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ATM.

, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM).


, , SVC, PVC, LANE,
MPOA IPNNI, . -
ATM: , ATM
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ATM - .
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ATM
, ATM,
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- ATM - (cell-relay);
- ATM - (connection-oriented);
- ATM - .

ATM

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ATM,
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ATM , -
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(Virtual Channel Identifier,
VCI),
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(Permanent Virtual Circuit, PVC)
(Switched Virtual Circuit, SVC).
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. ATM
UNI (User Network Interface). UNI
, , , ATM
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(American National Standards


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ATM
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, Ethernet Token
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(Quality of Service - QoS), .. ,
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ATM , , ,
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Ethernet ,
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Ethernet ATM:
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ATM Ethernet.
ATM
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, , Ethernet,
,
. Ethernet
,
.

ATM- Ethernet , ATM


, Ethernet -
. , ATM ; ,
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,

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10 10 /,
100 /.
,
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ATM - STM



, ,
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- Synchronous Transfer Mode, STM -
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- Time Division
Multiplexing, TDM - 60- .
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STM- .
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STM- , STM-
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TDM
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TDM-.
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ATM

, Ethernet Token Ring,


(Open Systems Interconnection - OSI). ATM
, .
ATM ANSI ITU
ISDN (Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network -
B-ISDN). B-ISDN - - (WAN),
.
ATM Forum - ATM -
B-ISDN ,
.

ATM, ANSI, ITU ATM Forum,


:

- ;
- ATM;
- ATM.

,
OSI ( 4). ATM
, .. ,
OSI. ATM
, ,
OSI, ATM- .

8
OSI ATM












. 4. , ATM
, OSI.

ATM, OSI
, .
, ATM ,
, ATM.
ATM ,
ATM ATM
. ATMForum DS3 (45 /)
. ATM 45 /
WAN. ATM
25 155 /.
ATM Forum ATM 25 /,
,
, . 25-
ATM (UTP) 3, UTP
. ,
25- ATM ,
ATM (. " : ATM
25 /").
155- ATM UTP 5,
(STP) 1, .
622- ATM
( , ,
). Olivetti Research Labs
ATM, 10 /.

ATM

OSI ,

. ATM ,
ATM.
ATM OSI,
,
OSI .
ATM , ,
, 5-
ATM. ,
(QoS), ATM-
9
.
ATM
. ATM -
ATM, .
; ,
,
.
,
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. :

- , ;
- ,
(virtual circuit identifiers - VCI)
(virtual path identifiers - VPI).

, VCI VPI
.

- (permanent virtual circuits - PVC);


- (switched virtual circuits - SVC);
- (smart permanent virtual circuits
- SPVC).

PVC - ,
.
ATM- ,
, PVC . PVC
, ,
. PVC
,
.

SVC - ,
.
, ATM
, VCI VPI .
SVC . SVC ,
. ATM ,
, .

QoS ATM. ,
"":
, .
, ,
(connection admission control - CAC).

SPVC - PVC SVC. PVC, SPVC


. ATM-
. ,

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. ATM
PVC. SVC SPVC
.

PVC SVC. , SVC,


, PVC ,
. , PVC
, ATM-
, .
SVC PVC. SVC
, PVC, , SVC,
. ,
, . ,
SVC , , PVC
, . SVC
, ,
. , , SVC :
, ,
. SPVC
. PVC, SPVC
,
, . SVC, SPVC
. SPVC : PVC,
SPVC ,
- .
ATM
(virtual path). - ,
, -
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. , - ""
, .
, ,
.

. , 120 /
30 / .

ATM

OSI ,
. ATM
ATM :
- , ;
- ATM,
QoS;
- "".
ATM (
AAL), . ATM,
, ,
,
. AAL ,
ATM.

11
B-ISDN AAL: AAL 1, AAL 2, AAL 3/4
AAL 5. ATM Forum - AAL 1, AAL 3/4 AAL 5.
AAL .
, AAL 5, 48
ATM. ""
,
.

ATM :
- (constant bit rate - CBR);
- (variable bit rate - VBR);
- (unspecified bit rate - UBR);
- (available bit rate - ABR).

(QoS)
( 5 ).

CBR VBR (RT, NRT) ABR UBR









RT: -
-
TCP/IP

NRT: frame relay

5. QoS
, .

CBR, VBR, UBR, ABR ,


, .

