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Department of Real Estate and Construction Management Thesis no. 232


Real Estate Development and Financial Services Master of Science, 30 credits
Building and Real Estate Economics
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Building Logistics
A case study of the cranes efficiency at New Karolinska Hospital Solna
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Author: Supervisor:
Josefine Persson Hans Lind
Stockholm 2013

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT!
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Master of Science Thesis


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!Title! !Building!Logistics!:!A!case!study!of!the!cranes!efficiency!at!
New!Karolinska!Hospital!in!Solna!
Authors! Josefine!Persson!
Department! Department!of!Real!Estate!and!Construction!Management! !
Real!Estate!Development!and!Financial!Services! !
Building!and!Real!Estate!Economics!
Master!Thesis!number! 232!
Supervisor! Hans!Lind!
Keywords! Logistics,!construction!industry,!tower!cranes,!efficiency,!
waste!
!! !
Abstract
!
A! tower! crane! is! a! vital! link! in! the! construction! chain! and! their! efficiency! depends! on! the! logistics!
surrounding!them.!In!order!to!transport!materials!and!equipment!to!different!heights,!a!construction!
project!depends!heavily!on!its!cranes,!but!cranes!are!expensive!to!operate.!Statistics!illustrate!that!
approx.! 10! percent! of! the! production! costs! are! wasted1! because! of! waiting! time! and! machinery!
standing!still.!Waste!is!a!large:scale!problem!within!the!construction!industry.!A!major!reason!for!this!
is!because!waste!is!so!difficult!to!get!a!grasp!on.!Waste!does!not!often!stand!out!in!particular;!it!is!
hidden!within!different!activities!related!to!the!building!process.!Measuring!the!efficiency!is!essential!
in!order!to!identify!the!waste;!once!the!activity!is!identified!it!can!be!improved!and!controlled.!
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The!objective!of!this!study!is!to!analyse!the!efficiency!of!the!tower!cranes!at!New!Karolinska!Hospital!
in!Solna!and!if!it!is!possible!to!improve!the!logistics!surrounding!the!cranes.!The!data!in!this!report!
has!been!collected!by!conducting!time!studies,!as!well!as!on!site!observations!and!interviews!with!
key!personnel!working!with!logistics!and/or!the!cranes!at!NKS.!!
!
The!results!show!that!the!cranes!operational!efficiency!had!an!average!of!only!33!percent,!during!the!
three:day!monitoring!period.!The!cranes!were!not!efficient!but!by!expanding!the!results!with!
observations!of!the!building!site!and!interviews,!it!became!clear!that!the!inefficiency!was!caused!by!
the!daily!planning,!the!current!stage!of!the!building!program!and!the!surrounding!logistics.!
!
This!report!concludes!that!reducing!waste!will!improve!the!profits!for!a!company.!To!enable!waste!
reduction,!a!projects!Management!Team!will!have!to!invest!in!the!possibility!for!personnel!to!
identify!waste,!brainstorm!improvements!and!implement!innovative!thinking!into!the!building!
process.!!
!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1
!Waste!is!an!activity!that!consumes!resources!but!creates!no!value.!
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! ii!
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT!
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Sammanfattning
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En!tornkran!r!en!vital!lnk!under!konstruktionen!av!en!byggnad!dr!dess!effektivitet!beror!p!den!
omgivande! logistiken! p! byggarbetsplatsen.! Ett! konstruktionsprojekt! r! beroende! av! kranar! fr!
frflyttning!av!material!och!utrustning!till!olika!hjder,!dock!r!kranarna!r!dyra!i!drift.!Statistik!visar!
att!cirka!10!procent!av!den!totala!produktionskostnaden!bestr!av!spill!p!grund!av!vntetid!och!fr!
att! maskiner! inte! anvnds! effektivt.! Spill! inom! konstruktionssektorn! r! ett! storskaligt! problem.! En!
anledning!till!varfr!spillet!r!ett!s!stort!problem!r!fr!att!spillet!r!svrt!att!identifiera!eftersom!det!
r! gmt! inom! de! olika! aktiviteterna! i! byggprocessen.! Att! mta! olika! aktiviteters! effektivitet! r!
ndvndig!fr!att!kunna!identifiera!spillet,!och!d!den!ineffektiva!aktiviteten!r!identifierad!kan!den!
frbttras.!!
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Syftet!med!denna!studie!r!att!analysera!effektiviteten!av!tornkranarna!p!Nya!Karolinska!Sjukhuset!i!
Solna,! och! om! det! r! mjligt! ven! fresl! frbttringsmjligheter! fr! logistiken! som! pverkar!
kranarna.!Data!som!anvnts!i!denna!studie!har!samlats!in!genom!utfrda!tidsstudier,!observationer!
p!byggarbetsplatsen!samt!intervjuer!med!nyckelpersoner!som!arbetar!med!logistik!och/eller!kranar!
p!Nya!Karolinska!i!Solna.!!
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Resultaten!frn!den!tre!dagar!lnga!tidsstudien!visar!att!kranarna!har!en!genomsnittlig!effektivitet!p!
33! procent.! Kranarna! r! ineffektiva! och! genom! att! utvidga! tidsstudien! med! observationer! och!
intervjuer! p! byggarbetsplatsen! s! visade! det! sig! att! ineffektiviteten! orsakades! av! den! dagliga!
planeringen,! vilket! skede! i! byggprogrammet! som! projektet! befinner! sig! i! samt! den! omgivande!
logistiken.!!
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Minskas! spillet! s! kan! den! totala! vinsten! fr! ett! byggprojekt! ka.! Fr! att! kunna! minska! spillet! br!
drfr! ledningsgruppen! fr! varje! byggprojekt! tillhandahlla! resurser! s! att! spill! identifieras,!
frbttringstgrder!utvecklas!samt!att!nytnkande!i!byggprocessen!frverkligas.!!
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! iii!
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT!
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Acknowledgement

This!master!thesis!is!written!for!the!Department!of!Real!Estate!and!Construction!Management!at!the!
Royal!Institute!of!Technology,!Stockholm!(KTH).!This!thesis!is!the!result!of!collaboration!between!KTH!
and!Skanskas!project!New!Karolinska!Hospital!in!Solna!(NKS).!
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I!would!like!to!thank!my!supervisor!Hans!Lind!(KTH)!along!with!Rohan!Evans!(NKS)!and!Andy!Grove!
(NKS).!An!additional!thank!you!to!the!Management!Team!in!Phase!6!(NKS)!and!the!personnel!at!NKS!
who!participated!in!interviews!and!contributed!with!their!time,!knowledge!and!willingness!to!share!
information.!!
!
!
Josefine!Persson,!17th!May!2013!

! iv!
1.1.#GENERAL#BACKGROUND#
#

!
Table&of&Contents&
ABSTRACT....&ii&
SAMMANFATTNING.&iii&
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.&iv&
TABLE&OF&CONTENTS....................&v&

1# INTRODUCTION&...........................................................................................................&1#
1.1# General&Background&...........................................................................................................&1#
1.2# Research&question&and&purpose&.........................................................................................&2#
1.3# Limitations&.........................................................................................................................&2#

2# METHODOLOGY&...........................................................................................................&3#
2.1# Research&Design&.................................................................................................................&3#
2.2# Qualitative&vs.&quantitative&methods&.................................................................................&3#
2.3# Data&collection&...................................................................................................................&3#
2.3.1# Time#studies#........................................................................................................................#4#
2.3.2# Observations#.......................................................................................................................#4#
2.3.3# Interviews#...........................................................................................................................#4#
2.4# Validity&and&Reliability&.......................................................................................................&5#

3# LITERATURE&REVIEW&....................................................................................................&6#
3.1# Information&seeking&...........................................................................................................&6#
3.2# The&importance&of&efficiency&in&the&construction&sector&.....................................................&6#
3.3# Earlier&researches&on&efficiency&within&the&construction&industry&.......................................&8#
3.4# Earlier&researches&on&the&cranes&efficiency&......................................................................&10#
3.5# Literature&review&discussion&.............................................................................................&13#

4# SKANSKA&AND&PROJECT&INFORMATION&......................................................................&15#
4.1# About&Skanska&.................................................................................................................&15#
4.2# Project&Information&..........................................................................................................&16#
4.3# Logistics&at&NKS&................................................................................................................&18#

5# CRANES&AT&NKS:&&DATA&COLLECTION&AND&RESULTS&.....................................................&20#
5.1# Overview&of&the&cranes&....................................................................................................&20#
5.2# Contract&structure&and&payment&.......................................................................................&21#
5.3# Case&study&........................................................................................................................&22#
5.3.1# Time#studies#......................................................................................................................#27#
5.3.2# Observations#and#informal#interviews#..............................................................................#34#

6# ANALYSIS&....................................................................................................................&36#
6.1# How&efficient&are&the&cranes&at&NKS?&................................................................................&36#
6.2# Is&it&possible&to&improve&the&cranes&efficiency?&................................................................&36#
6.3# Is&it&possible&to&improve&the&logistics&affecting&the&cranes?&...............................................&39#
6.4# Time&Studies&....................................................................................................................&40#

# v#
1.1.#GENERAL#BACKGROUND#
#

7# CONCLUSIONS&AND&RECOMMENDATIONS&..................................................................&41#
7.1# Conclusions&......................................................................................................................&41#
7.2# Recommendations&...........................................................................................................&41#
7.3# Recommendations&for&Future&Research&............................................................................&42#

REFERENCES&......................................................................................................................&43#
APPENDIXES&.....................................................................................................................&47#

# vi#
1.1.#GENERAL#BACKGROUND#
#

1 INTRODUCTION!
This%chapter%describes%the%background,%research%questions%and%purpose%of%this%thesis.%

1.1 !General!Background!
A# number# of# studies# indicate# that# the# construction# industry# is# inefficient# and# wasteful# (Josephsson#
and#Saukkoriipi#2005).#Efficiency#is#the#relationship#between#actions#and#the#results#of#an#activity.#An#
activity# is# efficient# if# the# result# cannot# be# improved# by# changing# any# production# activities#
(Nationalencyklopedin#2012a).#It#is#essential#to#identify#the#activities#within#the#production#that#does#
not# create# any# value,# in# order# for# the# companies# resources# to# be# used# effectively.# Price#
developments# for# the# production# have# on# an# annual# basis# gone# up# by# 5.5# percent,# which# is#
significantly# more# than# the# inflation1.# As# the# production# costs# increase,# it# has# now# become# more#
important#than#ever#for#the#construction#industry#to#improve#their#efficiency#to#make#profit#of#their#
projects#(Josephsson#and#Saukkoriipi#2005).##

Approximately#30#percent#of#the#total#production#cost#is#caused#by#waiting#and/or#poor#logistics.#
Statistics#illustrate#that#approx.#10#percent#of#the#production#costs#are#wasted#because#of#waiting#and#
machinery#standing#still.#Waste%is%an%activity%that%consumes%resources%but%creates%no%value%what%so%
ever%(Josephsson#and#Saukkoriipi#2005).%

Waste#in#the#construction#sector#is#a#problem#and#has#been#discussed#in#several#reports.#Discarded#
materials,#inefficient#work#hours#and#lack#of#building#quality#causes#this#waste.#Elimination#of#waste#is#
essential#in#order#to#improve#productivity#(Forsberg#2008).##

Materials# and# resources# are# daily# being# wasted# because# of# bad# planning# and# the# continuous#
movement# of# materials# increases# the# risk# of# damage# to# the# material.# It# cost# money# and# creates# a#
huge#loss#of#productivity.#Within#the#construction#industry#many#of#the#leading#companies#agree#that#
their# profit# could# be# greatly# increased# by# creating# an# environment# suited# for# better# logistics# (Ek#
2008).#

The#building#cranes#at#the#NKS]project#are#an#essential#part#of#the#building#process,#and#it#would#be#
impossible#to#complete#the#project#without#building#cranes#at#the#building#site.#But#because#of#the#
challenging# location# and# logistics# at# the# NKS]project,# the# building# cranes# are# just# one# of# many#
machines#that#can#be#improved#(on#a#minor#or#a#major#scale)#to#help#reduce#waste.##

Many#companies#are#struggling#to#improve#their#logistics.#Companies#with#smaller#profit#margins#like#
the# FMCG# sector# (fast# moving# consumer# goods)# is# a# perfect# example# of# how# to# effectively# use#
logistics.#Because#of#their#low#profit#margin#combined#with#a#huge#demand#for#their#goods,#they#are#
forced# to# be# effective.# Companies# with# high# profit# margins# like# the# construction# industry# have# not#
been#forced#to#be#as#effective#as#the#FMCG#sector.#The#logistics#within#the#construction#industry#has#
for#an#extensive#time#been#secondarily#prioritized#(Lindh#2004).#

Among# other# things# logistics# within# the# construction# industry# covers# planning,# organization,#
coordination#and#control#of#material#flow.#Every#building#project#is#unique#in#its#own#way#and#that#is#
one#of#the#reasons#why#every#building#site#has#its#own#conditions#for#receiving,#unloading#and#storing#
materials.#Because#the#conditions#vary#from#each#building#site#the#logistics#department#will#need#to#
#############################################################
1
#The#inflation#in#Sweden#was#3,0#percent#in#2011#and#1.1#percent#in#2012.#(http://www.konj.se/758.html)##

1#
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1.2.#RESEARCH#QUESTION#AND#PURPOSE#
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adapt# to# the# geographical# location# and# the# project# design# in# order# to# collaborate# with# other#
processes#related#to#the#building#site#(Ek#2008).#

