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Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444

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Applied Thermal Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng

Analysis of the parameters affecting energy consumption of a rotary

kiln in cement industry
Adem Atmaca*, Recep Yumrutas
University of Gaziantep, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep, Turkey

h i g h l i g h t s

 We analyzed a rotary kiln and investigated the rst law and second law efciency values.
 Performance assessment of a kiln indicates that the burning process involves energy and exergy losses.
 The anzast layer affect the efciency and production capacity of the kiln.
 The specic energy consumption for clinker production is determined.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this study, the effects of refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer on the specic energy con-
Received 22 August 2013 sumption of a rotary kiln are investigated. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln is performed to achieve
Accepted 15 February 2014 effective and efcient energy management scheme. Actual data, which are taken from a cement plant
Available online 25 February 2014
located in Gaziantep, Turkey, are used in numerical calculations to obtain energy balance for the system.
It is calculated that 12.5 MW of energy is lost from the surface of the kiln which accounts for the 11.3% of
the total energy input to the unit. The specic energy consumption for clinker production is determined
to be 3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. The formation of anzast layer and the use of high quality magnesia spinel and
Rotary kiln
Specic energy consumption
high alumina refractory bricks provide 7.27% reduction in energy consumption corresponding to a saving
Energy of 271.78 MJ per ton of clinker production. It is recognized that the anzast layer has an important role for
Exergy durability of the refractory bricks and heat transfer out of the kiln. The applications prevent the emission
of 1614.48 tons of CO2 per year to the atmosphere.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction production in the world is about 3.6 billion ton per year [4]. About
2% of the electricity produced in the whole world is used during the
Cement industry is one of the most energy intensive industries grinding process of raw materials [5]. Total electrical energy con-
in the world. It is essential to investigate the feasibility of reducing sumption for cement production is about 110 kWh/t of cement,
coal consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the rotary kilns roughly two thirds of this energy is used for particle size reduction
in the industry. In comparison to the other industrial sectors, [6]. Because of high energy consumption rates and high environ-
cement industry has been consuming the highest proportion of mental impact of the process, the manufacturing process has been
energy. A typical well-equipped plant consumes about 4 GJ energy considered by the investigators for many years. Schuer et al. [7]
to produce one ton of cement. At the same time, this sector is one of studied energy consumption data and focused on the energy
the worst pollutant sector [1], which emits an increasing amount of saving methods for German cement industry considering electrical
greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, chloro- and thermal energy saving methods. Saxena et al. [8] investigated
uorocarbons and methane. For each ton of clinker produced, an energy efciency of a cement plant in India. Worell et al. [9] dealt
equivalent amount of greenhouse gases are emitted [2,3]. Cement with energy analysis in the U.S. cement industry for the years 1970
and 1997. Engin and Ari [10] analyzed a dry type rotary kiln system
with a kiln capacity of 600 t clinker per day. They found that about
* Corresponding author. Tel.: 90 342 317 1734; fax: 90 342 360 1170.
40% of the total input energy was lost through hot ue gas, cooler
E-mail addresses: aatmaca@gantep.edu.tr, adematmaca@yahoo.com (A. Atmaca), stack and kiln shell. The study indicates that for a dry type cement
yumrutas@gantep.edu.tr (R. Yumrutas). production process, the carbon dioxide emission intensity for kiln

1359-4311/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
436 A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444