(QoS).
- (Cell loss ratio) ,
.
- (Cell transfer delay) (
), .
- (Cell delay variation - CDV) -
.
CDV - .


. ATM ,
QoS. ,
CBR , ATM
QoS
, ,
.
ATM QoS , . .
. "" ,
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, .
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ATM , :
QoS ,
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ATM QoS
.
, ;
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ATM,
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ATM ,
, ,
QoS. , ATM ,
(Resource Preservation Protocol - RSVP),
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), ,
QoS. , ,
ATM, QoS,
FORE Systems
Legacy Application Quality of Service,
ATM.
QoS
, .

ATM ,
, ,
.
ATM ,
. ATM - CBR,
VBR, UBR ABR ( ).

( 1).

1.

CBR + + -
VBR + + -
UBR - - -
ABR + + +
CBR (constant bit rate, )
ATM.
CBR, (peak cell rate, PCR),
,

13
.
- , , .
, ,
, , ,
. CBR-

. CBR ,
. CBR
. CBR
T1/E1. CBR
,
.
,
.
VBR (variable bit rate, )
: VBR (VBR-RT) VBR
(VBT-NRT). VBR-RT

, ,
,
, "".
VBR-NRT
. ,
, ,
. CBR, VBR
.
VBR :
(sustained rate),
, .
PCR,
, VBR SCR
,
. CBR-,
PCR .
CBR, VBR -
PCR. ,
, ,
, SCR.
, ABR, .
CBR, VBR
,
,
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,
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(
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14
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CBR VBR, UBR (unspecified bit rate,
) , ,
. UBR " ",
, .
, UBR
, ""
, .
UBR
.
, UBR- .
,
. UBR-
,
. UBR , "
" 50%, .
ABR (available bit rate), UBR,
,
. ABR -
ATM,
,
,
(. 6). CBR VBR,
ABR PCR. ,
.

. ,
, .
ABR
, PCR,
- MCR (minimum cell rate). MCR
, .
, 1 ( 20000 ATM)
, 2 , MCR 10000
. ABR-
,
( PCR) MCR.
ABR
.
, , ABR .
, ABR ,
,
.

15
.6. ATM

CBR, VBR UBR . CBR VBR


,
. ABR
,
, ,
. ,
, ,
, .
ABR
ATM .
ABR .
VBR,
, . ABR,
,
.
, .

ATM

ATM 7, ATM - 8.
ATM ISO/OSI
ATM, AAL1-AAL5,
ATM.
,
ATM. AAL
. AAL1
(CBR), , ,
, .

16
ATM ,
. 3/4
(VBR), .
, ,
. AAL3/4
. AAL5
AAL4, .


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


(GFC) 1
(VPI)


2
() (VCI)
5
() 3



4
() (PTI)

(HEC) 5

6
...

53

. 7. ATM

, ATM
AAL, ATM,
ATM .
ATM, ( PTI)
, . ,
, ATM
,
.


(CS)
ATM(AAL1-5)

ATM ( , , , )

. 8. ATM

17
ATM

ATM Forum , ATM,


:
- User-to-Network Interface (UNI - "-") _
;
- Private Network-to-Network Interface (PNNI - "-", -
.

,
ATM.

UNI, ATM Forum, ,


. 9 ,
. , -,
.. -
AAL .
ATM, ,
. ,
.

. 9. .

PNNI, ATM Forum, ,


.
9 , ATM.
,
ATM . ,
, ,
.
PNNI - ,
NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP), IPX,
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), IP-.

, ATM.
""
, .
, PNNI
,
. ATM-
,
, .
, ,
.

18
. ,
FORE Systems, ATM,
, 200 .
,
" " (peer groups). ,
, . ,
( ),
,
. , "", ,
. PNNI,
"" .

, PNNI .
,
, .
, ,
.
. PNNI
, . PNNI
, ,
ATM . ,
,
, , ,

, .
ATM ,

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) SDH (Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy). STM

. SONET
51.84 / 2.488 / 13 /, SDH -
155.52 /. 51.84 / ,
T-3 E-3.
SONET ( 2):

2.

STS-1 OC-1 51.84 /

STS-2 OC-3 155.520 /

OC-9 466.560 /

OC-12 622.080 /

OC-18 933.120 /

OC-24 1.244 /

OC-36 1.866 /

OC-48 2.488 /

19
155 /.
25 / SONET SDH,
Forum ATM. , - ,

ATM Token Ring,
, ,
UNI.