By# focusing# on# logistics# the# construction# industry# has# many# benefits# to# gain.# With# better# material#
flow# and# a# well]planned# workplace# design,# the# companies# can# reduce# waiting# times# and# wasted#
materials#to#save#both#time#and#money#(Bygglogistik#2012).#

1.2 !Research!question!and!purpose!
The#tower#cranes#at#Nya#Karolinska#in#Solna#(NKS)#are#indispensable#and#significant#throughout#the#
construction#process.#They#are#expensive#to#operate#and#hence#they#should#be#used#as#effectively#as#
possible.#The#tower#cranes#are#a#vital#link#in#the#construction#chain#and#their#efficiency#depends#on#
the# surrounding# logistics.# Currently# the# efficiency# of# the# tower# cranes# is# not# optimal2.# What# causes#
the#inefficiency#will#be#examined#in#this#thesis.##

A%tower%crane%is%considered%a%centrepiece%of%construction%equipment%in%the%building%process.%They%
play%an%significant%part%in%transportation%of%materials%on%the%construction%site.%
(Katranuschkov#2012)#

Time#studies#will#be#completed#in#Phase#6#at#NKS#to#identify#the#actual#use#of#the#tower#cranes.#To#
increase# the# understanding# of# the# logistics# surrounding# the# tower# cranes,# disturbances# and# other#
interruptions#on#site#will#be#noted.#To#create#an#overview#of#the#logistics#affecting#the#tower#cranes#
at#NKS,#the#material#flow#and#work#routines#will#be#observed#and#interviews#with#key#personnel#will#
be#conducted.##

The#purpose#of#this#report#is#to#study#the#efficiency#of#the#tower#cranes#at#New#Karolinska#Hospital#in#
Solna#(NKS)#and#if#it#is#possible#to#improve#the#logistics#affecting#the#cranes.#By#observing,#analysing#
and# describing# the# logistics# concerning# the# cranes# at# NKS,# there# will,# if# necessary,# be# made#
suggestions#to#Skanska#at#NKS#on#how#to#improve#the#efficiency#of#the#cranes.#

A#case#study#based#on#Phase#6#at#NKS#attempts#to#answer#the#following#research#questions:#

How#efficient#are#the#cranes#at#NKS?##
Can#the#cranes#be#planned#for#a#more#efficient#usage?#
Is#it#possible#to#improve#the#logistics#affecting#the#cranes?#

1.3 Limitations!
This#case#study#has#been#made#for#Skanska#on#the#NKS]project#has#been#chosen#for#several#reasons.#
First#off#the#NKS]project#is#currently#(2013)#Europes#biggest#building#site##which,#in#modern#times,#
makes#it#extremely#relevant#to#investigate#where#it#would#be#possible#to#reduce#waste#and#save#
recourses.#Second##the#building#site#is#located#on#a#geographical#challenging#ground.#Besides#having#
to#use#large#amounts#of#dynamite#to#even#out#the#rocked#area##the#building#site#is#surrounded#by#
heavily#trafficked#roads#and#nearby#habituated#areas.#These#factors#make#the#NKS]project#an#
interesting#challenge#for#everyone#involved#but#especially#for#the#logistics#team#working#there.#
Because#of#the#size#of#the#building#site#and#the#logistic#challenges#the#researcher#found#the#NKS]
project#to#be#a#relevant#and#interesting#workplace.## #

#############################################################
2 th
#Phase#and#Logistics#Manager#at#Skanska#NKS.#FCIOB,#dialogue#19 #November#2012#

2#
#
2.1.#RESEARCH#DESIGN#
#

2 METHODOLOGY!!
This%chapter%explains%the%methods%used%to%collect%data%and%thereby%achieve%the%purpose%of%this%study.%
Data%has%been%collected%in%ways%were%the%advantages%and%disadvantages%of%each%method%is%explained%
in%the%reliability%and%validity%chapter.%%

2.1 Research!Design!!
Each#research#has#its#own#purpose#so#it#is#problematic#to#state#what#methodological#approach#is#the#
one# best# suited.# How# to# conduct# a# data# analysis# differ# depending# on# the# advantages# and#
disadvantages#of#the#methods#(Ghauri#and#Grnhaug#2010).#For#this#study#there#has#been#chosen#a#
combination#of#a#quantitative#and#qualitative#methods.#The#motives#for#selecting#these#methods#will#
be#described#in#chapter#2.2.##

2.2 Qualitative!vs.!quantitative!methods!!
Ghauri#and#Grnhaug#(2010)#explain#that#the#basic#distinction#between#quantitative#and#qualitative#
methods#is,#that#quantitative#researchers#employ#measurement#and#qualitative#researchers#do#not.##

Qualitative# research# methods# are# appropriate# when# the# researcher# wants# to# collect# evidence.# The#
method# is# often# used# when# a# researcher# seeks# a# wider# understanding,# for# example# a# range# of#
feelings# and# ideas# about# something.# Data# is# often# collected# through# interviews# and# observations#
Ghauri#and#Grnhaug#(2010).##

Quantitative# research# methods# often# include# surveys# or# measurements.# The# method# is# frequently#
used#when#a#researcher#desires#to#test#specific#hypothesis#or#examine#specific#relationships.#Ghauri#
and# Grnhaug# (2010)# clarifies# that# this# method# is# suitable# to# use# when# a# researcher# needs# to#
distinguish#the#degree#of#which#something#occurs.#After#the#research,#results#can#be#generalized#into#
a#larger#population.##

! Table&2.1#Differences#between#qualitative#vs.#quantitative#methods#

Qualitiative#Methods# Quantitative#methods#
Emphasis#on#understanding# Emphasising#on#testing#and#verification#
Focus#on#understanding#from#respondents#point# Focus#on#facts#and/or#reasons#for#social#events#
of#view#
Observations#and#measurements#in#natural# Controlled#measurements#
environments#
Source:%Ghauri%and%Grnhaug%2010%

2.3 !Data!collection!
Data#can#be#sorted#as#primary]#or#secondary#data.#Secondary#data#is#already#collected#and#therefore#
not# recollected# by# the# researcher.# Secondary# data# is# easily# obtained# from# databases# and# statistical#
bureaus,#which#save#both#time#and#money#for#the#researcher.#Primary#data#needs#to#be#collected#by#
the#researcher.#If#the#research#is#within#a#unique#field#or#area,#it#is#most#unlikely#that#the#needed#data#
is# available# from# databases.# Data# collecting# is# very# time# consuming,# but# it# will# be# accurate# for# the#
particular#study#(Ghauri#and#Grnhaug#2010).#

#
For#this#study#the#researcher#has#chosen#to#collect#primary#data#since#the#study#is#within#a#specific#
field.#Three#different#research#methods#have#been#used#to#collect#primary#data;#

3#
#
2.3.#DATA#COLLECTION#
#
Time#studies#
Observations##
Interviews#with#key#personnel#

To#further#answer#the#research#questions#stated#in#this#report,#the#author#studied#literature#related#
to# logistics.# Earlier# performed# studies# within# logistics# within# the# construction# sector# were# also#
studied.##

2.3.1 Time!studies!
A#time#study#is#a#statistical#and#systematic#method#to#collect#data#and#is#used#to#get#an#overview#of#
how#the#recourses#are#being#used#within#a#company.##When#the#data#is#collected#it#can#be#analysed#
and#the#results#can#be#presented#in#numbers#(Penn#State#2012).#The#researcher#can#thereafter#map#
for# example# how# the# working# hours# are# disposed,# which# gives# an# indication# of# how# much# of# the#
devoted#time#actually#creates#value.#Activities#that#create#no#value#should#be#minimized#to#increase#
the#profit#for#the#company.#The#collected#results#are#used#to#underlie#continuous#improvements#so#
recourses#are#used#more#efficiently#(Nordisk#Produktivitet#2013).#If#sufficient#number#of#time#studies#
is#collected,#the#aggregated#observations#approach#the#real#situation#(B.O#Tecnico#2004).#

The#purpose#with#time#studies#is#to#get#a#statistical#result#of#the#cranes#efficiency.#Primary#data#will#
be# gathered# on# site.# Time# studies# of# tower# cranes# will# be# carried# out,# for% explanation% see% chapter%
2.3.1.#

2.3.2 Observations!!
Observation#as#a#data#collection#tool#entails#listening#and#watching#other#peoples#behaviour#in#a#way#
that# allows# learning# and# analytical# interpretation.# The# main# advantage# of# this# method# is# that# the#
researcher# collects# primary# data# and# information# in# a# natural# setting.# The# social# behaviour# will# be#
captured# and# analysed# in# a# more# accurate# way# that# is# not# possible# through# questionnaires# and#
interviews.# The# disadvantage# of# this# method# is# that# it# can# be# difficult# to# translate# events# or#
happenings#into#scientifically#used#information.#

The# researcher# can# either# do# a# participant# observation# or# a# non]participant# observation.# For# this#
study# the# author# used# the# non]participant# observation# method.# This# meaning# that# the# author#
observes#the#logistics#affecting#and#surrounding#the#cranes#and#their#operators#in#a#natural#setting#on#
site#and#is#therefore#not#part#of#the#situation.#

2.3.3 Interviews!
Conducting# interviews# has# a# major# advantage;# it# is# a# flexible# method# to# gather# data# (Bell# 1993).#
Ghauri# and# Grnhaug# (2010)# explain# that# interviews# demands# real# interaction# between# the#
researcher#and#respondent,#though#they#do#not#always#have#to#be#done#in#person,#they#can#be#done#
via#email#or#telephone.#Ghauri#and#Grnhaug#further#explain#that#interviews#are#considered#one#of#
the# best# data# collected# methods.# Interviews# can# both# be# formal# and# informal.# A# formal# interview#
follows# a# structure;# the# researcher# analyses# the# problem,# understand# what# information# is# needed#
and#find#out#where#to#gather#the#information.#Informal#interviews#do#not#follow#a#particular#structure#
(Graduates#first#2013).##

Informal#interviews#were#carried#out#on#site#during#the#observations.#The#interviewees#for#this#study#
were#key#personnel#working#with#logistics#and#cranes#at#the#Nya#Karolinska#in#Solna.##

4#
#
2.4.#VALIDITY#AND#RELIABILITY#
#

2.4 Validity!and!Reliability!
Ghauri# and# Grnhaug# (2010)# clarify# the# two# concepts# validity# and# reliability.# Validity# is# used# to#
explain#the#quality#of#the#measurements#or#time#studies.#It#is#crucial#that#the#collected#data#captures#
what# it# is# supposed# to,# in# order# to# provide# accurate# results.# Reliability# refers# to# the# stability# of# the#
measures.# By# repeating# the# measurements# a# higher# reliability# can# be# achieved.# Within# validity# and#
reliability#there#are#two#rules;#

A#valid#measure#is#reliable#and#guaranties#high#reliability#
A#reliable#measure#does#not#need#to#be#valid#

Workers#on#site#can#change#their#behaviour#because#of#the#non]participating#observer.#To#minimize#
this# problem# the# researcher# can# observe# under# disguise.# To# ensure# the# researchers# on# site#
observations# does# not# distract# or# interfere# with# workers# daily# routines,# the# researcher# will# at# all#
times,#during#on#site#observations,#wear#personal#protective#equipment#as#stipulated#by#Skanska.#As#
well#as#undertake#the#relevant#safety#induction#to#allow#access#on#site.###

# !

5#
#
3.1.#INFORMATION#SEEKING#
#

3 LITERATURE!REVIEW!
This%chapter%explains%how%the%information%has%been%researched%and%how%published%information%is%
discussed%in%the%filed%construction%efficiency%focusing%on%tower%cranes.%%%

3.1 Information!seeking!
The#literature#review#has#been#made#in#order#to#search#for#information#about#efficiency#in#the#
construction#sector#and#to#identify#what#has#been#studied#earlier#within#the#topic.#The#goal#is#to#
obtain#a#comprehensive#description#of#the#topic#and#theoretical#disadvantages#of#ineffective#tower#
cranes.#Relevant#information#for#the#literature#review#has#been#sought#in#domestic#and#international#
books,#the#Internet,#the#universitys#databases,#national#and#international#journals#in#order#to#create#
a#scientific#background.#Related#information#was#also#sought#in#dissertations#and#theses#in#the#field#
efficiency#in#the#construction#sector.#The#original#references#from#relevant#articles,#dissertations#and#
theses#were#also#sought.#Examples#of#searches#that#have#been#made#are;#crane#efficiency,#
operational#efficiency,#logistics#etc.##

3.2 The!importance!of!efficiency!in!the!construction!sector!!
Waste#was#earlier#explained#as#an#activity#that#consumes#resources#but#creates#no#value#(Josephsson#
and#Saukkoriipi#2005).#Since#one#of#the#main#goals#for#a#company#is#to#earn#money,#reducing#waste#is#
necessary# in# order# to# improve# profits.# Waste# is# a# large]scale# problem# within# the# construction#
industry;# one# of# the# major# reasons# is# that# waste# is# difficult# to# get# a# grasp# on# since# it# is# hidden# in#
between#different#actors#and#activities#in#the#building#process#(Josephson#and#Saukkoriipi#2008).##

Efficiency# and# productivity# are# two# concepts# often# used# in# the# construction# industry,# especially#
within#operational#management#and#development.#The#two#concepts#are#often#used#interchangeably#
although#they#differ#significantly.#To#distinguish#these#two#from#each#other#it#is#important#to#reduce#
possible#confusion#(IDG#2012).#The#two#concepts#are#explained#below.#