feed preparation process is about 5.4 kg CO2 per ton cement pro- clinker, and improves the product quality [9]. The clinker is
duced. Camdali et al. [11] have calculated the enthalpies going into ground together with gypsum and other pozzolans materials and
and leaving the rotary kiln in cement industry and the heat losses nally cement is produced. The ow diagram of the rotary kiln is
from the system by conduction, convection and radiation according shown in Fig. 1.
to the rst law of thermodynamics. Furthermore, exergy analysis of
the system is made based on the second law of thermodynamics. 3. Thermodynamic analysis of the rotary kiln
Kabir et al. [12] analyzed a pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry
process cement plant. In order to enhance the energy performance The rotary kiln is heart and the most energy consuming part of a
of the unit, they considered conservation of heat losses from the conventional cement plant. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln
system. Application of waste heat recovery steam generator and system is performed in this section to achieve effective and energy
secondary kiln shell were suggested. They showed that power and efcient management scheme. Energy and exergy analyses for the
thermal energy savings of 42.88 MWh/y and 5.30 MW can be kiln unit of the cement factory are performed by using the rst and
achieved respectively. Atmaca et al. [13e15] have employed energy second laws of thermodynamics. Specic heat capacity, input and
and exergy analysis on a pyroprocessing unit in Turkey, the rate of output mass of each item, temperature, pressure values and con-
heat loss is reduced from 22.7 MW to 17.3 MW by the application of stant specic heat of the input and output materials are determined
insulation to the system. They determined that 1056.7 kW of for the operating rotary kiln. Cement production is a continuous
electricity can be generated by using the waste heat, and annual process. Stopping the production process in order to change the
emission rates have been reduced by 8.2%. refractories is a long, costly and undesirable process. The refractory
In this study, thermal performance of the rotary kiln presented bricks of the rotary kiln are changed when they lose their thermal
in a cement plant is investigated using energy analysis based the properties. In order to enter into the rotary kiln and measure the
rst and second laws of thermodynamics. The data collected from a thickness of the anzast layer, we waited for the appropriate time.
cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey, are used in numerical Many measurements have been taken for about 3 years and average
calculations to obtain realistic performance parameters. The effects values are used. During the analysis, the following assumptions are
of the anzast layer and thickness, type and composition of re- made: (1) the system is assumed to be steady state, steady ow
fractory bricks on the performance parameters of the kiln are process, (2) kinetic and potential energy chances of input and
examined. The literature survey indicates that studies on rotary kiln output materials are negligible, (3) the gases inside the kiln are
is limited in number and scope, and this paper can contribute to a assumed to be ideal gases, (4) electrical energy produces the shaft
better understanding of rotary kiln operation and parameters work in the system, (5) the ambient and kiln average surface
affecting its performance. temperatures are constant throughout the period of the study.
In order to nd heat and work interactions, energy and exergy
2. System description efciencies, and the rate of irreversibility in a steady state ow
process, the following balance equations are applied. The mass
Cement production is a long process which consumes large balance for an open system operating under steady state conditions
amounts of fossil fuels and electricity. The process includes ve is expressed as:
main stages: (a) mining and grinding of raw materials into ne
powder, (b) blending the farine in homogenization silos prior to X X
_ in
m _ out
m (1)
preheating in four staged cyclone preheaters, (c) increasing the
temperature of farine (pre-calcination) in preheating tower with
where m_ is the mass ow rate of the kiln, subscripts in and out
ue gases from the kiln, (d) burning the prepared mixture of farine
in all expressions stand for input and output values of each
in a rotary kiln (calcination) after the preheating tower and (e)
grinding the clinker in a cement mill.
The general energy balance can be expressed as:
Clinker production in rotary kiln system is the most energy
intensive stage in cement production, accounting for about 90% of X X
total thermal energy use [8]. E_ in E_ out (2)
In the present study, Gaziantep cement plant located in the
South-east of Turkey is considered as a case study for the thermal X X
Q_ net;in  W
_ net;out _ out hout 
m _ in hin
m (3)
energy analysis. Annual cement production capacity of the plant
is 1.5 million tons. The cement plant operates on a dry cement
where Q_ is the rate of heat transfer, W
_ is the rate of work, m
_ is mass
process line. The rotary burner is a refractory lined tube type kiln
ow rate, and h is enthalpy. The rst law (energy or energetic)
with a diameter of 4.2 m and 59 m length. It is inclined at an
angle of 3.5 , and its rotational speed is 1e2 rpm. The average
clinker production capacity of the rotary kiln is 65 t/h. Four stage
cyclone type pre-heater is used to pre-calcinate the raw material
before it enters the kiln. In a typical dry rotary kiln system, pre-
calcination gets started in the pre-heaters, and approximately
one third of the raw material would be pre-calcined at the end of
pre-heating. The temperature of the pre-heated material is about
1000  C. The raw material passes through the rotary kiln towards
the ame. In the calcination zone, calcination process, combina-
tion of alumina, silica and ferric oxide with lime take place at
about 1500  C. Pulverized coal is burnt in the rotary kiln to reach
the required reaction temperature. After the combustion and the
reactions inside the kiln, clinker, the semi product of cement is
produced. Clinker is rapidly cooled in cooling unit after the rotary
kiln. Fast cooling of the clinker enables heat recovery from Fig. 1. Rotary kiln ow diagram.
A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 437

Table 1 or irreversibility is minimized. Higher exergy efciency permits a

Clinker composition. better matching of energy sources and uses [16].
Chemical name Chemical structure Chemical form Percentage (%) Internal energy change and enthalpy change values are:
Calcium ferrite 4CaO. Al2O3.Fe2O3 C4AF 10.4
Di-calcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2 C2S 13.2 Z2
Calcium aluminate 3CaO. Al2O3 C3A 9.1 Du cTdT cavg T2  T1 (8)
Tri-calcium silicate 3CaO.SiO2 C3S 60.2
Potassium oxide K2O e 2.5
Sulfur trioxide SO3 e 2.1 Dh Du y DP (9)
Magnesium oxide MgO e 1.2
Sodium oxide Na2O e 1.3
Total e e 100 where cavg is average specic heat, y is specic volume and DP is
pressure change. Due to negligible pressure change the enthalpy
change is equal to the internal energy change. The enthalpy values
of the input and output materials can be expressed with reference
efciency is dened as the ratio of energy output to the amount of
to ambient conditions:
energy input, which is:

P_ Dhin cavg T1  T0 (10)

hI P _out (4) Dhout cavg T2  T0 (11)
The general exergy balance is expressed as:

X X X Table 2
_ _ out _
Ex in  Ex Exdest (5) Kiln zones and refractory materials.

