IoT) and the Web of things no longer just be a network of computer
(WoT), the security challenges and issue devices, it would also involve several
towards the technology (IOT and WOT). trillions of smart and intelligent devices
with embedded systems. The Internet of
Introduction things (IoT) and the Web of things (WoT)
would greatly intensify the scope and size
The pervasive computing and
of the current internet domain and the
networking which can be classified as
cyber world, and also it would provide an
embedded system, which as significantly
enormous opportunity as well as
been studied and examined and
challenges [1].
investigated over several years is
undergoing and experiencing a major The internet with smart and intelligent
change lately in the physical world things/devices is largely and generally
devices e.g. the transformation of perceived as a challenged IP network
devices, mechanism and appliance to which as limited and regulated packet
intelligent and smart devices i.e. smart size, high amount of packet loss, even
devices such as smart cars, smart erratic connectivity and is also described
industrial machines and mechanism, by unembellished limit on the through
put, available and accessible complexity cyber-world/internet service to both
which can be supported [4]. A central internet/cyber-world and the physical
issues as been concocted by researchers world service [4]. Additionally, the
and investigated to examine how to make internet of things (IoT) would not only be
and achieve all the interconnection and accessible to and from the smart gadget
interoperability achievable, available and such as phones and laptop/computers, it
also to provide them with a high level of would be also be part of objects such as
smartness and intelligence by enabling cars, home appliance, industrial
and allowing there adaptation and mechanism etc. and also it would be
autonomous behaviour while integrated with medical, essential and
guaranteeing trust, privacy and security pervade majority of the sectors [1], [3]
[4][6]. [6], [9].As advantageous and useful as
this technologies are in the present era, it
Internet of things (IoT) as defined by
is also equally matched by the
the internet society is the scenario
development and increase in the security
whereby the network connectivity and
and privacy concern and challenges.
computing capability extends to object,
sensors and everyday items which are not The main aim of the paper is to examine
normally considered as computer or and provide an overview of the internet
digital devices, thereby allowing this of things (IoT) and the Web of things
devices to generate, exchange and (WoT), the security challenges and issue
consume data with little or no human towards the technology (IOT and WOT).
intervention/interaction [7]. This paper is section into several parts,
the first part contains the introduction,
Web of things (WoT) can be defined as a
which is followed by a brief overview of
computing concept whereby everyday
Internet of things (IoT) and the Web of
objects are fully integrated with the web
things (WoT). In the next section; the
and the internet [4], [8]. The Web of
several challenges to a secure Internet of
things (WoT) aims to depict a collection
things (IoT) and the Web of things (WoT)
of web services which could be
would be looked at, and it would be
discovered, composed and executed
followed by a conclusion section in the
thereby enriching the possibilities of a
last part of this paper.
conventional web service by encouraging
An Overview of the Internet of Internet of things (IoT) and Web of
things (WoT) uses an identity
things (IoT) and the Web of
management approach to identify a
things (WoT) collection of similar and distributed
heterogeneous devices [7]. Each entity in
Internet of things (IoT) as defined by