Efficiency#is#the#relationship#between#actions#and#the#results#of#an#activity.#Efficiency#is#the#
extent#to#which#an#action#is#used#for#the#intended#purpose#(Nationalencyklopedin#2012a).##
Productivity#is#the#relationship#between#the#output#and#input#of#a#production#
(Nationalencyklopedin#2013).##

Efficiency#is#associated#with#productivity#since#it#focuses#on#how#the#recourses#are#being#spend,#an#
improved#usage#of#resources#will#achieve#a#higher#efficiency.#Productivity#is#for#example#how#many#
units# are# being# produced,# but# still# a# high# productivity# of# many# units# does# not# mean# that# the#
production#is#efficient#(IDG#2012).#

Measuring#the#efficiency#is#important#in#order#to#identify#the#waste#within#the#company.#It#is#even#
more#important#during#a#challenging#economic#time,#where#organisations#look#for#improvements#to#
reduce# cycle# times# and# costs# (Wrye# 2011).# Measuring# the# efficiency# within# different# processes# will#
help# to# identify# the# waste.# Once# the# activity# is# identified# it# can# be# improved# and# controlled#
(Byggprocesstyrning#2013).#

An# old# proverb# within# the# construction# industry# says# that# if# you# can# not# measure# it,# you# can# not#
control#it,#meaning#that#if#a#company#wants#to#work#on#improvements#it#is#essential#to#measure#in#
order#to#be#able#to#control#(Byggprocesstyrning#2013).#

6#
#
3.2.#THE#IMPORTANCE#OF#EFFICIENCY#IN#THE#CONSTRUCTION#SECTOR#
#
One#method#to#identify#waste#and#improve#processes#has#been#developed#by#Aviation#Management#
Associates# (AMA# 1013).# The# method# is# shown# below# in# figure# 3.1.# One# of# AMAs# quality# programs#
(Sex#Sigma)#is#developed#to#achieve#higher#quality#and#lower#costs#for#their#clients.#The#improvement#
process#includes#several#stages#of#how#to#identify,#evaluate#and#finally#improve#processes#within#the#
company.##

#
Figure%3.1.%An%improvement%process%visualised%above.%The%goal%for%the%company%is%to%reduce%waste%and%thereby%achieve%
higher%quality%and%lowering%the%costs.%The%improvement%process%includes%measure,%evaluate,%improve%and%control%
(Source:%AMA%2013).%

Explanation#of#figure#3.1#

Measuring&phase:&perform#measurements#and#collect#data#to#determine#the#
efficiency#of#the#existing#process.##
Evaluate&phase:#understand#the#process#by#the#analysed#data.#The#collected#data#is#
presented#in#charts#and#diagrams.&#
Improvement&phase:#generates#a#number#of#improvement#alternatives.#Some#of#the#
tools#used#include#brainstorming#and#cost#to#benefits#analysis.##
The&control&phase:#a#control#strategy#is#developed#to#maintain#the#new#process#
(AMA#2013).##

Some#benefits#from#reducing#non]value#adding#activities#are#the#increased#profit#to#the#company,#but#
also# that# society# gains# from# reducing# waste.# Forsberg# (2008)# explains# that# reducing# waste# will#
decrease#green#house#gases3#produced#by#the#construction#industry.#Recent#reports#from#the#United#
Nations#conclude#that#there#has#been#a#climate#change#and#it#is#highly#likely,#that#humans#partially#
contributed# to# the# recent# climate# changes.# Recently# conducted# reports# by# the# United# Nations#
indicate#that#companies#within#the#construction]#and#real#estate#sector#account#for#approx.#8#percent#
of#world#emission#green#house#gases#and#therefore#have#a#responsibility#to#reduce#the#impact#on#the#
environment#(Josephsson#and#Saukkoriipi#2009).##

#############################################################
3
#Green#house#gases#such#as#carbon#dioxide,#methane#and#ozone#influence#the#green#house#effect.#

7#
#
3.3.#EARLIER#RESEARCHES#ON#EFFICIENCY#WITHIN#THE#CONSTRUCTION#INDUSTRY#
#

3.3 Earlier!researches!on!efficiency!within!the!construction!industry!
This# section# and# the# following# section# Earlier% researches% on% the% cranes% efficiency# present# what#
previous#researchers#have#carried#out#in#the#field#efficiency#within#the#construction#industry.##

Measurements#
Several# studies# have# been# done# on# how# to# measure# productivity# but# not# on# efficiency.# Previous#
studies# have# been# focusing# on# how# to# perform,# implement# and# try# new# different# tools# to# measure#
the#productivity#in#the#building#process.#The#results#from#previous#studies#indicate#that#it#is#important#
to#measure#the#productivity#and#furthermore#to#improve#it.#To#reduce#waste#requires#continuously#
measuring# and# keeping# a# steady# eye# on# the# productivity# (Forsberg# 2013).# Productivity# can# be#
measured# in# many# different# ways,# where# one# of# the# most# common# methods# is# explained# in# the#
equation# below# (Forsberg# 2008).# The# scientific# explanation# of# productivity# within# economics,# is# the#
relationship#between#an#obtained#result#(output)#and#the#resources#used#in#the#production#(input).##

!"#$"#
!"#$%&'()('* = #
!"#$%

(Nationalencyklopedin#2013)#

The# inputs# in# this# equation# are# the# used# resources# such# as# labour,# machinery# and# materials.# The#
outputs#are#the#products,#services#or#income#from#the#sales#of#the#finished#products#(Forsberg#2008).#
Labour#productivity#is#another#measurement#based#on#the#same#equation,#but#here#the#input#is#only#
the# used# labour# (Ogrady# 2013).# To# increase# productivity# the# input# must# be# reduced# to# achieve# the#
same#output#(Forsberg#and#Saukkoriipi#2007).##

Forsberg# (2008)# discovered# that# measurements# such# as# ! ! # and# ! ! # per# hour# are# common# to# use#
within#the#construction#industry.#The#ratio#between#operated#time#and#planned#time#is#also#used#but#
not# frequently.# Forsberg# highlights# in# his# study# that# the# building# industry# is# unique# because# of# the#
variations#in#the#different#projects.#He#states#that#using#measurement#such#as#! ! #or#! ! #per#hour#is#
not# accurate.# Forsberg# further# explains# that# problems# occur# when# the# same# measurements# are#
compared# between# different# projects.# The# comparison# will# be# incorrect# and# these# metrics# should#
therefore#only#be#used#as#indicators#for#each#project.##

The&manufacturing&industry&compared&to&the&construction&industry&

Low#competition#is#a#problem#in#the#construction#industry.#Compared#to#the#manufacturing#industry,#
the# construction# industry# in# Sweden# is# dominated# by# a# few# large# construction# companies.# Many#
researches#believe#that#this#is#the#major#reason#why#productivity#in#the#construction#industry#is#much#
lower#compared#to#the#manufacturing#industry#(Forsberg#2008).##

&

8#
#
3.3.#EARLIER#RESEARCHES#ON#EFFICIENCY#WITHIN#THE#CONSTRUCTION#INDUSTRY#
#
#

#
Figure%3.2.%The%pie%charts%show%the%time%spent%on%value%adding%and%nonQvalue%adding%activities%in%
# two%different%industries%(Source:%Ennova%2013).% #
#

As# seen# in# the# pie# charts# above# the# time# spent# on# value# added# and# non]value# added# activities#
significantly# differ# in# the# two# industries.# Non]value# added# activities# are# 57# percent# within# the#
construction# industry# but# only# 26# percent# within# manufacturing.# Non]value# added# activities# are#
activities# that# do# not# add# value# to# the# production# such# as# waiting# time# that# the# customer# is# not#
willing# to# pay# for# (Ennova# 2013).# The# different# methods# and# processes# that# are# used# in# the# two#
industries#could#be#the#explanation#to#the#major#difference#in#non]value#adding#activities.#Womack#
and# Jones# (2003)# explain# that# the# manufacturing# industry# has# for# a# long# time# used# the# philosophy#
LEAN#to#improve#the#customers#value#by#minimizing#waste.#The#big#breakthrough#for#LEAN#came#in#
the#early#twentith#century#when#the#car#manufacturing#company#Ford#implemented#an#assembly#line#
in# order# to# produce# cars# in# a# larger# scale.# The# LEAN# philosophy# focuses# on# the# key# processes# to#
improve#them.#Womack#and#Jones#(2003)#further#explain#that#the#purpose#with#LEAN#is#to#identify#
and# eliminate# all# factors# in# the# production# that# do# not# create# value.# This# can# be# applied# in# every#
industry,#not#only#within#the#manufacturing#industry.##

It# is# difficult# to# compare# the# two# industries.# Hindersson# (2012)# argues# that# measuring# efficiency#
within#the#construction#industry#is#very#uncertain#and#imprecise#compared#to#measuring#efficiency#in#
the# manufacturing# industry.# The# high# complexity# within# the# construction# industry# complicates# the#
comparison#of#the#projects.#Instead,#dissimilar#projects#are#being#compared#with#each#other#and#later#
compared#with#the#manufacturing#industry.#Errors#occur#when#the#two#industries#are#compared#with#
each# other.# Hindersson# (2012)# further# argues# that# the# difficulty# to# compare# projects,# creates# an#
uncertainty#on#how#to#measure#efficiency#within#the#construction#industry.#

The#high#level#of#competition#in#transportation#of#goods#and#services#has#for#a#long#time#affected#the#
manufacturing# industry# and# lately# also# the# construction# industry.# Forsberg# and# Saukkoriipi# (2007)#
explain# that# the# manufacturing# industry# has# taken# the# advantage# of# the# competition# by# decreasing#
production#costs.#They#raise#the#question##is#this#possible#to#do#in#the#construction#industry?#Even#
with#high#competition#companies#can#survive#and#even#increase#the#profit.##

9#
#
3.4.#EARLIER#RESEARCHES#ON#THE#CRANES#EFFICIENCY#
#
Forsberg#(2008)#found#in#his#benchmark#survey,#that#67#percent#of#the#respondents#state#that#they#
measure# productivity# within# their# organisation# but# only# a# few# uses# the# results# to# actually# increase#
their#organisations#productivity.#Forsberg#therefore#believes#that#management#teams#in#the#Swedish#
construction#companies#should#take#more#responsibility#for#measuring#and#monitoring#results.#If#the#
do#they#will#develop#a#sustaining#plan#for#increasing#profits,#rather#than#a#short]term#plan.##

3.4 Earlier!researches!on!the!cranes!efficiency!!
Earlier#researches#within#this#area#are#fairly#limited.#However,#there#are#some#articles#and#a#few#
graduate#work#reports#in#this#field.#Most#researches#focus#on#the#optimal#site#selection#for#tower#
cranes#to#maximise#their#efficiency.#Besides#this#a#few#studies#have#been#performed#on#the#topic#of#
how#to#improve#construction#processes#and#how#to#minimize#waste.#%

Studies&on&crane&efficiency&b&in&harbour&and&housing&

In#Aulanko#and#Tervos#(2010)#study#about#efficiency#of#harbour#cranes,#show#that#about#80#percent#
of#the#worlds#merchandise#trade#is#transferred#by#sea.#This#is#one#of#the#reasons#why#logistics#has#
become# an# important# subject# for# companies# working# at# container# harbours.# In# a# harbour,# many#
varieties#of#cranes#and#vehicles#operate;#however,#they#all#depend#on#each#other#to#complete#their#
tasks.# To# transport# and# stack# the# containers,# specific# vehicles# operate# in# different# areas# of# the#
harbour.#The#logistic#chain#in#the#harbour#consists#of#container#ships,#cranes,#road#trucks#and#carriers.#
Aulanko# and# Tervo# (2010)# collected# data# from# a# container# harbour# during# normal# operation# of#
containers#in#order#to#identify#waste.##

10#
#
3.4.#EARLIER#RESEARCHES#ON#THE#CRANES#EFFICIENCY#
#

Figure%3.3.%A%flow%chart%that%displays%all%the%operations%in%a%container%harbour,%involving%a%crane.%The%activities%
on%the%right%hand%side%include%waiting%time%(waste)%due%to%poor%logistics%between%the%vehicles%in%the%harbour.%
These%activities%should%be%improved%to%increase%the%efficiency%in%the%harbour%(Source:%Aulanko%and%Tervo%2010).%

The#results#from#the#collected#data#are#shown#in#figure#3.3.#The#flow#chart#displays#all#the#operations#
in#the#container#harbour#involving#cranes.#The#activities#performed#by#the#cranes#such#as#lifting#the#
container,#reloading#and#placing#is#shown#on#the#left##side.# Activities# where# waiting# time# occurs# are#
displayed# on# the# right# side.# The# activities# with# poor# cooperation# between# the# vehicles# are# now#
identified#and#as#shown#on#the#right#side#in#flow#chart.#Once#the#activities#are#identified#it#is#easier#to#
improve# them.# Results# from# the# study# confirms# that# cranes# within# the# harbour# are# dependent# on#
each# other# and# there# is# no# crane# or# vehicle# that# can# cope# with# the# whole# process# of# handling# the#
containers#alone#]#cooperation#between#all#the#vehicles#is#necessary#(Aulanko#and#Tervo#2010).#