Kiln zones Refractory materials

 X X X 1 Chain zone: The front end of the kiln, Coarse aggregate
1  0 Q_ p  W
_ net;out _ in jin 
m _ out jout
m _
Ex dest it is typically lined with coarse
aggregate monolithic.
(6) 2 Preheating: Usually the longest zone as Mid/high alumina
the name suggests this section is the
where Q_ p is the heat transfer rate through the boundary at tem- pre-heating section of the kiln. It is
generally lined with alkali resistant
perature Tp at location p. The subscript zero indicates properties at
refractories such as 40e50% alumina
the dead state of P0 and T0. The subscript dest indicates destruction. bricks.
The second-law (exergy or exergetic) efciency may generally be 3 Calcining: Higher in temperature than High alumina
dened as the rate of exergy output divided by the rate of exergy the chain and pre-heating zones it is
input: commonly lined with higher alumina
refractory materials.
4 Burning zone: The eutectic temperature Magnesia-alumina-spinel
Ex between the free lime in the calcined
hII P _ out (7) feed and alumina-silica materials is in
Exin the region of 1100e1300  C, that is why
the burning section of the kiln is lined
In this study, we use Eq. (9) and use exergies of outgoing and with basic refractories such as
input materials to the unit. Maximum improvement in the exergy magnesia-chrome or magnesia-spinel as
efciency for a process is obviously achieved when the exergy loss these materials form no eutectics with
lime at the temperatures encountered in
the hot zones. The three sections are
commonly determined by different
clinker coating conditions, a stable
coating is essential for extended
refractory life.
4.1 Upper transition: In the upper transition Magnesia-alumina-spinel
zone the coating is usually thin or
nonexistent; temperatures are generally
in the region of 1250  C. About 30% of the
length of the burning zone is called as the
upper transition zone.
4.2 Sintering: Coatings in sintering zone are Magnesia-alumina-spinel
usually thick and stable. This zone is about
the 50% of the burning zone length.
4.3 Lower transition: The lower transition zone Magnesia-alumina-spinel
encounters the most severe conditions in
the kiln. Temperatures here are at the
highest and the coating is often unstable
and thin, clinker uids are also present.
This zone is about 20% of the burning zone
5 Discharge: There is a chamber between the Magnesia-alumina-spinel
rotary kiln and the clinker cooler. The clinker and/or mid/high alumina
discharges into ring hood. High wear often
occurs at the ring end of the discharge zone.
The discharge zone is commonly lined with
Fig. 2. The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through the mantle of the
basic or high alumina refractories [18].
rotary kiln.
438 A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444

where T1 and T2 are the input and output temperatures of the

materials and T0 is the ambient air temperature.
For incompressible substances the entropy change is:

s2  s1 cavg ln (12)
For ideal gases the entropy change is:

T2 P
s2  s1 cp;avg ln  R ln 2 (13) Fig. 4. Presentation of refractory arrangement and anzast layer in rotary kiln.
T0 P0
Since the pressures of the input and output materials are equal,
Table 1. Al2O3, MgO, CaO, SiO2 and Fe2O3 percentages in the man-
their Ds values are expressed as:
ufactured cement has been analyzed to be 3, 1.76, 51.2, 26.5 and
T1 4.5%, respectively. Formation energy of the clinker is calculated by
Dsin cp;avg ln (14) using the Zur Strassen equation [17].

T2 Formation energy kcal=kg 4:11Al2 O3  6:48MgO

Dsout cp;avg ln (15)
T0 7:646CaO  5:116SiO2 
After obtaining the entropy and enthalpy values of the input and  0:59Fe2 O3  (18)
output materials, the exergy values of input and output materials in
Energy is transferred by mass, heat and work within the rotary
the rotary kiln are calculated from the equations.
kiln which we choose as the control volume. The simplications of
Djin Dhin  T0 Dsin (16) the one dimensional heat conduction, convection and radiation
equations in a cylindrical structure for the case of constant con-
ductivity for steady conduction with no heat generation is applied
Djout Dhout  T0 Dsout (17)
(Fig. 2). The rate of heat transfer between the control volume and its
surroundings is calculated from the following equations:
4. Heat loss calculation of the rotary kiln
T  Tout
Due to temperature difference between inner surface and Q_ total in (19)
ambient air temperature, there will be heat transfer from the kiln to
atmosphere. The heat transfer from the rotary kiln takes place due where Rtotal is the total thermal resistance of the system and
to conduction, convection and radiation. Substantial quantity of calculated from
heat is transferred to the atmosphere from the surface. This heat
transfer is considered waste heat. Conservation of this heat will Rconv;2  Rrad
improve the thermal efciency of the rotary kiln. Rtotal Rconv;1 Rcond;1 Rcond;2 Rcond;3 (20)
Rconv;2 Rrad
To obtain the general energy balance of the system, the energy
consumed during the formation of clinker is calculated. The clinker Conduction, convection and radiation thermal resistance values
composition which is taken from the facility laboratory is shown in are determined from the expressions:

