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You are on page 1of 18

Notes for Lecture #21

Wednesday, March 3, 2004

Dr. Ian C. Bruce

Room: CRL-229

Phone ext.: 26984

Email: ibruce@mail.ece.mcmaster.ca

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Structural Limitations

The above analysis of limitations has focussed on issues

arising from the actuators, sensors and model accuracy.

However, there is another source of errors arising from

the nature of the plant. Specifically we have:

General Ideas: Performance in the nominal linear

control loop is also subject to unavoidable constraints

which derive from the particular structure of the nominal

model itself. We discuss:

delays

open loop zeros

open loop poles

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Delays

Undoubtedly the most common source of structural

limitation in process control applications is due to

process delays. These delays are typically associated

with the transportation of materials from one point to

another. We have seen in Chapter 7, that the output

sensitivity can, at best, be given by:

So (s) = 1 es

To achieve this ideal result requires use of a Smith

Predictor plus ideal controller.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

corresponding nominal complementary sensitivity

would be

To (s) = es

frequency model errors will lead to instability unless

the bandwidth is limited. Errors in the delay are

particularly troublesome. We thus conclude:

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

delay occur before the disturbance can be cancelled.

This is reflected in the ideal sensitivity S0*(s);

(ii) Delays further limit the achievable bandwidth due to

the impact of model errors.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

it is worthwhile using a Smith Predictor in practice.

The answer is probably yes if the system model (especially

the delay) are accurately known. However, if the delay is

poorly known, then robustness considerations limit the

achievable bandwidth even if a Smith Predictor is used.

Specifically, if the delay is known to say 100%, then the

bandwidth is limited to the order of 1/ . Say =1/3, then this

gives a bandwidth of approximately 3/. On the other hand, a

simple PID controller can probably achieve a bandwidth of

4/. Thus, one can see that accurate knowledge of the system

model and delay is a precursor to gaining advantages from

using a Smith Predictor.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

We recall the example of thickness control in rolling mills as

mentioned in Chapter 1 (see next slide for photo). A schematic

diagram for one stand of a rolling mill is given in Figure 8.3.

In Figure 8.3 we have used the following symbols:

F - Roll Force - unloaded roll gap

H - input thickness V - input velocity

h - exit thickness), v - exit velocity

hm - measured exit thickness,

d - distance from mill to exit thickness measurement.

The distance from the mill to output thickness measurement

introduces a (speed dependent) time delay of (d/v). This

introduces a fundamental limit to the controlled performances as

described above.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

We next study the effect of open loop poles and

zeros on achievable performance. We shall see that

open loop poles and zeros have a dramatic (and

predictable) effect on closed loop performance.

We begin by examining the so-called interpolation

constraints which show how open loop poles and

zeros are reflected in the poles and zeros of the

various closed loop sensitivity functions.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Interpolation Constraints

We recall that the relevant nominal sensitivity

functions for a nominal plant G0(s) = B0(s) A0 (s)

and a given unity feedback controller C(s) = P(s) L(s)

Go (s)C(s) Bo (s)P (s)

To (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C(s) Ao (s)L(s) + Bo (s)P (s)

1 Ao (s)L(s)

So (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C(s) Ao (s)L(s) + Bo (s)P (s)

Go (s) Bo (s)L(s)

Sio (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C(s) Ao (s)L(s) + Bo (s)P (s)

C(s) Ao (s)P (s)

Suo (s) = =

1 + Go (s)C(s) Ao (s)L(s) + Bo (s)P (s)

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Observations:

(i) The nominal complementary sensitivity T0(s) has a zero

at all uncancelled zeros of G0(s).

(ii) The nominal sensitivity S0(s) is equal to one at all

uncancelled zeros of G0(s). (This follows from (i) using

the identity S0(s) + T0(s) = 1).

(iii) The nominal sensitivity S0(s) has a zero at all

uncancelled poles of G0(s).

(iv) The nominal complementary sensitivity T0(s) is equal to

one at all uncancelled poles of G0(s). (This follows

from (iii) and the identity S0(s) + T0(s) = 1).

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

lead to performance limits.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Lemma 8.1: We assume that the plant is controlled in a

one-degree-of-freedom configuration and that the open loop

plant and controller satisfy:

Ao (s)L(s) = si (Ao (s)L(s)) i1

lim (Ao (s)L(s)) = c0 = 0

s0

lim (Bo (s)P (s)) = c1 = 0

s0

origin. Then, for a step output disturbance or step set point,

the control error, e(t) satisfies

lim e(t) = 0 i 1

t

e(t)dt = 0 i 2

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

a positive unit ramp reference, the control error, e(t),

satisfies

c0

lim e(t) = for i = 1

t c1

lim e(t) = 0 i 2

t

e(t)dt = 0 i 3

0

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

CG contains double integrator

Hence

e(t ) dt = lim e(t )e st dt

0 s 0 0

= lim E ( s ) e(t)

B A=B

s 0

A

1

= S ( s ) for unit step t

s

=0

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

freedom feedback control system. Later in these

slides we show that overshoot can actually be

avoided if the architecture is changed to a two-

degree-of-freedom control system.

Chapter 8 Goodwin, Graebe, Salgado , Prentice Hall 2000

Consequences

Say that we want to eliminate the effect of ramp input

disturbances in steady state. This can be achieved by

placing 2 integrators in the controller. However, we

then see that the error to a step reference change must

satisfy

0 e(t )dt = 0

This, in turn, implies that the error must change sign, i.e.

overshoot must occur.

Thus it is impossible to have zero steady state error to

ramp type input disturbances together with no overshoot

to a step reference.

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