Leung#and#Tam#(1999)#explain#from#studies#performed#on#several#housing#projects#in#Hong#Kong,#that#
the# planning# of# tower# cranes# is# vital.# Operational# planning# of# the# tower# cranes# determines# if# the#
project#will#be#a#success#or#not.#Further#the#authors#explain#that#material#transportation#for#high]rise#
building#construction#relies#heavily#on#tower#cranes.#One#problem#Leung#and#Tam#(1999)#discovered#
was#that#the#crane#schedules#were#based#on#planners#and#operators#experience#with#low#accuracy#
of#the#real#hoisting#times.#The#authors#state#that#imbalance#in#crane#usage#on#the#construction#site#is#
common.#To#predict#hoisting#time#is#therefore#important#in#order#to#make#a#realistic#crane#schedule.##

The#imbalance#in#crane#usage#is#caused#by#on#site#restrictions#and#where#the#cranes#are#placed#on#
the#building#site.#The#number#of#tower#cranes#on#site#is#restricted#due#to#other#closely#placed#cranes#

11#
#
3.4.#EARLIER#RESEARCHES#ON#THE#CRANES#EFFICIENCY#
#
and# buildings# under# construction.# Leung# and# Tam# (1999)# used# a# multiple# regression# analysis4# to#
predict#the#hoisting#time#for#the#tower#cranes.#The#hoisting#times#were#used#to#make#a#realistic#crane#
schedule.# The# authors# collected# data# used# in# the# regression# analysis# from# two# typical# housing#
projects.# Stopwatches# were# used# to# collect# the# hoisting# times# of# crane# related# activities# where#
hoisting#upwards,#discharging#load,#hoisting#downwards#and#reloading#the#crane#were#noted.#In#total#
twelve# factors# was# identified# affecting# hoisting# time.# Examples# of# these# factors# are# angle,# weight,#
height,# length,# area# and# loading/unloading# point# of# the# load.# Two# mathematical# models# were#
designed#and#the#multiple#regression#technique#was#used#to#analyse#the#hoisting#times.##

! Table&3.1#Excerpts#from#the#results#of#multiple#regression#analysis#

Variable& Beta&
Height& 0.742#
Length& 0.337#
Weight& 0.288#
Angle& 0.219#
Loading&point& 0.209#
View& 0.034#
Unloading&point& ]0.044#
Area& ]0.167#
########################################################Source:%Leung%and%Tam%1999%

A#higher#beta#indicates#a#higher#impact#on#the#hoisting#time.#Results#from#the#regression#explain#that#
the#variables#length#(beta#0.337)#and#area#(beta#0.288)#will#just#have#a#small#impact#on#the#hoisting#
time.#The#variable#length#among#these#factors#has#a#greater#impact#on#the#hoisting#time.#An#example#
of#this#can#be#lifting#a#bundle#of#reinforcement#bars,#this#is#a#challenging#task#that#consequently#takes#
additional# time.# The# weight# of# the# load# was# expected# by# the# planners# to# be# a# significant# factor#
affecting#the#hoisting#time,#but#the#results#showed#that#the#effect#is#less#than#expected.#The#angular#
movement#of#the#crane#was#predicted#to#be#one#of#the#key#factors#affecting#hoisting#time,#but#was#
found#to#be#very#low#(beta#0.219).#The#most#significant#factor#affecting#hoisting#time#is#height#(beta#
0.742).#The#higher#up#in#the#building#the#load#is#being#placed,#the#longer#hoisting#time#(because#of#a#
longer# distance# from# the# loading/unloading# point).# The# regressions# confirm# that# hoisting# times# for#
crane#related#activities#are#proportional#to#the#hoisting#height.##

Crane# operators# use# walkie]talkies# to# communicate# with# the# workers# at# the# loading# and# unloading#
points# and# must# therefore# fully# rely# on# communication# through# the# walkie]talkies.# Mostly# because#
loading/unloading# materials# are# often# performed# without# the# crane# operators# vision.# From#
interviews#with#crane#operators#it#was#clear#that#their#field#of#vision#is#not#critical#for#hoisting.#This#is#
also#confirmed#by#the#regressions,#the#field#of#vision#is#not#a#significant#factor#(beta#0.034)#(Leung#and#
Tam#1999).##

&

#############################################################
4
#A#statistical#technique#to#find#relationship#between#different#variables#

12#
#
3.5.#LITERATURE#REVIEW#DISCUSSION#
#
&
Studies&on&operational&efficiency&b&tower&cranes&within&the&construction&industry&

A#study#by#Donghoon#et#al.,#(2008) focuses#on#the#topic#operational#efficiency.#The#purpose#of#the#
study#was#to#use#time#studies#to#analyse#the#efficiency#of#tower#cranes#utilized#in#multi]family#
housing#construction#in#Korea#and#afterwards#apply#the#results#on#new#structural#development.#The#
housing#projects#in#Korea#are#usually#built#as#a#single#project#with#300]1500#units#and#over#20#stories,#
where#tower#cranes#are#used#for#about#12]14#months.#As#the#time#the#study#was#carried#out#the#
cranes#was#no#used#optimally.#Time#studies#were#conducted#on#a#minute#basis#during#three#days#by#
analysing#video#clips#on#tower#crane#operations.

From#the#time#studies,#Donghoon#et#al.,#(2008) discovered#that#the#cranes#efficiency#during#three#
days#was#respectively#58#percent,#57#percent#and#24#percent.#The#average#efficiency#during#the#three#
days#was#47#percent.#The#idle#time#was#also#studied#during#this#time,#which#was#discovered#to#be#55#
percent#of#the#total#operated#time.#Unavailable#operators#and#waiting#time#caused#much#of#the#idle#
time.#The#authors#believe#that#the#efficiency#of#the#tower#cranes#could#be#improved#by#40#percent.#
Since#the#tower#cranes#are#used#for#12]14#months#with#high#monthly#lease#costs,#the#improvements#
will#have#a#significant#impact#on#a#projects#total#cost.##

A#bachelor#thesis#completed#in#2012#focused#on#the#same#subject,#efficiency#of#cranes.#The#authors#
(Fredriksson# and# hman# 2012)# observed# how# cranes# were# utilized# during# one# working# day.# The#
purpose#of#the#study#was#to#specify#the#tasks#carried#out#by#the#cranes#and#determine#the#efficiency#
of#the#cranes.#Both#mobile#and#tower#cranes#were#analysed#on#a#minute#basis;#the#two#observers#was#
positioned#in#different#places#on#site#in#order#to#simultaneously#be#able#to#observe#the#three#tower#
cranes# and# the# two# mobile# cranes.# During# the# observations# the# three# tower# cranes# transported#
hollow# work# slabs# and# steel# columns.# The# mobile# cranes# transported# prefabricated# concrete# walls#
from#the#lorries;#they#also#rotated#them#and#positioned#them#for#storage.#Since#the#tower#cranes#and#
the#mobile#cranes#had#different#tasks#during#the#day,#the#results#are#presented#separately.##

The#key#results#from#the#observations#are:#

The#three#tower#cranes#had#over#all#higher#efficiency#than#the#mobile#cranes#(79#percent,#61#
percent# and# 55# percent).# The# difference# in# efficiency# between# the# three# tower# cranes#
depended#on#the#waiting#time.##
The# mobile# cranes# had# low# efficiency# (7# percent# and# 49# percent).# The# lowest# efficiency# (7#
percent)#was#due#to#a#few#deliveries#on#that#day.##

3.5 Literature!review!discussion!
This# chapter# looked# at# several# reports# and# studies# about# efficiency# and# the# efficiency# within# the#
construction# industry.# Josephsson# and# Saukkoriipi# (2005)# stated# that# waste# is# an# activity# that#
consumes# resources# but# creates# no# value# and# this# is# a# large]scale# problem# within# the# construction#
industry.# Ek# (2008)# reports# that# materials# and# resources# are# daily# being# wasted.# The# problem# is# to#
identify# the# waste# since# it# is# hidden# between# many# different# actors# and# activities# (Josephson# and#
Saukkoriipi#2008).#Reducing#waste#is#important#for#all#companies#in#order#to#increase#their#profit.#To#
identify#and#reduce#the#waste,#Forsberg#(2008)#argues#this#is#done#with#continuously#measuring.#Also#
Byggprocesstyrning# (2013)# argues# that# measuring# efficiency# is# important# in# order# to# identify# the#
waste#within#the#company.#

13#
#
3.5.#LITERATURE#REVIEW#DISCUSSION#
#
The# chapter# included# a# comparison# between# the# manufacturing]# and# the# construction# industry.# It#
could# be# seen,# after# a# comparison# of# the# two# industries# that# the# construction# industry# had# much#
higher#rate#of#waste#(non]value#adding#activities).#Womack#and#Jones#(2003)#discussed#the#waste#and#
found# that# the# construction# industry# has# suffered# from# low# competition,# because# only# a# few# large#
companies# dominate# the# majority# of# the# Swedish# construction# industry.# The# major# difference#
between# the# two# industries# can# be# explained# by# different# methods# and# processes# used# in# the# two#
industries.# The# manufacturing# industry# for# example,# has# for# a# long# time# used# the# philosophy# LEAN#
thinking#to#minimize#waste##

During#a#construction#process#the#tower#cranes#are#a#vital#link,#since#they#are#the#only#devices#able#to#
lift# materials# and# equipment# to# high# levels.# Their# efficiency# depends# on# the# surrounding# logistics.#
Similarities#can#be#found#in#container#harbours.#Aulanko#and#Tervo#(2010)#confirmed#that#the#total#
efficiency#in#the#harbour#depends#on#the#cooperation#between#all#the#vehicles#and#cranes.##

Further#the#chapter#discussed#what#causes#the#high#level#of#waste.#What#causes#waste#is#partially#
poor#logistic#planning#(Ek#2008).#Leung#and#Tam#(1999)#discovered#that#for#housing#projects#in#Hong#
Kong,#the#cranes#schedules#were#based#on#planners#and#operators#previous#experiences.#To#make#
an#accurate#schedule#for#the#tower#cranes#the#researcher#estimated#the#hoisting#time#with#a#multiple#
regression#analysis.#The#results#confirmed#that#the#most#significant#factor#affecting#hoisting#time#was#
the#height#of#the#load.##

Finally#two#studies#performed#on#cranes#efficiency#within#the#construction#industry#were#mentioned.#
Donghoon#et#al.,#(2008) discovered#that#the#average#efficiency#of#the#monitored#tower#cranes#was#47#
percent#during#three#days.#During#construction,#the#cranes#are#used#for#a#period#of#12]14#months#
with#a#high#monthly#cost.#To#summarize,#the#authors#believe#that#better#planning#can#increase#the#
efficiency#of#each#crane#up#to#40#percent;#because#of#the#high#costs#this#would#have#had#a#vast#
impact#on#the#projects#total#costs.##

# #

14#
#
4.1.#ABOUT#SKANSKA#
#

4 SKANSKA!AND!PROJECT!INFORMATION!
This% part% contains% a% brief% introduction% about% the% company% Skanska% and% further% on% an% introduction%
about%the%project%Nya%Karolinska%in%Solna,%where%the%data%collection%has%been%carried%out.%

4.1 About!Skanska!
In# 1887# Rudolf# Fredrik# Berg# founded# the# company# Sknska# Cementgjuteriet# in# a# small# fishing#
village#in#the#south#part#of#Sweden.#He#started#to#manufacture#ornamental#concrete#cast#angels#for#
churches# in# Sweden# and# continued# with# complex# load# bearing# structures,# such# as# the# concrete#
foundation# of# the# Stockholm# Opera# House.# Soon# Sknska# Cementgjuteriet# was# nationally#
recognized# for# concrete# structures# such# as# roads,# bridges,# wastewater# plants# and# several# hydro#
electro#power#plants.#The#business#started#to#expand#internationally#in#the#early#twentieth#century#in#
Finland,#Russia#and#the#United#Kingdom.#For#decades#Sknska#Cementguteriet#played#a#key#role#in#
the#modernizing#of#Sweden.#Infrastructure#constructions,#offices#and#approx.#one#hundred#thousand#
homes# were# built# across# the# world.# Later# on# the# company# gained# recognitions# from# constructing#
silos,# hospitals# and# harbours.# Given# its# increasing# international# exposure,# the# company# decided# to#
change#the#name#from#Sknska#Cementgjuteriet#to#Skanska#in#1984#(Skanska#2012b).##

Today# Skanska# has# four# main# business# units,# which# are# construction,# residential# development,#
commercial#property#development#and##infrastructure# development.# The# company# operates# in#
several# countries# around# the# world.# Skanska# also# operates# in# countries# outside# of# Europe,# among#
some:#Latin#America#and#the#United#States.#Skanskas#goal#in#these#areas#is#to#be#the#leading#project#
developer# within# their# business# units.# Skanska# currently# has# 57# 000# employees,# it# is# listed# at# OMX#
Nordic# Exchange# and# the# total# revenue# in# 2012# was# 132# billion# SEK.# President# and# CEO# is# Johan#
Karlstrm#(Skanska#2013c).#

Skanska&in&figures&(2011)&
Revenue& SEK#123#billion#
Income&after&financial&items& SEK#9.1#billion#
Return&on&equity& 41.5%#
Order&bookings& SEK#123.6#billion#
Earnings&for&the&period&per&share& SEK#19.72#
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Source:&Skanska&

The#four#business#units#make#Skanska#one#of#the#largest#construction#companies#in#Sweden.#Skanska#
claims#that#their#goal#is#to#be#a#role#model,#not#only#for#the#Swedish#building#industry#but#also#for#the#
Swedish#industry#(Forsberg#2008).#According#to#Skanska,#they#work#exceptionally#hard#with#five#zero#
targets.#The#five#targets#are#part#of#Skanskas#business#concept,#which#is#to#create#value#for#owners#
and#shareholders#by#well]performed#and#well#profitable#projects.#The#five#zero#targets#are:#