ATM

ATM .
, .

ANSI, CCITT ITU

(ANSI)
(CCITT, )
ATM B-ISDN (Broadband
Integrated Services Digital Network). CCITT
(International Telecommunications Union - ITU).
, B-ISDN ATM - . . B-ISDN -
, ATM .
B-ISDN ATM User-to-Network Interface (UNI)
Network-to-Network Interface (NNI). , .
- (User Plane), UNI
ATM - , ATM ATM.
- (Control Plane). NNI
ATM.
- (Management Plane), .

ATM FORUM

ATM Forum, ATM,


B-ISDN, ,
ATM
.

ATM, ATM
Forum:

- UNI;
- Private NNI (PNNI);
- Integrated PNNI (IPNNI);
- LAN Emulation (LANE);
- MultiProtocol Over ATM (MPOA).

, ATM Forum Interim Local Management Interface,


, ATM.

20
IETF

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Classical IP


Over ATM, ,
IP- ATM IP. IETF
Next Hop Routing Protocol (NHRP), IP-
IP.

ATM

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) -


. ,
ISDN (Broadband
Integrated Services Digital Network - B-ISDN), ATM.

ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE (ATM) -


.
,
.

ATM ADAPTATION LAYER - ATM.


ATM, OSI.
ATM AAL, -
(,
).

ATM FORUM. ATM,


ATM.

ATM LAYER - ATM. ATM,


ATM. ATM
OSI. ATM ,
, ATM.

AVAILABLE BIT RATE (ABR) - .


ATM, . ABR
. ABR
( ,
).

BROADBAND INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (B-ISDN) -


.
ATM, ANSI
(CCITT, ). B-
ISDN , ATM
.

CELL - . . ATM
53 5- 48 .

CELL-RELAY - . ,
.

21
CLASSICAL IP OVER ATM - IP ATM. ,
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF),
IP- ATM
ATM.

CONSTANT BIT RATE (CBR) - .


ATM, ,
- .
, CBR , , - ,
.

EMULATED LAN (ELAN) - . LANE


- , ,
.
,
.

INTEGRATED PRIVATE NETWORK-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE (IPNNI) -


"-".
ATM, IP
ATM .

INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS UNION (ITU) -


. ,
(CCITT , ),
B-ISDN. CCITT
ITU.

INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CONSULTATIVE


COMMITTEE (CCITT) -
(). ,
ATM. ITU.

INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE (IETF). ,


TCP/IP. IETF Classical IP Over ATM.

IP SWITCHING - IP-. ,
IP- IP-. ATM, IP-,
, ATM Forum.

LAN EMULATION (LANE) - . ,


ATM Forum,
ATM , ELAN. ATM Forum
LANE 1.0 LANE 2.0.

LAN EMULATION NETWORK-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE (LNNI) -


"-" . LANE 2.0,
LANE ,
ELAN.

LAN EMULATION USER-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE (LUNI) -

22
"-" . LANE,
,
ATM , ELAN.

LATENCY - . , ,
, ,
.

MULTIPROTOCOL OVER ATM (MPOA) -


ATM. , ATM Forum,

ATM. MPOA LANE,
, .

NETWORK-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE (NNI) - "-".


, .

NEXT HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL (NHRP). , IETF,


Classical IP over ATM.

OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION (OSI) MODEL -


. ,
(International Standards
Organization - ISO). OSI ,
.

PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUITS (PVCS) -


. ,
ATM- ATM.
- ,
PVC, PVC .

PHYSICAL LAYER - . ATM,


OSI.
ATM,
OSI, , .

PRIVATE NETWORK-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE (PNNI) -


"-". , ATM Forum,
ATM.
.

QUALITY OF SERVICE PARAMETERS - .


, , ,

.
, ,
.

SERVICE CATEGORIES - . ,
.
ATM CBR, VBR, UBR ABR.

23
SWITCH - . ,
.
, .
, , .

SWITCHED VIRTUAL CIRCUITS (SVCS) -


. , ATM
, .
SVC.

UNSPECIFIED BIT RATE (UBR) - .


ATM, TCP/IP,
. UBR .

USER-TO-NETWORK INTERFACE (UNI) - "-".


, ATM Forum,
ATM. ,
.

VIRTUAL CIRCUIT (VC) - . ,


ATM .

VIRTUAL SUBNET - . ,
, ,
ATM ; ,
.

24