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Control System Design

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Notes for Lecture #7

Monday, January 19, 2004

Dr. Ian C. Bruce

Room: CRL-229

Phone ext.: 26984

Email: ibruce@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Frequency Response

We next study the system response to a rather special

input, namely a sine wave. The reason for doing so

is that the response to sine waves also contains rich

information about the response to other signals.

Let the transfer function be

m i

i=0 bi s

H(s) = K n1

sn + k=1 ak s

k

y(t) = |H(jw)|sin(wt + (w))

where

H(j) = |H(j)|ej()

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

In summary:

with the same frequency. Moreover, the amplitude of

the output sine wave is modified by a factor equal to

the magnitude of H(jw) and the phase is shifted by a

quantity equal to the phase of H(jw).

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Bode Diagrams

Bode diagrams consist of a pair of plots. One of

these plots depicts the magnitude of the frequency

response as a function of the angular frequency, and

the other depicts the angle of the frequency response,

also as a function of the angular frequency.

Usually, Bode diagrams are drawn with special axes:

The abscissa axis is linear in log(w) where the log is base

10. This allows a compact representation of the frequency

response along a wide range of frequencies. The unit on

this axis is the decade, where a decade is the distance

between w1 and 10w1 for any value of w1.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

decibels [dB], i.e. in units of 20log|H(jw)|. This has several

advantages, including good accuracy for small and large

values of |H(jw)|, facility to build simple approximations

for 20log|H(jw)|, and the fact that the frequency response

of cascade systems can be obtained by adding the

individual frequency responses.

The angle is measured on a linear scale in radians or

degrees.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

A simple gain K has constant magnitude and phase Bode

diagram. The magnitude diagram is a horizontal line at

20log|K|[dB] and the phase diagram is a horizontal line at

0[rad] (when K !-).

The factor sk has a magnitude diagram which is a straight

line with slope equal to 20k[dB/decade] and constant

phase, equal to k/2. This line crosses the horizontal axis

(0[dB]) at w = 1.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

can be asymptotically approximated as follows:

for |aw|<<1, 20 log|ajw + 1| 20 log(1) = 0[dB], i.e. for low

frequencies, this magnitude is a horizontal line. This is

known as the low frequency asymptote.

For |aw|>>1, 20 log|ajw + 1| 20 log(|aw|) i.e. for high

frequencies, this magnitude is a straight line with a slope of

20[dB/decade] which crosses the horizontal axis (0[dB]) at

w = |a|-1. This is known as the high frequency asymptote.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

over two decades. One decade below |a|-1 the phase is

approximately zero. One decade above |a|-1 the phase is

approximately sign(a)0.5[rad]. Connecting the points

(0.1|a|-1, 0) and (10|a|-1, 0) by a straight line, gives

sign(a)0.25 for the phase at w = |a|-1. This is a very

rough approximation.

For a = a1 + ja2, the phase Bode diagram of the factor as

+ 1 corresponds to the angle of the complex number with

real part 1 - wa2 and imaginary part a1w.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Example

Consider a transfer function given by

(s + 1)

H(s) = 640

(s + 4)(s + 8)(s + 10)

we first arrange H(s) into a form where the poles and

zeros are designated, i.e.

(s + 1)

H(s) = 2

(0.25s + 1)(0.125s + 1)(0.1s + 1)

below:

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Figure 4.7: Exact (thick line) and asymptotic (thin line) Bode

plots

20

10

Gain [dB]

10

20

30

1 0 1 2

10 10 10 10

50

0

Phase []

50

100

150

200

1 0 1 2

10 10 10 10

Frequency [rad/s]

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Filtering

In an ideal amplifier, the frequency response would

be H(jw) = K, constant w, i.e. every frequency

component would pass through the system with

equal gain and no phase.

We define:

The pass band in which all frequency components pass

through the system with approximately the same

amplification (or attenuation) and with a phase shift

which is approximately proportional to w.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

stopped. In this band |H(jw)| is small compared to the

value of |H(jw)| in the pass band.

The transition band(s), which are intermediate between a

pass band and a stop band.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

H ( jwc ) = H / 2, where H is respectively

|H(0)| for low pass filters and band reject filters

|H()| for high pass filters

the maximum value of |H(jw)| in the pass band, for

band pass filters

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

of the pass band (or the reject band). It is defined as Bw =

wc2 - wc1, where wc2 > wc1 0. In this definition, wc1 and

wc2 are cut-off frequencies on either side of the pass band

or reject band (for low pass filters, wc1 = 0).

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

1.2

0.8

Gain

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1 2 3

10 10 10

c2

c1

Frequency [rad/s]

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Fourier Transform

Definition of the Fourier Transform

F [f (t)] = F (j) = ejt f (t)dt

1 1

F [F (j)] = f (t) = ejt F (j)d

2

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

f (t) t R F [f (t)]

1 2()

D (t) 1

1

(t) () +

j

jto

1e

(t) (t to )

j

1

et (t) {} < 0

j

1

tet (t) {} < 0

(j )2

2

e|t| R+

2 + 2

cos(o t) (( o ) + ( o ))

sin(o t) j (( + o ) ( o ))

j

cos(o t)(t) (( o ) + ( o )) +

+ o2

2

o

sin(o t)(t) j (( + o ) ( o )) +

+ o2

2

j +

et cos(o t)(t) R+

(j + )2 + o2

o

et sin(o t)(t) R+

(j + )2 + o2

Chapter 4 3 Chapter 3

Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

d x1 (t) 0 1 x1 (t) 0

= k1 k2 + k1 va (t)

dt x2 (t) 0 JR x2 (t) JR

Table 4.4: Fourier transforms properties. Note that Fi(jw) =

3.10, p56: Equation (3.10.21) should read as follows

=

F[f i (t)]

1 and

Y(jw)

f (t) = F[y(t)].