Zero&lossbmaking&projects.#Loss#makers#does#not#only#destroy#profitability,#but#also#affect#
customer#relationships.#
Zero&accidents,#the#safety#of#personnel#as#well#as#subcontractors,#suppliers#and#the#general#
public#is#ensured.#

15#
#
4.2.#PROJECT#INFORMATION#
#
Zero&environmental&incidents,#all#projects#should#be#executed#in#a#manner#that#minimizes#
environmental#impact.#
Zero&ethical&breaches,#Skanska#has#a#zero]tolerance#approach#to#any#form#of#bribery#or#
corruption.#
Zero&defects,#with#the#double#aim#of#improving#the#bottom#line#and#increasing#customer#
satisfaction#(Skanska#2012a).##

4.2 Project!Information!
Skanska#is#currently#building#a#new#university#hospital#in#Stockholm#]#New#Karolinska#in#Solna#(NKS).#
The#need#for#a#new#hospital#in#the#Stockholm#region#is#a#fact#since#Stockholm#County#is#expecting#to#
grow#by#350#000#inhabitant#until#2020.#Due#to#the#increased#growth#the#demand#for#health#care#will#
continuously# rise,# but# there# is# also# a# demand# for# high# quality# medical# care.# The# new# hospital# will#
focus#on#their#patients#by#offering#shorter#treatment#periods#and#increase#patient#safety#with#single#
rooms#for#all#in]patients.#The#new#hospital#will#carry#out#highly#specialized#health#care#with#a#greater#
collaboration#between#research,#health#care#and#rehabilitation#(Stockholm#Lns#Landsting#2013).#

The#new#hospital#NKS#is#a#gigantic#project,#that#when#finished#will#be#12#floors.#Approximately#550#in]
patient#beds,#168#out]patient#clinic#rooms#and#36#operating#theatres#will#contribute#to#an#extremely#
efficient#health#care#process#(Stockholm#Lns#Landsting#2013).##

The#hospital#is#one#of#Europes#largest#PPP#(public#private#partnership)#construction#projects.#Public#
private#partnership#is#a#contract#form#between#two#parties;#a#private#party#and#a#public#authority.#It#
is#usually#applied#in#large#infrastructure]#and#construction#projects.#The#private#party#partly#or#fully#
finances# the# investment,# build# the# project# and# then# for# a# period# of# time# also# operates# the# project.#
The# main# purpose# with# the# PPP# contract# form# is# to# achieve# a# high# quality# project# and# a# higher#
predictability# for# the# taxpayers.# Several# countries# are# familiar# with# the# PPP# contract# form# but# for#
Sweden#this#is#a#relatively#new#way#to#make#contracts,#therefore#the#experience#of#this#contract#form#
is#limited#(Landstingsrevisorerna#2010).###

In# April# 2008# Stockholm# County# Council# decided# to# build# a# new# university# hospital# in# Solna#
(Landstingsrevisorerna#2010).##The#project#is#not#only#Swedens#first#PPP#project;#it#is#also#the#worlds#
largest# PPP# project.# The# contracts# value# is# 14.55# billion# SEK# makes# it# Skanskas# largest# project# ever#
(Skanska# 2013b).# The# client# is# Stockholm# County# Council# (Stockholm# Lns# Landsting# ]# SLL)# and# the#
Swedish# Hospital# Partners# AB# represents# the# private# party.# Swedish# Hospital# Partners# AB# involves#
loan]# and# shareholders# agreements# with# lenders# and# investors# and# also# a# building# contract# with#
Skanska# Health# Care# (SHC)# ]# the# development# company.# Maintenance# and# operation# of# the# new#
hospital# will# continue# until# 2040# (Skanska# 2013a).# When# Skanska# devolves# the# hospital,# the#
conditions#are#predetermined#and#guaranteed#by#Swedish#Hospital#Partners#AB.#From#2040,#SLL#will#
carry# on# with# the# maintenance# and# the# operation# of# the# hospital.# This# arrangement# creates#
incentives#for#Swedish#Hospital#Partners#AB#to#construct#and#build#the#hospital#with#sustainable#and#
suitable#solutions#(Landstingsrevisorerna#2010).####

The# NKS# project# started# in# the# summer# of# 2010# and# the# construction# will# be# carried# out# in# six#
different#stages#until#October#2017.#The#car#park#is#already#completed#and#was#handed#over#in#2012.#
A#new#patient#hotel#and#a#garage#will#be#situated#south#of#the#hospital#and#another#one#north#of#the#

#############################################################
5
#In#current#values#during#the#construction#years#2010]2017#

16#
#
4.2.#PROJECT#INFORMATION#
#
hospital#is#the#new#research#and#laboratory.#The#first#patients#will#be#able#to#visit#the#hospital#in#2016#
(Bengtsson#2012).#

#
Figure#4.1.#The#NKS#project#is#divided#in#six#time#stages,#the#different#stages#include#a#technological#building,#car#
park,#hospital#parts,#research#laboratory#and#a#patient#garage#and#hotel.#The#stages#are#presented#in#table#4.2.#
(Source:#Skanska#Health#Care)%

Timeframe&for&completion&of&the&Hospital&
Building& Completion&
1#Technological#Building## May#2014#
2#Garage#Car#Park# December#2012#
3#Hospital#Part#1# Start#of#Operation#2016#
4#Hospital#part#2# October#2017#
5#Research#Laboratory# September#2016#
6#Patient#Hotel#and#Garage# July#2016#
&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Source:,Skanska,Health,Care,

17#
#
4.3.#LOGISTICS#AT#NKS#
#

4.3 Logistics!at!NKS!
Logistic#means#managing#and#monitoring#the#flow#of#materials#within#a#company.#The#main#purpose#
of# logistics# is# to# provide# a# system# to# ensure# that# materials# are# delivered# and# received# at# the# right#
time# and# place.# In# Sweden# the# logistics# within# the# transportation# industry# has# developed# greatly#
since#the#late#1960s#(Nationalencyklopedin#2012b).#

The#logistics#group#at#NKS#works#with#all#logistics#related#issues#within#the#project.#One#of#their#key#
responsibilities# is# to# coordinate# all# deliveries# to# the# building# site;# which# is# a# challenge# for# everyone#
involved.#The#NKS#building#site#has#several#entry#gates#to#ease#the#delivery#of#materials#and#removal#
of# waste.# In# order# for# the# deliveries# to# reach# their# destination# they# must# go# through# a# security#
checkpoint,# from# where# the# drivers# will# get# information# such# as# where# to# unload# and# site# rules.#
Before#a#delivery#can#enter#the#site,#security#personnel#will#have#to#register#the#delivery#into#a#digital#
booking#system.#The#security#checkpoints#also#play#a#major#role#in#stopping#unauthorized#entry#to#the#
site.##

As#described#in#chapter#4.2,#the#NKS#building#site#is#divided#into#six#different#phases.#At#the#time#of#
writing6# this# study,# there# are# fifteen# cranes# at# the# NKS]project.# Each# tower# crane# has# unloading#
points#where#the#drivers#are#to#deliver#the#materials.#To#coordinate#more#than#a#100#deliveries#per#
day,#Skanska#uses#an#advanced#computer#system#called#LogNet.#Suppliers,#sub]contractors,#delivery#
coordinators# and# the# projects# logistic# group,# all# use# this# computer# system# to# ensure# a# safe# and#
smooth#delivery#(LogNet#2012).##

Before# entering# the# building# site# the# supplier# has# to# make# a# booking# in# LogNet.# The# supplier# must#
specify:##

Contents#of#the#delivery#
Company#making#the#delivery#
Receiver#of#the#delivery#
Arrival#time#and#departure#time#
Which#entry#gate#and#unloading#point#
What#resource#is#needed#to#offload#and#distribute#crane,#forklift#or#hoist##

Logistics#Mangers#or#Delivery#Coordinators#at#NKS#will#approve#the#booking#before#the#delivery#can#
be#sent#to#site.#If#a#supplier#needs#assistance#from#a#crane#to#complete#the#delivery,#this#must#be#
booked#in#advance#(to#ensure#the#availability).#The#process#chart#below#shows#the#different#stages#
from#booking#a#delivery#to#the#materials#receive#their#destination.##
#

Supplier#book##
#the#delivery#and#resources# Coordinator#approves# The#delivery#is#directed#to# The#booked#crane#unload#
the#delivery# right#unloading#point# the#delivery#
in#the#booking#system##

#
#############################################################
6 th
#The#8 #of#April#2013#

18#
#
0.##
#

#
Figure%4.2.%Example%of%how%the%cranes%are%booked%in%the%LogNet%system.%It%shows%that%the%subQcontractors%
Contiga%and%Skanska%Stomsystem%have%booked%tower%cranes%number%18%and%21%during%the%day%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
(Source:%LogNet%2012).%

#
A#major#advantage#with#the#booking#system#is#the#provided#daily#schedule#for#each#crane#(See%Figure%
4.2).# The# schedule# makes# it# easy# to# see# who# booked# the# crane# and# enables# the# planning# of# each#
crane.#Collision#can#be#avoided#and#it#is#possible#to#plan#the#cranes#schedules#more#efficient.##

The#disadvantages#related#to#this#booking#system#are#not#really#related#to#the#software.#The#problem#
lies# within# introducing# something# new# to# an# extremely# conservative# industry.# According# to# the#
construction#industrys#leading#news#magazine#in#Sweden#(Byggindustrin),#the#construction#industry#
has# for# long# time# been# accused# for# being# conservative# and# reluctant# to# change.# Even# though# the#
industry#has#become#less#conservative#since#the#1980,#it#is#still#criticized#(Hindersson#2012).#For#the#
NKS]project,# the# introduction# to# a# new# software]# and# booking# system# has# taken# a# lot# of# effort#
(Deputy#Logistics#Manager).##

! !

19#
#
5.1.#OVERVIEW#OF#THE#CRANES#
#

5 CRANES!AT!NKS:!!DATA!COLLECTION!AND!RESULTS!!!
This% chapter% summarizes% the% collected% data% and% the% results.% The% data% has% been% collected% from% time%
studies,%site%observations%and%informal%interviews%with%personnel%involved%in%the%project.%Observations%
have%been%performed%during%the%structural%stage%of%the%project.%%

5.1 Overview!of!the!cranes!!
As# described# in# the# introduction,# reducing# waste# such# as# waiting# time# can# be# achieved# through# a#
well]planned# workplace# design,# combined# with# outstanding# logistic# planning.# Choosing# the# optimal#
site#location#for#tower#cranes#at#the#NKS]project#is#challenging#because#of#existing#roads#and#the#old#
hospital# buildings.# When# cranes# are# placed# within# a# close# perimeter# of# each# other,# an# interference#
area#will#occur#between#the#cranes.#The#cranes#will#therefore#have#to#operate#with#overlapping#work#
zones,#the#closer#they#stand#]#the#bigger#overlapping#work#zones.#This#results#in#a#high#risk#of#collision#
between# the# cranes.# To# avoid# collision# the# crane# masts# are# set# to# different# heights,# but# the# risk# of#
collision#still#remains#when#the#cranes#are#carrying#their#load.#To#avoid#this#and#to#guarantee#safety#of#
the#cranes#movements,#an#anti]clash#detection#system#is#used.#This#system#prevents#collisions#since#
the#clash#detection#will#automatically#stop#one#of#the#cranes#before#interfering#into#the#other#cranes#
working#area.##

All#the#tower#cranes#at#NKS#is#standing#within#the#overlapping#zone#of#at#least#one#other#tower#crane.#
The# overlapping# area# between# the# cranes# decreases# the# tower# cranes# capacity# since# they# cannot#
operate#fully#within#360#degrees.#The#photo#below#shows#the#building#site#at#NKS#in#October#2012.#
Since#the#building#site#is#affected#by#existing#buildings#and#roads,#the#tower#cranes#need#to#be#closely#
placed.##

#
Figure%5.1.%View%over%the%NKS%project%(source:%Skanska%Health%Care).%

20#
#
5.2.#CONTRACT#STRUCTURE#AND#PAYMENT#
#

5.2 Contract!structure!and!payment!
The# development# company# (Skanska# Health# Care)# and# Skanska# Maskin# have# signed# a# general#
agreement,# covering# rental# of# machinery,# cranes,# cabins,# equipment# and# procurement# of# services#
and#machine#related#products.#Skanska#Health#Care#rents#all#the#equipment#and#machinery#internally#
from# Skanska# Maskin# where# they,# according# to# the# general# agreement,# undertake# to# deliver# these#
goods#to#Skanska#Health#Care,#NKS.#The#general#agreement#was#signed#in#2012#and#is#valid#until#the#
project#is#finished#in#2017.#

Skanska#Maskin#is#a#subsidiary#of#Skanska#Sweden.#The#company#hire#out#machinery#and#equipment#
needed# for# building# projects# within# Skanska# but# also# to# other# companies# in# need# of# their# services.#
During# the# NKS]project,# Skanska# Maskin# is# responsible# for# the# equipment# being# functional# at# right#
time# and# place.# The# companys# main# focus# is# to# create# total# solutions# for# their# costumers.# Skanska#
Maskin#has#vast#expertise#in#health#and#safety#within#the#construction#industry.#The#company#has#13#
offices#in#Sweden#and#approx.#650#employees#(Skanska#2013c).#