an Internet of things (IoT) and Web of
the internet society is the scenario
things (WoT) platform as a unique
whereby the network connectivity and
identification and can be grouped under
computing capability extends to object,
a region/category. The Internet of things
sensors and everyday items which are not
(IoT) and Web of things (WoT) as
normally considered as computer or
encounter a rapid, devilment in recent
digital devices, thereby allowing this
years due to the use of technologies and
devices to generate, exchange and
devices such as Radio-frequency
consume data with little or no human
identification (RFID), Wireless sensor
intervention/interaction [7].
networks (WSN) [5], [9], [11].
Web of things (WoT) can be defined as a
The Radio-frequency identification
computing concept whereby everyday
(RFID) serves as a basic identification
objects are fully integrated with the web
mechanism in the internet of things (IoT)
and the internet [4], [8].
and Web of things (WoT) there by
Internet of things (IoT) and Web of enabling the tagging/ labelling of every
things (WoT) are involved in the single device and material on the
interconnection of different types of network. The Wireless sensor networks
objects, service, human and devices for (WSN) enables each object, device and
purpose of communication, data sharing material to become a wirelessly
and information in other to achieve a identifiable object which can easily
common goal in different areas, communicate and interact with and
application and fields [10]. Internet of amongst each other in the physical cyber,
things (IoT) can be adopted and global world.
implemented in several fields such as
transportation, agriculture, healthcare,
Internet of things (IoT)
emery production and distribution. Architecture:
Each layer in an Internet of things (IoT) technologies such as Bluetooth,
is defined by its functions and the device 3G technology, Wi-Fi technology
which are utilized in the layer about of etc. for the purpose of data
below it. There is a high deliberation on transmission and routing. The
the amount of layers in the IOT (internet network gateway performs the
of things) but according to several function of a mediator between
research and studies [1]. The internet of different several internet of things
things (IoT) operates basically on three nodes which would lead to the
main layers known as the perception, the aggregation, filtering and
network and application layers. A brief transition of data between
description of this layer would be done different sensors [1].
below. 3. Application Layer:
This layer ensures the
1. The Perception Layer:
authenticity, integrity and
This layer is also known as the
confidentiality (CIA) of data and
sensor layer. The main purpose of
also it ensure user interaction,
this layer is for data collection and
communication and control. The
gathering from the environment
main aim of Internet of things and
with the help of sensors and
the Web of things is to achieve a
actuators. The main reason for
smart and intelligent environment
this layer is to detect, collect and
[1].
process data/information and
then forward/transmit it to the The diagram below shows the basic
network layer [1]. architecture of the internet of things
2. Network Layer:
The main purpose of the layer is to
perform data routing and transmit
it to several and different Internet
of things (IoT) hub/devices over
the internet. At this layer several
internet of things (IoT) make use
of the latest and recent
and power resources, and even the
heterogonous ubiquitous essence and
nature of internet of things (IoT) which
introduce additional concern. IN this
section, we would briefly describe the
various challenges and issues that after a
secure internet of things (IoT) and web of
things (WoT).