1 1 r 1 r
Rconv;1 Rcond;1 ln 3 Rcond;2 ln 2
2pr4 L1 h1 2pL1 k1 r4 2pL1 k2 r3
1 r 1 1
Rcond;3 ln 1 Rconv;2 Rrad
2pL1 k3 r2 2pr1 L1 h2 2pr1 L1 hrad

Fig. 3. Rotary kiln zones. Fig. 5. The rotary kiln surface temperature zones and brick arrangement.
A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 439

Table 3
Energy and exergy analysis of the kiln unit.
Input material Content _ (kg/h)
m cp (kJ/kg K) T0 (K) Tin (K) Dh (kJ/kg) Ds (kJ/kg K) _ Dh (kW)
m _ Dj (kW)

Farine CaO 75,369 0.61 290 1110 492 0.81 10300.43 5410.89
SiO2 18,543 0.69 290 1110 565.8 0.93 2914.34 1530.93
Al2O3 5145 2.01 290 1110 1648.2 2.7 2355.55 1237.39
Fe2O3 2709 4.16 290 1110 3411.2 5.58 2566.93 1348.43
MgO 1312.5 0.37 290 1110 303.4 0.5 110.61 58.11
K2O 901.95 4.31 290 1110 3534.2 5.79 885.46 465.14
H2O 739.2 4.18 290 1110 3427.6 5.61 703.81 369.71
Na2O 249.9 4.36 290 1110 3575.2 5.85 248.18 130.37
SO3 30.45 0.62 290 1110 492 0.81 4.16 2.19
Total e 105,000 20,089.47 10,553.15
Coal C2 4788 0.03 290 344 1.62 0.01 2.15 0.18
Ash 1468.8 1.3 290 344 70.2 0.22 28.64 2.38
O2 273.6 0.92 290 344 49.68 0.16 3.78 0.31
H2 259.2 14.32 290 344 773.28 2.45 55.68 4.62
H2O 201.6 4.18 290 344 225.72 0.71 12.64 1.05
N2 115.2 1.04 290 344 56.16 0.18 1.80 0.15
S2 93.6 5.64 290 344 304.56 0.96 7.92 0.66
Total e 7200 112.60 9.34
Combustion of coal e 7200 1.15 290 920 31655.825 1.33 63,311.65 62,541.6
Primary air N2 7675.7 1.04 290 320 31.2 0.102 66.52 3.22
O2 2056.1 0.92 290 320 27.75 0.091 15.849 0.76
Ar 118.4 4.97 290 320 149.1 0.489 4.903 0.24
CO2 3.9 0.85 290 320 25.38 0.083 0.028 0.001
H2O 3 4.18 290 320 125.4 0.411 0.103 0.005
Other 8.9 1.007 290 320 30.2 0.099 0.075 0.004
Total e 9866 87.481 4.235
Secondary air N2 69639.6 1.146 290 1084 909.82 1.51 17599.93 9123.74
O2 18654.1 1.074 290 1084 852.66 1.42 4418.23 2290.4
Ar 1074.1 4.97 290 1084 3945.74 6.55 1177.29 610.3
CO2 35.8 1.21 290 1084 960.63 1.60 9.55 4.95
H2O 26.9 2.4 290 1084 1905.39 3.16 14.21 7.37
Other 80.6 1.177 290 1084 934.43 1.55 20.91 10.84
Total e 89,511 23,240.13 12,047.6
Electrical work e e e e e e e 4341.5 4341.5
TOTAL e 211,577 e e e e e 111,182.83 89,497.43

Output material Content (kg/h) cp (kJ/kg K) T0 (K) Tin (K) Dh (kJ/kg) Ds (kJ/kg K) S Dh (kW) S Dj (kW)