Skanska# Maskin# is# leasing# all# machines# and# equipment# to# the# NKS]project,# with# only# a# few#
exceptions.#In#some#cases#the#phases#within#the#project#have#bought#the#needed#equipment#from#an#
external# company,# for# example# hoists# or# lifts.# Skanska# Maskin# are# able# to# purchase# needed#
equipment# or# machinery# desired# for# the# project.# All# four# cranes# in# Phase# 6# are# both# leased# and#
owned#by#Skanska#Maskin#(see#chapter#5.3#Case%Study%for#crane#plan),#the#contract#form#is#fixed#
price# and# the# fixed# price# is# not# affected# by# the# length# of# the# leasing# period.# There# is# no# quantity#
discount#for#leasing#many#cranes#(Skanska#Maskin#2013).#

There#are#three#main#costs#related#to#leasing#a#crane:##

Monthly&running&costs.#Including#capital#cost,#service,#material#and#cost#for#free#usage#of#the#
crane.#The#capital#cost#is#the#most#expensive#monthly#cost.##
Onebtime& costs.& Covers# erection# and# dismantling# the# crane,# lights,# commercial# signs,#
brackets# and# alco# lock.# Erection# and# dismantling# the# crane# is# the# most# expensive# one# time#
cost.&
Costs& for& a& crane& operator.& A# crane# operator# is# needed# for# each# crane.# The# hourly# rate# is#
fixed,#but#varies#during#the#work#hours.#Skanska#Maskin#employs#all#the#crane#operators#in#
Phase#6.#Work#performed#during#the#weekends#is#far#more#expensive#than#work#performed#
during#weekdays#(see#table#5.2).&

The#one]time#costs#and#the#monthly#running#costs#are#less#for#a#mobile#crane#since#they#are#smaller#
than# the# tower# cranes.# They# do# not# require# the# same# size# of# footing# and# the# erection/dismantling#
costs#are#lower.##

# !

21#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#

5.3 Case!study!
The#case#study#focuses#on#Phase#6#at#NKS,#which#is#the#construction#of#the#research#and#
development#laboratory.#The#finished#building#will#contain#the#hospitals#research#and#development#
labs,#lecture#theatres#and#conference#rooms#along#with#a#radio#pharmacy,#plant#rooms#and#a#
cyclotron.#The#cyclotron#produces#radioactive#isotopes#that#are#used#in#both#the#production#of#
radiopharmaceuticals#and#in#particle#therapy#to#treat#cancer.#A#skywalk#will#in#the#future#connect#the#
research#and#development#laboratory#with#the#medical#university,#Karolinska#Institutet.#The#total#
floor#area#will#when#finished#be#about#40#000#square#meters.##

Figures#5.2]3.##The#figures#above#illustrate#the#finished#building#in#Phase#6,#the#research#and#development#
laboratory%(source:%Skanska%Health%Care).%
#

#
Figure%5.4.%Crane%plan%at%the%NKS%project%area%were%the%shaded%area%represents%Phase%6.%Each%dot%represent%a%
crane%and%the%circles%are%the%cranes%working%area%(source:%Skanska%Health%Care).%

22#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
The#crane#plan#above#shows#the#NKS]project#area.#There#are#fifteen#cranes,#both#tower]#and#mobile#
cranes.# Each# red# dot# represents# a# tower# crane# and# each# blue# dot# represents# a# mobile# crane.# The#
circles#displays#the#cranes#working#area.#The#highlighted#area#in#the#top#left#corner#is#Phase#6,#the#
research#and#development#building#used#for#the#case#study.#The#crane#plan#was#updated#in#February#
2013.#

#
Figure%5.5.%The%crane%plan%is%enlarged%and%shows%the%cranes%in%Phase%6.%The%four%cranes%TK25,%TK26,%MK29%and%
MK30%are%used%in%the%case%study%(source:%Skanska%Health%Care)%

#
The#enlarged#crane#plan#above#focuses#on#Phase#6.#At#the#time#of#writing7#this#study#there#are#four#
cranes# in# Phase# 6,# two# tower]# and# two# mobile# cranes.# The# two# tower# cranes,# TK25# and# TK26# are#
located#in#the#north#and#south#part#of#the#phase.#The#two#mobile#cranes#MK29#and#MK30#are#located#
in#between#the#two#tower#cranes.#

#
#
#

#############################################################
7
#2013]04]15#

23#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
#

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Tower&crane&(TK25#and#TK26#)#&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&Mobile&crane#(MK29#and#MK30)##&

Maximum#hook#height:# 81.1#m# Maximum#hook#height:# 28#m#


Maximum#lifting#capacity:# 20#000#kg# Maximum#lifting#capacity:# 4#000#kg#
Maximum#radius:# 81.5#m# Maximum#radius:# 36#m#
Lifting#capacity#with#max.#radius:# 4#000#kg# Lifting#capacity#with#max.#radius:# 1#200#kg#
#

TK25#was#erected#in#September#2012#and#will#together#with#TK26#complete#the#superstructure#of#the#
research#laboratory.#Since#January#and#February#2013#there#has#been#two#temporary#mobile#cranes#
on#site.#The#purpose#of#the#mobile#cranes#is#to#assist#Skanska#Civils#during#a#few#months#to#carry#out#
construction# works# on# site.# The# two# tower# cranes# were# often# occupied# moving# form# works# and# in]
situ#concrete#work#so#to#increase#the#productivity,#Phase#6#leased#the#two#mobile#cranes#for#further#
assistance#to#Skanska#Civils#(Construction#Manager#Phase#6,#NKS).##

24#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#

Figure%5.6.%The%program%for%Phase%6%(Source:%Skanska%Health%Care)#

#
The#programme#above#shows#the#different#activities#carried#out#during#the#project#period.#The#rock#
blasting#is#now#finished;#the#concrete#substructure#and#the#precast#frame#are#now#on#going#activities#
on#site.#The#research#and#development#building#will#be#completed#in#September#2016.#

Since#a#couple#of#months#ago,#the#crane#operators#have#been#working#a#lot#of#overtime#in#order#to#
stay#on#schedule.#MK29#and#MK30#have#high#running#costs#per#months,#so#adding#a#crane#operator#
on#overtime#(weekends#and#evenings)#will#increase#the#costs#to#a#new#level.#These#additional#costs#
have#rapidly#increased#the#total#cost#of#the#cranes#in#Phase#6.##

25#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#

#1600#000#$##
#1400#000#$##
#1200#000#$##
#1000#000#$##
#800#000#$##
#600#000#$## Budget#
#400#000#$## Cost#
#200#000#$##
#]###$##

March#

April#
December#

January#
November#

February#
2#012# 2#013#
#
Figure#5.7.#Budget#for#the#cranes#in#Phase#6#(Source:#Skanska#Health#Care)#

#
The# graph# above# shows# the# budget# for# the# cranes# in# Phase# 6# from# November# 2012# to# April# 2013.#
During# November# and# December# the# costs# were# within# the# budget.# Operations# Manager# for#
Commercial# and# Administration# in# Phase# 6# explains# that# the# costs# in# January# exceeded# the# budget#
due#to#the#late#erection#of#TK26#that#was#completed#in#January#instead#of#December.#Because#of#the#
change#in#the#schedule,#erection#costs#for#TK26#were#transferred#to#January#and#therefore#exceeded#
the#budget.#To#note#on#this#graph#is#that#in#February#and#March#the#costs#also#exceeded#the#budget.#
This#is#due#to#the#many#overtime#hours#carried#out#by#the#operators.##

Operations#Manager#for#the#Internal#and#Finishes#Fit#Out#in#Phase#6#explains#that#the#priority#now#is#
to#remove#the#mobile#cranes#from#site#as#soon#as#possible.#If#the#mobile#cranes#are#not#removed,#the#
cost# will# continue# to# increase# and# it# will# be# difficult# to# stay# within# budget.# The# cranes# monthly#
running#cost#combined#with#the#costs#for#the#four#crane#operators#exceeds#the#budget#and#must#be#
reduced.##

! Table&5.1&Relationship#between#the#costs#for#a#crane#operator#during#a#week#

Time& Relationship&between&
the&costs&
Weekdays& 1.0#
Weekdays&after&16.00&& 1.6#
Weekends& 1.9#
Source:#Skanska#Maskin#(2013)#

The# actual# hourly# rate# for# a# crane# operator# is# confidential# information.# In# stead# the# relationship#
between# the# costs# during# one# week# is# simulated# in# table# 5.1.# The# cost# for# one# hour# during# normal#
weekdays# is# 100# percent,# but# increases# during# overtime.# One# hours# work# carried# out# on# weekdays#
after# 16.00# is# 60# percent# more# expensive# than# a# normal# working# hour.# It# is# even# more# expensive#
during# the# weekends# where# the# cost# for# one# working# hour# increases# with# 90# percent.# The# crane#

26#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
operators#in#Phase#6#are#now#operating#from#07.00##19.00,#seven#days#a#week.#A#normal#cost#for#a#
crane# operator# is# 100# percent# per# month.# The# increased# amount# of# working# hours# and# high# costs#
during#overtime#has#resulted#in#an#increased#monthly#cost#to#approximately#260#percent.#

5.3.1 Time!studies!
The# results# gathered# from# the# time# studies# illustrate# the# efficiency# of# the# cranes# in# Phase# 6.# # The#
results#are#afterwards#used#to#support#the#decision#to#dismantle#mobile#crane#29#and#to#support#the#
decision# to# dismantle# mobile# crane# 30# earlier# than# originally# planned.# When# mobile# crane# 29# is#
dismantled,# a# new# time# study# will# be# performed# to# measure# the# efficiency# of# the# three# remaining#
cranes.##

The#results#from#time#studies#will#be#use#for:#

Support#the#decision#to#dismantle#mobile#crane#29##
Support#the#decision#to#dismantle#mobile#crane#30#earlier#than#originally#planned#

To#ease#data#collection,#a#time#study#chart#has#been#created.#The#four#cranes#in#Phase#6#were#parallel#
monitored#from#the#rooftop#of#the#garage#car#park,#north#of#the#Phase.#This#was#a#suitable#location#
since#the#observer#could#see#the#entire#Phase#and#all#the#four#cranes#at#the#same#time.#Notes#of#the#
cranes#activities#were#taken#with#an#interval#of#five#minutes.##

TK25
TK26 #
#

MK29 #

MK30 #

Figure%5.8.%View%over%Phase%6%taken%from%the%top%of%the%car%park.%Marked%cranes%in%the%figure%were%monitored.#
(Source%J.%Persson)#

27#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
The#crane#operators#work#in#shifts#from#07.00#to#19.00.#Thirty#minutes#break#is#at#09.00,#12.00#and#
15.00.#The#cranes#were#monitored#during#four#days:#

Wednesday#17th#of#April#between#9.30##15.00#
Thursday#18th#of#April#between#7.00#]#15.00##
Saturday#20th#of#April#between#7.00##14.00#
Monday#5th#of#May#between#7.00#]#15.00#(follow#up#time#study)#

The#cranes#were#monitored#for#a#total#of#28.5#hours#(included#breaks).#

The#results#from#the#time#studies#are#presented#in#the#bar#charts#below.#Each#bar#chart#represents#a#
time#line,#the#coloured#areas#represent#the#cranes#value#adding#activities#and#the#white#areas#
represent#non]value#adding#activity.#All#breaks#are#excluded#from#the#bar#charts#below#and#are#not#
included#in#the#statistics.##

& &

28#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#

Day&1,&Wednesday#17th#April#2013%

Monitoring&time:#09.30%%15.00%(Break%12.00%%12.30%excluded%in%bar%charts)&

TK25:#Efficiency#32#percent

#TK26:&Efficiency#42#percent#

#
MK29:#Efficiency#60#percent&

MK30:#Efficiency#25#percent

,
The,average,efficiency,of,the,four,cranes,on,Wednesday,17th,April,was,39,percent.,

&
Notes:&
TK25:, Between% 09.45% and% 11.15% TK25% was% mainly% utilized% for% moving% formwork% and% to%
prepare%for%inQsitu%concrete%pour.%In%the%afternoon%it%was%not%utilized%for%a%continuous%period%
of%three%hours.%During%the%observation%TK25%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%32%percent%of%
the%time.,
TK26:,Between%09.50%and%11.00%TK26%was%mainly%utilized%for%moving%formwork,%to%prepare%inQ
situ%concrete%pour%and%materials%such%as%reinforcement%on%site.%During%the%afternoon%it%was%
utilized%for%concreting%(concrete%scip).%Waiting%time%occurred%between%the%concrete%deliveries.%
During%the%observation%TK26%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%42%percent%of%the%time.,
MK29:% Between% 09.45% and% 11.25% MK29% was% utilized% to% load% a% truck% with% scaffolding.%
Afterwards%it%continued%with%moving%materials%and%equipment,%mainly%from%the%northwestQ%to%
the% southwest% corner% of% the% site.% During% the% afternoon% it% was% utilized% to% move% different%

29#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
materials% on% site,% mainly% reinforcement.% During% the% observation% MK29% was% used% for% value%
adding%activities%60%percent%of%the%time.,
MK30:%Was%not%utilized%until%10.35.%When%utilized%it%was%used%to%relocate%materials%such%as%
scaffolding% from% the% east% external% wall.% During% a% period% of% 2,5% hours% in% the% afternoon% the%
crane% was% inactive.% During% the% observation% MK30% was% used% for% value% adding% activities% 25%
percent%of%the%time.,

&

Day&2,&Thursday#18th#April#2013&&
Monitoring&time:#07.00%%15.00%(Breaks%09.00Q09.30%and%12.00%%12.30%excluded%in%bar%charts)&