The challenges and issues to Internet of


things (IoT) and Web of things (WoT)
security and protection can be categories
into 2 sections;

1. Challenges that are relating to the


wireless technologies, scalability,
Fig 1.1 Three-layer Internet of things energy and distributed nature to
(IoT) architecture [1]. Internet of things and Web of
things (Web of things).
Challenges towards a secure internet of
2. Challenges that ensure the
things (IoT) and Web of things (WoT)
security of Internet of things (IoT)
The main object of security in and Web of things (WoT) by
information technology and the cyber- authentication, confidentiality
world is to protect the confidentiality, end to end security and integrity.
integrity and availability (CIA) of data
The security of Internet of things (IoT)
information and it related resource; this
and Web of things (WoT) should be
aim and goal also applies to Internet of
enforced and ensured in Internet of
things (IoT) and Web of things (WoT).
things (IoT) and Web of things (WoT) in
Nevertheless, Internet of things (IoT)
every phase and operational of life cycle
and Web of things (WoT) has several and
of internet of things devices, platforms
many constraint, restriction and also
[1]. In other to ensure the security of
limitation when it comes to the
internet of things (IoT) and web of things
component and devices, computational
(WoT), there are certain mechanism Web of things (WoT) context users
which must be followed that ensure are part and are involved in the
security, some of this mechanism are as utilization of the different
follows. resources of the IOT/WOT. It is
extremely important that
Authorization on internet of
confidentiality of data and
things (IoT) and web of things
information must be ensured in
(WoT) device platform should be
internet of things (IoT) and Web
done.
of things (WoT). The
When devices and platform are
confidentiality and
turned on there should be an
data/information management is
authentication mechanism and
a major issue which must be
processes should be done before
addressed in IOT/WOT i.e. how
any activity is performed
data/information will be managed
Firewall availability should be
processed and protected [1], [4].
ensured in other to prevent
2. Integrity challenge/issues.
against unauthorized remote
In IOT/WOT data/information
users and access.
exchange is the pinnacle of its
The bandwidth consumption and
existence i.e. data/information is
usable should be utilized
exchanges between several
efficiently by the device and
different devices, due to this
platform.
data/information exchange the
need of insurance of its accuracy is
Challenges and issues towards
required.
a secure internet of things The integrity characteristics can
(IoT) and Web of things (WoT) be ensured by maintaining an end
to end security in IOT/WOT
1. Confidentiality Challenge/Issues:
communication. The
The security and availability of
data/information traffic
data and information to
management is been achieved by
authorized user is very important.
the use of firewall and protocols,
In the Internet of things (IoT) and
but as useful as the mechanism are
the dont adequately and authentication mechanism for the
necessary ensure the integrity at mutual authentication of
the end point in IOT/WOT due to IOT/WOT entities are needed [1],
the low computational power of [4].
IOT node which does not support 5. Lightweight solution
these mechanism [1], [4], [5]. challenge/issues
The lightweight solution is a
3. Availability challenges/issues: unique security feature IOT/WOT
The aim/objective of internet of which is introduced due to the
things (IoT) and web of things limitation in the computational
(WoT) is to connect and control and power capabilities of the
devices and material as much as IOT/WOT devices, materials and
possible. The user of the platform. The Lightweight
IOT/WOT devices platform solution is not a goal but rather it
should have the required and is a restriction which must be put
needed data whenever its need it, into consideration when adopting,
device and service should be designing and implementing
readily available in a timely protocols either in encryption or
fashion in other to ensure the authentication of data and device,
IOT/WOT expectation[1], [4]. material and platforms in
4. Authentication challenges/issues: IOT/WOT [1], [4].
The authentication of every object 6. Heterogeneity challenge/issues:
on the IOT/WOT platform and Internet of things (IoT) and Web
network must be adequately of thing (WoT) seeks to connect
ensured. However, Due to the devices and entities of different
nature of IOT/WOT the capabilities, complexity and
authentication process is vendor/developer together for
somewhat challenging as many data exchange, interaction,
entities are involved. Also entities control and communication. The
and objects may need to interact devices have different version,
and communication for the first algorithm, interfaces and bitrate
and initial time, due to this an and are also designed and
developed for a different function encrypted material in other to
altogether. Due to this difference ensure confidentiality of the
in entities, devices and materials, data/information. For this reason,
protocols must be developed and there is a need for a lightweight
designed to work in a variety of key management system for all
situation. Another framework which can be used to
issue/challenge towards a secure ensure trust between different
IOT/WOT is the constant and things [1], [4].
frequent change in the
The above list issues and challenges are
environment and also to make
related to IOT/WOT and must be
sure that optimal cryptography
attended to and dealt with in other to
system is ensured and needed
achieve a secure IOT/WOT. If this issues
with the necessary key
and challenges are not attended to, it can
management and security
lead to different threat and attack to
protocol [1], [4].
individuals and cooperation.
7. Policies challenge/issues:
The policy and standard must be Conclusion
put in place to ensure adequate
management, protection and In this study, we examined the Internet

transmission of data/information of things (IoT) and the Web of things

in an effective and efficient (WoT) by given a brief description of

manner, most importantly both technologies, thereafter the various

mechanism must also be put in security challenge and issues were also

place to ensure that the policies examined. From the study, we it was

and standards must be followed. noted that internet of things (IoT) and

Service level agreement must be The web of things (WoT) are

clearly and adequately identified advantageous and useful in every sector,

in the service involved in field and area of human existence but it is

IOT/WOT [1], [4]. also faced with issues and challenges that

8. The Key management system: if not tackle and attended to it could lead

In the IOT/WOT, the devices and to threats and attacks that can cause

sensors need to exchange some


serious damage and hazard to individual Challenges, Lecture 11 Internet of
and cooperate data/information. Things ( IoT ) Web of Things ( WoT
) What are the Internet?
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