Clinker C4AF 4CaO 1956 0.618 290 1550 778.68 1.04 423.08 259,87
Al2O3 1434.4 2.167 290 1550 2730.42 3.63 1087.92 668,23
Fe2O3 2934 4.426 290 1550 5576.76 7.42 4545.06 2791,69
C2S 2CaO 6520 0.618 290 1550 778.68 1.04 1410.28 866,23
SiO2 7824 0.743 290 1550 936.18 1.25 2034.63 1249,72
C3A 3CaO 3260 0.618 290 1550 778.68 1.04 705.14 433,11
Al2O3 3390.4 2.167 290 1550 2730.42 3.63 2571.45 1579,45
C3S 3CaO 23472 0.618 290 1550 778.68 1.04 5076.99 3118,41
SiO2 11084 0.743 290 1550 936.18 1.25 2882.39 1770,44
K2O 1304 4.779 290 1550 6021.54 8.01 2181.14 1339.71
SO3 652 0.887 290 1550 1117.62 1.49 202.41 124.33
MgO 717,2 0.392 290 1550 493.92 0.66 98.4 60.44
Na2O 652 4.711 290 1550 5935.86 7.9 1075.05 660.32
Total e 65,200 e e e 24,293.94 14,921.93
Hot gas N2 91975,98 1.083 290 1120 898.89 1.46 22965.64 12123.4
CO2 30035,7 1.093 290 1120 907.19 1.48 7568.91 3995.58
H2O 7742,54 2.046 290 1120 1698.18 2.76 3652.28 1928.01
O2 1468,41 1.012 290 1120 839.96 1.37 342.61 180.86
Ar 1334,92 4.97 290 1120 4125.1 6.72 1529.63 807.48
SO2 734,21 0.71 290 1120 589.3 0.96 120.19 63.45
Other 200,24 1.05 290 1120 871.5 1.42 48.47 25.59
Total e 133,492 e e 36,227.74 19,124.37
Dust and ash C4AF 4CaO 463.86 0.71 290 710 296.1 0.63 38.15 14.57
Al2O3 180.39 2.59 290 710 1091.16 2.33 54.68 20.87
Fe2O3 309.24 5.3 290 710 2226 4.75 191.21 73
C2S 2CaO 1713.705 0.705 290 710 296.1 0.63 140.95 53.81
SiO2 927.72 0.924 290 710 388.08 0.83 100.01 38.18
C3A 3CaO 734.445 0.705 290 710 296.1 0.63 60.41 23.06
Al2O3 438.09 2.598 290 710 1091.16 2.33 132.79 50.69
C3S 3CaO 4329.36 0.705 290 710 296.1 0.63 356.09 135.94
SiO2 1546.2 0.924 290 710 388.08 0.83 166.68 63,63
Ash 2241.99 1.3 290 710 546.00 1.16 340.04 129.81
Total e 12,885 e e e e e 1581 603.56
TOTAL e 211,577 e e e e e 62,102.68 34,649.86
440 A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444

Table 4 anzast layer in rotary kiln are presented in Fig. 4. Tin is the inner
Mass and energy balance of the unit. temperature of the rotary kiln and Tsurf is the surface temperature
Input materials (kg/h) S E_ in (kW) Percentage (%) of the mantle of the kiln. r1, r2, r3 and r4 are the inner radiuses of the
Farine 105,000 20,089.47 18.1
rotary kiln. r1  r2 gives the thickness of the steel mantle, r2  r3 is
Pulvarized coal 7200 112.6 0.1 the thickness of the refractory bricks and r4 is the average radius of
Primary air 9866 87.48 0.1 the anzast layer.
Secondary air 89,511 23,240.13 20.9 The surface of the kiln is divided into 4 sections with different
Electrical work e 4341.5 3.9
surface temperature values. The type and length of refractory ma-
Combustion of coal e 63,311.65 56.9
Total 211,577 111,182.83 100 terials used are presented in Fig. 5.
Output materials (kg/h) S E_ out (kW) Percentage (%)
5.1. Energy and exergy analysis of the kiln
Formation of clinker e 36,537.63 32.9
Clinker 65,200 24,293.94 21.8
Hot gas 133,492 36,227.74 32.6 Energy balance for the kiln is dened that energy input is equal
Dust and ash 12,885 1581.00 1.4 to energy output for the steady state operation. Total energy input
Heat transfer from the kiln e 12,542.51 11.3 to the kiln consists of energy entering by raw materials, electricity
Total 211,577 111,182.83 100 consumed and the combustion of pulverized lignite coal. Total
energy output consists of the energy absorbed by raw materials,
where h is the convection coefcient, k is the thermal conductivity, heat loss and hot gas leaving from the kiln. Results obtained from a
and hrad is the radiation heat transfer coefcient and its value is case study can be given to explain energy analysis for the kiln.
determined from, The results of the energy and exergy analysis for the rotary kiln
   unit are presented in Table 3. The relevant data and constants are
hrad 3 s Tout;surf
2 2
Tout Tout;surf Tout (22) obtained from on site measurements. The work transfer due to
electricity and heat lost values are calculated. The given and
where 3 is the emissivity of the surface, and s is StefaneBoltzman calculated values including mass ow rates m, _ input (Tin) and
constant as 5.67  108 W/m2 K4. output (Tout) temperatures, constant pressure specic heats (cp),
enthalpy (Dh) and entropy (Ds) changes, energy and exergy values
of the raw materials, rst law (hI) and second law (hII) efciencies,
5. Results and discussion
and average ambient air temperature (T0) are given in Table 3. The
material and energy balance for the unit is presented in Table 4. The
The effects of the refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer
specic heat capacity of the each input and output material has
on specic energy consumption (SEC) of the kiln are investigated in
been calculated using the empiric correlation below which prac-
this study. For that reason, thermodynamic analysis was performed
tices upon the Kirchhoff law [19].
to nd performance parameters of the kiln such as heat losses,
efciency and SEC. The energy and exergy calculations are done
Cp a bT cT 2 dT 3 (23)
using MS Excel Professional Plus 2013 which is a commercial
software. The software makes it possible to analyze the whole Here, a, b, c and d are the constants for raw material, and T
system by considering their interactions with each other. Actual represents temperature of each material. The constants of each
data are used in numerical calculations, and the performance pa- component of the input and output materials are taken from
rameters are obtained. The results obtained are presented as Refs. [20,21].
Tables and gures, and they are discussed in this chapter. Total energy input to the kiln is calculated to be 111.18 MW. Heat
In dry process, the raw ingredients are prepared and stored lost from the surface of the kiln is equal to 12.5 MW which accounts
without addition of water, and the kiln is commonly divided into for the 11.3% of the total energy input to the unit. Based on the
ve zones (Table 2 and Fig. 3). The refractory brick arrangement and calculated values given in Table 3, the rst law efciency of the kiln

Fig. 6. Energy balance of the RK.