TK25:#Efficiency#19#percent

TK26:#Efficiency#60#percent

MK29:#Efficiency#37#percent

MK30:#Efficiency#14#percent

,
The,average,efficiency,of,the,four,cranes,on,Thursday,18th,April,was,32,percent.#

&
Notes:&

TK25:, In% the% morning% TK25% was% mainly% utilized% for% moving% material% and% equipment% such% as%
formwork% to% prepare% for% inQsitu% concrete% pour.% This% continued% between% 10.10% and% 11.25%
where% the% crane% was% occasionally% used.% Afterwards% it% was% not% utilized% for% 2% hours% and% 40%

30#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
minutes.% Later% it% was% shortly% utilized% for% concreting% before% the% break% at% 15.00.% During% the%
observation%TK25%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%19%percent%of%the%time.,
TK26:, In% the% morning% TK26% was% mainly% utilized% for% moving% formwork% and% later% on% to% move%
containers,% reinforcement% and% a% work% basket% (11.00Q11.50).% During% the% afternoon% it% was%
mainly% utilized% for% inQsitu% concrete% pour% (concrete% scip% between% 13.50Q14.25).% During% the%
observation%TK26%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%60%percent%of%the%time.%,
MK29:%MK29%was%occasionally%utilized%during%the%day,%for%moving%equipment%and%materials%
such%as%reinforcement.%The%afternoon%usage%between%14.00Q14.35%consisted%of%carrying%a%
work%basket.%During%the%observation%MK29%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%37%percent%of%
the%time.%
MK30:%Was%only%utilized%for%20%minutes%before%the%12.00%lunch%break.%Afterwards%it%was%
utilized%for%a%few%short%periods%of%time%to%move%materials%and%equipment.%During%the%
observation%MK30%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%14%percent%of%the%time.%

Day&3,&Saturday#20th#April#2013&
Monitoring&time:#07.00%%14.00%(Breaks%09.00Q09.30%and%12.00%%12.30%excluded%in%bar%charts)&

TK25:#Efficiency#40#percent

TK26:#Efficiency#32#percent

MK29:#Efficiency#0#percent

MK30:#Efficiency#40#percent

,
The,average,efficiency,of,the,four,cranes,on,Saturday,20th,April,was,28,percent.,

31#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
*Please%note%the%noise%restrictions%on%the%building%site%during%the%weekends%before%09.00.%However,%
this%does%not%affect%the%use%of%tower%crane%with%some%operations.%
,

Notes:&

TK25:,In%the%morning%TK25%was%mainly%utilized%for%moving%waste%and%afterwards%continued%
with%lifting%machinery.%After%11.30%the%crane%was%inactive%for%the%rest%of%the%day.%During%the%
observation%TK25%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%40%percent%of%the%time.,
TK26:,In%the%morning%TK26%was%occasionally%active%moving%waste%containers.%Between%11.15%
and%11.50%and%between%13.33%and%15.50%it%was%utilized%to%unload%material%such%as%
reinforcement%from%delivery%trucks.%During%the%observation%TK26%was%used%for%value%adding%
activities%32%percent%of%the%time.%%
MK29:#Inactive%for%the%entire%day.#
MK30:%Was%utilized%frequently%for%moving%forms,%waste%and%equipment%on%site.%During%the%
observation%MK30%was%used%for%value%adding%activities%40%percent%of%the%time.%

Summary&of&the&time&studies&for&day&1&b&3&

! Table&5.2&Efficiency#of#the#cranes#in#percent#

Date& Monitoring&time& TK25& TK26& MK29& MK30&


Wednesday#17th#April# 9.30##15.00# 32# 42# 60# 25#
th
Thursday#18 #April# 7.00##15.00# 19# 60# 37# 14#
Saturday#20th#April# 7.00##14.00# 40# 32# 0# 40#
Average&efficiency&per&crane:& # 30& 44& 32& 26&
#

The#average#efficiency#for#each#crane#during#the#three#days#of#observation#is#respectively#30#percent,#
44#percent,#32#percent#and#26#percent.#The#crane#operation#efficiency#was#calculated#at#33#percent#
on#average#during#three#days.##

#
#

32#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
When#the#time#the#study#was#carried#out,#mobile#crane#29#was#dismantled.#A#follow]up#study#was#
done#on#the#three#remaining#cranes#to#investigate#the#efficiency#after#removing#mobile#crane#29.##
#
Followbup&time&study#

Day&4,&Monday#4th#May#2013&&

Monitoring&time:#07.00%%15.00%(Breaks%09.00Q09.30%and%12.00%%12.30%excluded%in%bar%charts)&

TK25:#Efficiency#52#percent

TK26:#Efficiency#60#percent

MK30:#Efficiency#21#percent

#
#

The,average,efficiency,of,the,four,cranes,on,Thursday,18th,April,was,34,percent.#

Notes:&

TK25:, In% the% morning% TK25% was% mainly% utilized% for% unloading% a% delivery% truck% until% 10.00.%
Afterwards%it%was%mainly%moving%forms%and%equipment%on%site.%Between%13.50%and%14.15%it%
was%utilized%for%unloading%a%delivery%truck.%During%the%observation%TK25%was%efficient%for%52%
percent%of%the%time.,
TK26:, In% the% morning% TK26% was% utilized% for% moving% materials% and% equipment% such% as%
containers% on% site.% Occasionally% it% also% moved% form% works.% Between% 10.30% and% 11.20% it% was%
utilized%for%loading%a%delivery%truck%with%scaffolding.%In%the%afternoon%it%was%moving%materials%
and%equipment%on%site.%During%the%observation%TK25%was%efficient%for%60%percent%of%the%time.,
Mobile& 30:& Was% only% utilized% before% the% 12.00% break.% In% the% morning% it% was% occasionally%
utilized%for%moving%formworks%and%equipment%on%site.## &

33#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
5.3.2 Observations!and!informal!interviews!
Interviews#have#been#conducted#with#personnel#involved#in#the#project;#Deputy#Logistic#Managers,#
Logistic#Managers,#Crane#Coordinators#and#the#Management#Team#in#Phase#6.#The#topics#discussed#
with#the#interviewees#are#presented#below.##

Logistics&at&the&NKSbproject##

Deputy# Logistic# Manager,# NKS# consider# the# major# logistic# challenge# is# the# constant# change# of# the#
building#site.#The#site#often#has#huge#variations#from#one#week#to#another,#depending#on#what#tasks#
are# being# carried# out.# Rearranged# roads/walkways# on# site,# relocated# cranes# and# all# of# the#
surrounding#factors#such#as#the#hospital#(Karolinska#Institute),#nearby#apartment#buildings#all#affects#
the# logistics# at# the# NKS]project.# When# the# site# changes,# the# Logistic# Team# have# to# cooperate# with#
Solna# City# Council# and# the# Karolinska# Institute# in# order# to# avoid# disturbance# of# the# hospital# and#
civilians.#

Unique#for#Phase#6#from#a#logistic#point#of#view#is,#according#to#Deputy#Logistic#Manager,#NKS,#that#
this#Phase#is#more#exposed#to#the#public#than#the#other#phases#in#the#NKS]project.#Along#one#side#of#
Phase# 6# runs# an# internal# delivery# road# to# the# NKS]project.# On# the# three# remaining# sides# are#
surrounded# by# public# roads# (Solnavgen,# entrance# to# parking# garage# and# ambulance# entrance# to#
Thorax)#(see#figure%5.5,%Crane%plan).#A#major#challenge#for#the#Phase#is#avoid#blocking#these#roads.#

The&LogNet&system&&

As# mentioned# in# chapter# 4.3,# the# LogNet# system# is# used# to# coordinate# the# deliveries.# According# to#
Deputy#Logistics#Manager,#the#NKS]building#site#would#be#crammed#if#this#booking#system#was#not#
used.#The#booking#system#also#affects#the#safety,#since#it#is#possible#to#plan#the#deliveries#routes#on#
site,#and#potential#accidents#when#reversing#out#onto#busy#roads#like#Solnavgen#can#be#avoided.#If#
reversing#out#onto#the#road#is#needed,#guards#will#stop#traffic#in#order#to#ensure#safety.#

Another# advantage# of# LogNet# is,# according# to# Deputy# Logistics# Manager,# that# the# statistical#
information#of#all#deliveries#that#can#be#retrieved.#Originally#the#Logistics#Team#at#NKS#thought#the#
deliveries#would#peak#at#Mondays#and#Tuesdays#during#a#normal#week.#But#statistics#from#the#NKS]
project# shows# a# balanced# distribution# of# deliveries# between# Monday# and# Thursday.# Statistics# also#
show#that#almost#70#percent#of#the#projects#daily#deliveries#occur#between#7]12.##

Data#from#LogNet#shows#that#Phase#6#had#about#25]35#deliveries#per#day#since#the#beginning#of#April#
2012.#The#low#amount#of#deliveries#does#not#reflect#the#reality#since#the#trade#contractor#Civils#does#
not#book#all#their#deliveries#into#the#system.#Until#mid#June#2013,#Civils#work#almost#alone#in#Phase#6,#
this#is#why#they#are#able#to#plan#their#deliveries#without#LogNet.#Later#in#June#2013,#additional#trade#
contractors# and# stakeholders# will# need# access# to# Phase# 6# and# at# this# point# it# will# be# beneficial# to#
utilize#LogNet#(Logistics#Manager#in#Phase#6,#NKS).##

Delivery#Coordinator#in#Phase#6,#considers#that#LogNet#serves#its#purpose#well.#He#explains#that#there#
are#many#unbooked#deliveries#still#at#this#stage,#because#they#cannot#be#booked#into#the#system.#An#
example# of# these# deliveries# can# be#service# vehicles# that# need# to# deliver# spare# parts# at# the# building#
site.# During# the# day# the# delivery# driver# is# to# make# many# different# drop# offs# and# can# therefore# not#
predict# the# exact# time# of# the# delivery# to# the# NKS]project.# These# deliveries# are# not# a# problem# since#
they#are#taken#care#by#the#Delivery#Coordinator.#

34#
#
5.3.#CASE#STUDY#
#
Delivery#Coordinator#in#Phase#6#confirms#what#was#told#by#Logistics#Manager#in#Phase#6,#that#it#will#
soon#become#important#for#the#Phase#to#use#LogNet.#Later#in#the#planning#program#when#the#precast#
frame#is#being#built,#many#deliveries#with#prefabricated#concrete#elements#will#occupy#the#unloading#
points# for# longer# periods# of# time.# Due# to# all# the# new# trade# contractors# the# delivery# points# will# be#
under# heavier# pressure,# because# of# the# increased# number# of# deliveries.# For# that# reason# LogNet# is#
needed# for# coordinating# all# the# deliveries# and# to# avoid# collisions.# Phase# 4# has# already# experienced#
this#stage#in#their#planning#program.#Logistics#Manager#in#Phase#4#explains#that#it#can#be#problematic#
when#unbooked#deliveries#arrive#unannounced#or#at#times#they#are#not#expected#to.#A#lesson#learned#
from# Phase# 4# is# to# refuse# unbooked# deliveries# entry# until# there# is# an# available# time# in# the# daily#
schedule.# If# deliveries# are# allowed# to# enter# the# site# without# being# booked# in# to# LogNet# it# will# be#
difficult# to# stay# on# schedule,# since# the# unbooked# deliveries# will# occupy# the# unloading# points.#
Advantages# for# Phase# 6# is# that# many# of# the# suppliers# delivering# materials# to# Phase# 6# have# been#
involved# in# the# other# phases# in# the# NKS]project# and# therefore# already# knows# LogNet# and# the# site#
rules.#

Logistics&directly&affecting&the&cranes&

Due# to# the# size# of# the# project# and# lack# of# space,# the# worker# cabins# in# Phase# 6# are# located# at# the#
opposite#side#of#the#NKS]project#area.#The#walking#distance#from#Phase#6#to#the#cabins#is#approx.#6#
minutes#]#one#way.#According#to#Phase#and#Logistics#Manager#at#NKS,#this#is#a#logistical#problem#since#
the#time#used#walking#there#and#back#could#be#used#for#value#adding#activities.#It#has#been#observed#
during# time# studies# that# crane# operators# and# workers# leave# the# building# site# 10]15# minutes# before#
the#actual#break#starts.#On#a#few#occasions#they#leave#more#than#15#minutes#before#the#actual#break.#
The# calculated# walking# time# during# one# day# for# four# crane# operators# in# Phase# 6# is# 3.2# hours# (6#
minutes#walking#distance,#3#breaks#and#starting/finishing#shift).#Phase#and#Logistics#Manager#at#NKS#
explains#that#this#is#a#problem#but#it#is#difficult#to#reduce#this#waste#due#to#the#size#of#the#project.#Not#
considered#are#the#additional#walking#time#for#all#the#slingers#and#banksmen8.&

It#has#been#observed#that#a#lack#of#planning#between#two#closely#placed#cranes#causes#waiting#time.#
When# a# crane# move# and# overlap# the# other# cranes# working# area,# the# anti# collision# system# will#
automatically# stop# them# to# collide.# To# avoid# the# cranes# from# stopping,# they# have# to# wait# for# the#
other#crane#to#be#clear#of#the#overlapping#area#in#order#to#complete#their#task.#With#better#planning#
and#coordination#the#waiting#time#can#be#minimized.##