2

cos (t) (t)` sin (t) cos (t) + (1 + )g sin (t)

m

`[m + sin2 (t)] m

4 f (t)4

Chapter F [f (t)] Description

l

l

4.4, p68: In

aiTable

fi (t) 4.1, the Laplace-Transform

ai Fiof(j) Linearity

i=1 i=1

dy(t) et sin(o t + )

jY (j) Derivative law

should readkdt

d y(t) (sin )s + okcos sin

(j) Y (j) High order derivative

t dtk (s )2 + o2

1

4.10, p93: Insert Y (j)after

y( )dthe following paragraph + Y (0)()(4.10.3)

Equation Integral law

j

y(t to

Actually, ) be rigorous, we do need ej (j) conditions

someY extra Delay

1

on f (t). For example, f (t) is often required

y(at) Y j in the Time scaling

|a|

literature to satisfy the Dirichlet conditions, awhich in their

y(t)

simplest form require that f (t) and fY0 (t) (j)

be piecewise Time reversal

continuous. Then

f1 ( )f2 (t )dthe inverse transform

F1 (j)F gives [f (t ) + f (t+ )]/2

2 (j) Convolution

at points of discontinuity. More simply we could require that

1

Fy(t)

(jw)cos(

be absolutely

o t) {Y (jbut

integrable jthiso )would

+ Y (jrule+outjosome

)} Modulation (cosine)

cases of interest to us. 1 2

y(t) sin(o t) {Y (j jo ) Y (j + jo )} Modulation (sine)

4.10, p95: In Table 4.4, thej2

Fourier-Transform of the product f1 (t)f2 (t) should read

F (t) 2f (j) Symmetry

Z +j

11

f1 (t)f2 (t) F1 (j)F 2 (j2 (s

F1 ()F )d

j)d Time domain product

2

2j j

eat f (t)

1

4.10, p96: Theorem 4.1 should read

F1 (j a) Frequency shift

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Theorem 4.1: Let F(jw) and G(jw) denote the

Fourier transform of f(t) and g(t) respectively. Then

1

f (t)g(t) dt = F (j)G(j) d

2

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

variations

System Parameter Step response Bode (gain) Bode(phase)

K

K

K K

s + 1

2

2

n

s2 + 2n s + 2

n

n

n n

n

as + 1

a a

(s + 1)2 a

2

as + 1

a a

(s + 1)2

a

3

2

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

If a linear model is used to approximate a linear system,

then modeling errors due to errors in parameters and/or

complexity can be expressed in transfer function form

as

Y (s) = G(s)U (s) = (Go (s) + G (s))U (s) = Go (s)(1 + G (s))U (s)

MME, introduced in Chapter 3.

AME and MME are two different ways of capturing the

same modeling error. The advantage of the MME is that

it is a relative quantity, whereas the AME is an absolute

quantity.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Time delays do not yield rational functions in the

Laplace domain. Thus a common strategy is to

approximate the delay by a suitable rational expression.

One possible approximation is

k

s + 2k

e s k 1, 2, . . .

s + 2k

For this approximation, we can determine the

magnitude of the frequency response of the MME as

shown below.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

delays

1.5 k=1

Magnitude

1

k=3

0.5

k=8

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Normalized frequency ( )

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

The omission of resonant modes is very common

when modeling certain classes of systems, such as

robots, arms, antennas and other large flexible

structures. This situation may be described by

s(s + 2n ) s(s + 2n )

G (s) = 2 2

F (s) G (s) =

s + 2n s + n s2 + 2n s + n2

n2

G(s) = 2 F (s) Go (s) = F (s) 0<<1

s + 2n s + n2

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

for different values of the damping factor

6 =0.1

5

4

Gain

2 0.2

1 0.7

0

1 0 1

10 10 10

Normalized frequency /n

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

In control system design it is often desirable to

account for model errors in some way. A typical

specification might be

|G (j)| < &()

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Summary

There are two key approaches to linear dynamic models:

the, so-called, time domain, and

each have their own particular advantages and it is

therefore important to have a good grasp of each.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

systems are modeled by differential equations

the evolution of variables in time is computed by

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

modeling exploits the key linear system property that

sinusoid of the same frequency; the system only

changes amplitude and phase of the input in a fashion

uniquely determined by the system at that frequency,

systems are modeled by transfer functions, which

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

continuous time system is

stable if and only if the real parts of all poles are strictly

negative

marginally stable if at least one pole is strictly

unstable if the real part of at least one pole is strictly

positive

non-minimum phase if the real part of at least one zero

is strictly positive.

Chapter 4 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Modeling errors can be described as an additive (AME) or

multiplicative (MME) quantity.

Modeling errors are necessarily unknown and frequently

described by upper bounds.

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