A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 441

32.6% of the output energies (Table 4). The exergy ow diagram in

Fig. 8 shows that most of the exergy input to the system is due to
combustion of fuel (69.9%) followed by the exergy of primary and
secondary air streams (13.5%) and the precalcined farine (11.8%).
As a result, combustion process has the greatest contribution of
input energy and input exergy. An examination of output exergies
shows that exergy loss is responsible for 61.3% of the all output
exergies (Fig. 6).

5.2. Specic energy consumption (SEC) of the kiln

The specic energy consumption (SEC) of the system is calcu-

lated by using the data taken from the factory area for one year
(Table 5). For the production of 65,200 kg/h clinker, the factory
consumes 4341.5 kW of electricity and 63,311.65 kW of energy by
the combustion of pulverized lignite coal. Thus, the average SEC is
(63,311.65 4341.5)*3600/65,200 3735.45 kJ/kg clinker.

5.2.1. Effect of anzast layer on the efciency of the kiln

Fig. 7. The energy band diagram (Sankey) of the rotary kiln. The formation of an anzast layer inside the kiln has important
effects on energy and exergy efciency of the unit. Some advan-
tages of the anzast layer formation are summarized below:
is calculated from Eq. (4) to be 62.10 MW/111.18 MW 0.558 or
55.8%. The energy lost account to 44.2% of the inlet energy. The - An anzast layer protects the refractory bricks against high
second law efciency of the rotary kiln is calculated from Eq. (7) to temperature values,
be 34.649 MW/89.49 kW 0.387 or 38.7%. This corresponds to an - Reduces the deformations on the bricks due to hot clinker ow,
exergy loss of 61.3% in the unit. - Supports bricks during continuous rotation of the kiln,
Fig. 7 shows a Sankey diagram indicating magnitudes and - Reduces the heat transfer rate and coal consumption.
percentages of energy ows and losses while Fig. 8 shows a
Grassmann diagram with the corresponding data for exergy. In order to maintain appropriate anzast layer inside the kiln, the
Operation of the system involves thermal energy inputs in the silicate module of the farine has kept as low as possible to provide
form of hot gas, electricity, and thermal energies of burning coal easy sintering. Silica has an abrasive effect on the bricks. Therefore,
and raw materials. The output includes thermal energies con- the amount of free silica has been decreased by using iron oxide
tained in clinker and hot gas as well as energy losses with heat minerals instead of sand during production of farine. In this way,
losses, leaking dust and ash and the energy consumed during the the materials containing higher silica were able to melt easily under
formation of clinker which are the unavoidable waste of burning lower temperature values. The experienced staff have an important
process. The input energy is dominated by the combustion of role to maintain the desired conditions. The thickness of the anzast
pulverized lignite coal with a 56.9% contribution while inlet air layer is measured in each section of the kiln, and the average
accounts for 20.9% and precalcined farine accounts for 18.1% of the thickness of the layer is found to be 450 mm. After obtaining the
total energy input (Fig. 8). 32.9% of the input energy is lost during thickness of the anzast layer, the rst law efciency of the kiln is
the formation of clinker. Heat loss from the surface of the kiln calculated to be 69419.89 kW/116614.2 kW 0.595 or 59.5%. The
accounts for 11.3% and hot gas leaving the system accounts for second law efciency of the rotary kiln is calculated to be
40215.96 kW/93151.44 kW 0.431 or 43.1%. The SEC of the unit is
found to be 3441.26 kJ/kg clinker. SEC value is calculated from,
65760.99 kJ/s  3600/66450 kg/h 3562.67 kJ/kg clinker.

Table 5
Monthly SEC of the rotary kiln under standard conditions.

Months Coal Electricity Clinker SEC

consumptiona consumption production (kJ/kg clinker)
(kg/month) (kWh/month) (kg/month)

January 5493.6 3,230,076 44,788.8 3813.14

February 4791.36 2,795,926 39,090.8 3810.39
March 5501.88 3,230,076 45,384 3768.79
April 5098.2 3,021,684 42,804 3702.86
May 5399.21 3,230,076 45,979.2 3650.78
June 5212.8 3,125,880 44,568 3636.37
July 5364.24 3,230,076 45,706.89 3648.81
August 5386.56 3,230,076 45,384 3690.02
September 5199.84 3,125,880 43,200 3742.22
October 5424.13 3,230,076 44,640 3777.61
November 5320.8 3,125,880 43,560 3797.38
December 5475.84 3,230,076 44,788.8 3800.85
Average 5305.71 3,150,481.8 44,157.87 3735.45
Fig. 8. The exergy band diagram (Grassmann) of the rotary kiln. The specic combustion energy of the coal is calculated to be 31,100 kJ/kg coal.
442 A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444

Table 6 Table 8
Properties of new refractory bricks. Monthly SEC of the rotary kiln after the application of anzast layer and new re-
fractory bricks.
Content Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4
magnesia magnesia high alumina Months Coal Electricity Clinker SEC
chromite spinel alumina consumptiona consumption production (kJ/kg clinker)
(t/month) (kWh/month) (t/month)
Mg0 (%) 65e70 80e84 10e20 12e16
Al2O3 (%) 2e5 10e14 75e80 65e70 January 5349.6 3,230,076 47,675.52 3488.62
Cr2O3 (%) 2e4 e e e February 4662.56 2,795,926 41,505.8 3492.49
CaO (%) 10e16 2e5 e e March 5353.08 3,230,076 47,839.2 3478.95
Fe2O3 (%) e e 4e7 3e6 April 4959 3,021,684 44,683.2 3450.56
SiO2 (%) 3e5 1e4 2e8 4e10 May 5250.41 3,230,076 47,616 3428.41
Apparent porosity (%) 18 17 20 22 June 5068.8 3,125,880 46,080 3420.17
Bulk density (g/cm3) 3.05e3.1 2.9e3.05 2.7e2.96 2.65e3.1 July 5215.44 3,230,076 47,318.4 3427.06
Thermal conductivity 3.5 2.4 1.8 2.2 August 5237.76 3,230,076 47,318.4 3441.69
at 1000  C (W/mK) September 5055.84 3,125,880 45,360 3465.61
Cold crushing strength 55 60 63 61 October 5275.33 3,230,076 47,020.8 3488.24
(MPa) November 5176.8 3,125,880 46,044 3495.56
Thickness (mm) 250 300 350 250 December 5327.04 3,230,076 47,467.2 3489.21
Average 5160.97 3,150,481.8 46,327.38 3463.67
The specic combustion energy of the coal is calculated to be 31,100 kJ/kg coal.
5.2.2. Effect of the type and quality of the refractory bricks on the
efciency of the kiln
Refractory materials play a critical role in the rotary kiln lin-
changes in SEC of the rotary kiln with respect to ambient air tem-
ing. The main contents of these bricks are mainly based on
perature are shown in Fig. 9. The data indicates that at higher
alumina, magnesia and chrome (Table 6). While replacing the
ambient temperatures (during summer months), both the rst and
bricks, it is recognized that the thickness of the old bricks are
second law efciencies increase. This corresponds to higher rates of
reduced by half in some regions of the kiln. It is seen that, there is
clinker production. The average air temperatures for winter and
only magnesia chromite and alumina bricks inside the kiln. The
summer can be taken as 5  C and 30  C, respectively. As a result, the
second quality old bricks with poor thermal properties are
efciencies are higher in summer than in winter. The temperature
replaced with bricks which have higher Mg and Al content. The
difference between the mantle of the kiln and the surrounding air is
new chrome ore free bricks have resistance against high thermo-
lower in summer, and less heat is lost. As a result, coal consumption
mechanical and thermochemical loads with redox conditions,
of the unit is lower in summer days.
alkali and sulfate attack. Thus, the service life of the bricks are
increased considerably.
The heat transfer losses from the surface of the unit and the coal 5.3. Emissions reduction
consumption of the unit decreased considerably after replacing
high quality refractory bricks inside the kiln. The rst and second After obtaining a suitable anzast layer and using better quality
law efciency and SEC of the unit have been evaluated again. Based refractory bricks inside the kiln, the heat transfer from the surface
on the calculated values in Table 7, the rst law efciency of the kiln and coal consumption of the kiln have been decreased consider-
is calculated to be 72838.4 kW/118973.65 kW 0.612 or 61.2%. The ably. Clinker production has been increased at the same time. At the
second law efciency of the rotary kiln is calculated to be end of 2nd year, the average coal consumption of the unit has
42874.65 kW/95089.68 kW 0.451 or 45.1%. SEC value is calculated decreased from 63,668.46 t/y to 61,931.66 t/y. The amount of coal
from, 64222.21 kJ/s  3600/66750 kg/h 3463.67 kJ/kg clinker. The saved per year is 1736.8 tons.
energy consumption and clinker production of the unit on a month The amount of carbon dioxide emission per kg of coal burned is
basis is given in Table 8. 0.93 kg [23,24]. Thus, 1,614,480 kg of CO2 emission has been pre-
vented by saving 1736.8 tons of coal in a year.
5.2.3. Effect of ambient air temperature on the efciency of the kiln Nitrogen oxides are formed during fuel combustion in rotary
The highest and lowest ambient air temperatures are obtained kilns. The NOx emissions result from the oxidation of nitrogen in the
from Turkish State Meteorological Service [22]. The monthly
Table 7 3750
Mass and energy balance of the unit after installing refractory bricks with better
thermal properties. 3700
Input materials (kg/h) SE_ in (kW) Percentage (%) 3650
SEC (kJ/kg clinker)

Farine 105,000 22,784.4 19.59

Standart conditions
Pulvarized coal 6810 106.5 0.09 After efficiency enhancement studies
Primary air 10,106 59.74 0.05 3550
Secondary air 89,511 29,105.84 25.03
Electrical work e 4341.5 3.73 3500
Combustion of coal e 59,880.71 51.5
Total 211,427 116278.7 100

Output materials (kg/h) SE_ out (kW) Percentage (%) 3400

Formation of clinker e 35,411.75 30.45 3350

Clinker 66,750 25,999.44 22.36






Hot gas 133,242 43,566.14 37.47








Dust and ash 11,435 1703.75 1.47

Heat transfer from the kiln e 9597.62 8.25
Total 211,427 116,278.7 100
Fig. 9. SEC of the rotary kiln with respect to months.
A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas / Applied Thermal Engineering 66 (2014) 435e444 443

fuel as well as in incoming combustion air. The quantity of NOx Special thanks
formed depends on the type of fuels, its nitrogen content, com-
bustion temperature, etc. The emission factor for NOx in cement I would rst like to thank my mother, Elif and my father Kemal
process is 1.4 kg/t coal burned for both dry and wet process kilns. Atmaca who have died in a terrible trafc accident in 27th of
Thus, 2431.5 kg of NOx/y emission has been prevented. November 2013, without their continuous support and encour-
The emission of SO2 into the atmosphere is known to cause the agement I never would have been able to achieve my goals. I would
formation of acid rain and smog. Sulfur dioxide may come from the like to express my deepest appreciation to my parents.
sulfur content in ores and in combusted fuel which will vary from
plant to plant. The emission factors of dry kilns suggested by US EPA Acknowledgements
(US Environmental Protection Agency) is 3.5 S kg SO2/ton of coal
burned, where S is the sulfur content in the fuel in percent [25,26]. The authors acknowledge the support provided by the Scientic
The properties of the coal are presented in Table 3. The emission Research Unit (GUBAP) of the University of Gaziantep, Dr. Nihat
factor for SO2 is calculated to be 0.0455 kg SO2/t coal burned. About Atmaca from the University of Gaziantep, and Huseyin Sencan,
79 kg of SO2 emission is prevented yearly. Mehmet Marasli, Deniz Ozdil and Erkan Demirel from Limak
Cement Group.
6. Conclusions
The analysis and performance assessment of the rotary kiln A cross-sectional area (m2)
indicate that the clinker formation process involves energy and c specic heat (kJ/kg K)
exergy losses, and the process is affected by certain parameters. The E_ energy rate (kW)
main results of the study can be summarized as follows: _
Ex exergy rate (kW)
h specic enthalpy (kJ/kg) or heat convection
- The rst law efciency of the rotary kiln is determined to be coefcient(W/m2 K)
55.8% while the second law efciency is 38.7%. The energy lost k thermal conductivity (W/mK)
from the system is calculated to be 12.5 MW. The specic energy L length (m)
consumption for clinker production is determined to be m mass (kg)
3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. mass ow rate (kg/s)
- It is calculated that 32.9% of the energy is lost during the for- P pressure (Pa)
mation of clinker and 32.6% of the total energy exits with hot gas r radius (m)
streams. R thermal resistance (K/W)
- The quality and type of the refractory used inside the kiln affect Q heat transfer (kJ)
the performance of the rotary kiln signicantly. After the Q_ heat transfer rate (kW)
application of anzast layer and new refractory bricks inside the s specic entropy (kJ/kg K)
kiln, the rst and second law efciency and SEC values of the entropy rate (kW)
system are calculated as 61.2%, 45.1% and 3463.67 kJ/kg clinker, T temperature (K)
respectively. t ton
- With the help of efciency enhancement studies, annual clinker T0 ambient temperature,  C or K
production of the kiln has been increased from 529,894.5 tons to v specic volume (m3/kg)
555,928.5 tons. There is 4.68% increase in production capacity of W work (kJ)
the unit. work rate or power (kW)
- The rotary kiln operates for about 7750 h in a year. The annual y year
total coal consumption of the facility has been decreased from
63,668.46 tons to 61,931.66 tons. Coal consumption of the kiln Greek letters
decreased by 2.72%, thats 1736.8 tons of coal per year has been h1 rst law (energy) efciency (%)
saved after the application of anzast layer and new refractory h2 second law (exergy) efciency (%)
bricks. With decrease in coal consumption, annual CO2, NOx and 3 emissivity
SO2 emissions rates of the facility are decreased by 1,614,480 kg, j ow exergy (kJ/kg)
2431.5 kg and 79 kg respectively. s StefaneBoltzman constant as 5.67  108 W/m2 K4
- The ambient air conditions affect efciency and production ca-
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