According# to# Crane# Operators# at# the# NKS]project,# communication# is# poor# between# the# crane#
operator#in#the#cab#and#the#slinger#on#the#ground.#This#has#been#observed#in#other#phases#at#NKS,#
where# the# slingers# work# for# a# subcontractor.# The# crane# operator# above# ground# often# has# good#
visibility# of# the# site# and# can# therefore# easily# guide# the# slinger# and# workers# on# the# ground.#
Unfortunately,# this# information# is# not# fully# used# by# the# slingers# and# they# do# not# seek# the# crane#
operators#opinion.###

#############################################################
8
#Personnel#working#with#the#cranes#from#the#ground#

35#
#
6.1.#HOW#EFFICIENT#ARE#THE#CRANES#AT#NKS?#
#

6 ANALYSIS!!
This#chapter#summarises#and#analyses#the#results#based#on#gathered#data#and#informal#interviews#
from#chapter#4#and#5.##

6.1 How!efficient!are!the!cranes!at!NKS?!!
The#results#from#the#time#study#are#in#line#with#Phase#and#Logistics#Manager#at#NKS#statement;#that#
the#current#efficiency#of#the#cranes#is#not#optimal.#The#findings#from#the#time#study#clearly#illustrate#
that# the# cranes# in# Phase# 6# are# not# efficient# enough.# The# average# efficiency# of# the# three]day#
observation# is# respectively# 39# percent,# 32# percent# and# 28# percent.# According# to# Phase# Manager# in#
Phase#6#these#numbers#are#too#low#and#the#cranes#efficiency#needs#to#be#improved.#

! Table&5.2&Summary#of#the#time#studies,&efficiency#of#the#cranes#(in#percent)#

Date& TK25& TK26& MK29& MK30&


Wednesday#17th#April# 32# 42# 60# 25#
Thursday#18th#April# 19# 60# 37# 14#
Saturday#20th#April# 40# 32# 0# 40#
Average&efficiency&per&crane:& 30& 44& 32& 26&
#

An#interesting#side#note#is#that#MK29#was#not#utilized#for#an#entire#day#during#the#observations,#but#
the#average#efficiency#for#that#crane#is#still#high#compared#to#the#other#cranes.#As#seen#in#table#6.1,#
MK30#had#the#lowest#average#efficiency#(26#percent)#and#TK26#had#the#highest#average#efficiency#(44#
percent).#The#average#efficiency#for#each#crane#during#the#three#days#was#respectively#30#percent,#44#
percent,#32#percent#and#26#percent.##

The#crane#operation#efficiency#was#calculated#at#33#percent#on#average#during#three#days.##

When&is&a&crane&efficient?&

Operations#Manager#for#Internal#and#Finishes#in#Phase#6#explains#that#it#would#be#almost#impossible#
to#have#a#crane#running#at#100#percent#efficiency,#however#the#efficiency#should#be#higher#than#the#
results#presented#from#the#time#study.#The#Head#of#Planning#at#NKS#considers#that#an#efficient#tower#
crane# is# efficient# if# it# works# between# 60# to# 70# percent.# Phase# and# Logistics# Manager# at# NKS# states#
that# an% efficient% crane% is% efficient% if% you% cannot% get% it,# meaning# that# a# crane# is# efficient# when# for#
example#a#sub]contractor#needs#to#utilize#the#crane,#but#it#cannot#be#borrowed#since#it#is#occupied#by#
someone#else.###

6.2 Is!it!possible!to!improve!the!cranes!efficiency?!
As#described#in#the#introduction,#statistics#illustrate#that#approximately#10#percent#of#the#production#
costs# are# wasted# because# of# waiting# time# and# machinery# standing# still.# Both# Forsberg# (2008)# and#
Byggprocesstyrning# (2013)# explain# the# importance# of# measuring# activities# in# order# to# visualize#
problems#and#later#improve#them.#The#findings#from#chapter#5.3.1#(Time#Studies)#clearly#visualise#the#
problem#]#the#cranes#in#phase#6#are#not#efficient.#The#waste#has#now#been#identified#and#according#to#
AMA#(2013),#the#next#step#is#to#find#possibility#improvements.##

Possible#improvements#for#the#cranes#efficiency#can#be#many.#One#method#applied#in#this#analysis#
chapter#is#to#maximise#the#efficiency#of#the#tower#cranes,#since#they#have#greater#capacity#and#are#

36#
#
6.2.#IS#IT#POSSIBLE#TO#IMPROVE#THE#CRANES#EFFICIENCY?#
#
more# expensive,# they# should# therefore# be# utilized# as# much# as# possible.# When# maximising# the#
efficiency#of#the#tower#cranes,#the#mobile#cranes#will#be#available#for#other#tasks#and/or#the#cost#for#
the#crane#operator#can#be#saved.#The#ambition#is#to#minimise#the#tasks#for#the#mobile#cranes#in#order#
to#reduce#costs#for#the#crane#operators.##

Regardless# of# which# approach# is# chosen,# one# must# consider# the# unique# design# of# the# site.# The#
workers#in#Phase#6#are#dependent#on#the#cranes#since#it#is#almost#impossible#to#move#materials#and#
equipment#by#hand.#The#site#is#restricted#due#to#concrete#foundations,#so#moving#materials#by#hand#
is# not# an# option.# The# mobile# cranes# have# less# capacity# and# radius# than# the# tower# cranes# and# are#
therefore# used# for# smaller# tasks.# The# working# areas# for# the# four# cranes# must# also# be# taken# into#
consideration.#See#figure#5.5#for#the#cranes#working#areas.##

Important# to# note# is# that# the# working# area# for# TK25# includes# the# working# area# for# MK30.# All# work#
performed#by#MK30#can#therefore,#if#available#be#performed#by#TK25.##

The#figures#below#show#examples#of#how#the#work#performed#during#17th#and#18th#of#April#could#have#
been# planned# to# achieve# a# higher# efficiency# among# the# tower# cranes.# The# examples# are# based# on#
results# from# the# time# studies.# The# objective# is# to# easily# show# how# the# tasks# carried# out# these# days#
could# have# been# planned# more# efficiently.# The# cranes# working# areas# has# been# taken# into#
consideration.# The# different# work# tasks# have# also# been# taken# into# consideration# (from# notes# made#
during#the#time#study).#

Example&of&how&to&plan&work&performances,&Wednesday&17th&April&2013%

TK25:#Efficiency#68#percent#(earlier#32#percent)

TK26:#Efficiency#54#percent#(earlier#42#percent)

MK29:#Efficiency#36#percent#(earlier#60#percent)

37#
#
6.2.#IS#IT#POSSIBLE#TO#IMPROVE#THE#CRANES#EFFICIENCY?#
#
MK30:#Efficiency#0#percent#(earlier#25#percent)#

Comments:&

TK25:%The%efficiency%increases%from%32%percent%to%68%percent%due%to%more%tasks.,
TK26:,The%efficiency%increases%from%42%percent%to%54%percent%due%to%more%tasks.,
MK29:,The%efficiency%decreases%from%60%percent%to%36%percent.%The%cost%for%a%crane%operator%
can%be%reduced%to%half%the%day.,
MK30:,The%efficiency%decreases%from%25%percent%to%0%percent.%The%cost%for%the%crane%operator%
can%be%reduced%during%these%hours.,

Results:&

By#dividing#tasks#performed#by#the#two#mobile#cranes#onto#the#two#tower#cranes,#TK25#and#
TK26#will#increase#their#efficiency.#The#mobile#cranes#are#thereby#more#available#and/or#if#no#
more# tasks# to# perform# that# day,# the# cost# for# the# crane# operators# can# be# reduced# to# fewer#
hours.##
MK30#were#not#needed#the#17th#of#April#

Example&of&how&to&plan&work&performances,&Thursday&18th&April&2013&&

TK25:#Efficiency#32#percent#(earlier#19#percent)

&
TK26:#Efficiency#60#percent#(earlier#60#percent)

MK29:#Efficiency#37#percent#(earlier#37#percent)

38#
#
6.3.#IS#IT#POSSIBLE#TO#IMPROVE#THE#LOGISTICS#AFFECTING#THE#CRANES?#
#
MK30:#Efficiency#0#percent#(earlier#14#percent)

Comments:&

TK25:%The%efficiency%increases%from%19%percent%to%32%percent%due%to%more%tasks.,
TK26:,The%efficiency%remains%60%percent.,
MK29:,The%efficiency%remains%37%percent.,
MK30:,The%efficiency%decreases%from%14%percent%to%0%percent.%The%cost%for%the%crane%operator%
can%be%reduced%during%these%hours.,

Results:&

By#dividing#tasks#performed#by#MK30#onto#TK25#the#efficiency#for#TK25#will#increase.#MK30#
will# be# available# for# other# tasks# and# if# no# further# tasks# that# day,# the# cost# for# the# crane#
operators#can#be#reduced.#
MK30#were#not#needed#the#18th#of#April#
#

Summary&

The# examples# show# that# it# is# possible# to# plan# a# schedule# for# the# cranes# in# order# to# achieve# higher#
efficiency.#Therefore#the#high#costs#of#having#an#inactive#crane#operator#can#also#be#saved.##

6.3 Is!it!possible!to!improve!the!logistics!affecting!the!cranes?!
As# described# in# the# purpose# (See% chapter% 1.2)# the# cranes# are# a# vital# link# in# the# construction# chain;#
their# efficiency# depends# on# the# logistics# surrounding# them.# Aulanko# and# Tervo# (2010)# found#
similarities# in# their# research# about# harbour# cranes# where# the# total# efficiency# of# the# harbour#
depended#of#the#cooperation#between#the#personnel#working#in#vehicles#and#the#cranes.##

Currently#the#cranes#in#Phase#6#are#not#working#at#maximum#capacity.#This#is#not#due#to#an#over#all#
inefficiency#but#is#mainly#because#of#the#current#stage#of#the#Program#(see%Figure%5.6%%Program%in%
Phase%6).#Different#stages#during#the#construction#process#equal#different#operations#on#site#and#the#
operations# affect# the# cranes# efficiency.# When# the# time# study# was# done,# the# Phase# was# in# the#
concrete#substructure#stage#and#therefore#the#cranes#efficiency#is#low#due#to#tasks#such#as#moving#
materials# and# equipment.# Later# in# the# Program# in# Phase# 6# when# the# precast# frame# is# to# be#
constructed,# the# number# of# deliveries# will# increase# and# the# cranes# efficiency# should# in# theory#
increase.# In# order# for# that# to# be# possible,# the# crane# schedules# and# the# deliveries# must# be# well#
coordinated.##

To#improve#the#logistics#affecting#the#cranes,#it#would#be#wise#to#focus#on#the#crane#operators#work#
schedules.#Currently#the#entire#workforce,#including#the#crane#operators,#leave#the#site#during#their#
breaks#and#therefore#the#production#is#in#stand#still#mode#during#this#time.#If#the#work#shifts#were#to#
be#planned#differently,#the#personnel#could#for#example#be#divided#into#teams#replacing#each#other#

39#
#
6.4.#TIME#STUDIES#
#
at#the#breaks,#then#the#production#would#in#that#way#be#able#to#continue#during#breaks.#Please#note#
that# it# is# important# to# take# the# Swedish# Work# Environment# Authority# into# consideration# when#
changing#work#shifts#and#hours.##

Not#only#is#the#site#left#empty#during#the#breaks,#the#workforce#also#leaves#the#site#earlier#than#they#
are#supposed#to#during#their#break.#The#reason#for#this#is#that#the#worker#cabins#are#located#on#the#
opposite#side#of#NKS#away#from#Phase#6,#however#the#walking#time#should#not#exceed#6#minutes#]#
one#way.#Many#working#hours#are#daily#wasted#because#the#workforce#leaves#the#site#between#10#to#
15#minutes#before#their#break#starts#(based#on#observations).#This#affects#the#efficiency#of#the#cranes#
since#there#are#no#crane#operators#on#site#just#before#and#after#the#breaks.#The#Management#Team#in#
Phase#6#should#in#order#to#reduce#the#waste,# clarify#the#rules#and# invite#the#workforce#to#be#more#
accurate#regarding#their#breaks.##

6.4 Time!Studies!
The# results# from# the# time# studies# should# support# two# decisions# concerning# the# mobile# cranes# in#
Phase#6#(See#chapter#5.3.1#Time%studies).#The#two#decisions#to#be#made#are:#

Is#it#a#positive#decision#to#dismantle#MK29?#
Is#it#a#positive#decision#to#dismantle#MK30#earlier#than#originally#planned?##

The# results# from# the# time# studies# revealed# that# the# cranes# were# inefficient.# Even# if# MK29# had# the#
second#highest#average#efficiency#(32#percent),#it#is#still#far#too#low.#MK29#is#positioned#in#between#
the#TK25#and#TK26,#meaning#that#the#MK29#interferes#with#the#tower#cranes#work#and#vice#versa.#
Several# cranes# are# working# on# the# building# site# and# if# MK29# was# to# be# dismantled,# TK25# and# TK26#
could,#with#a#bit#of#planning#easily#perform#MK29s#work#in#this#area.#This#would#not#only#save#the#
costs#from#MK29,#but#also#increase#the#efficiency#of#TK25#and#TK26#and.#

For#these#reasons#the#researcher#recommends#Phase#6#to#dismantle#MK29.##

*MK29%was%dismantled%in%the%end%of%April%2013%after%the%researchers%time%studies%were%presented%for%
Skanska%Civils%and%the%Management%Team%in%Phase%6.%

On#the#4th#of#May#a#follow]up#time#study#was#done#on#the#three#remaining#cranes#(TK25,#TK26#and#
MK30).# The# results# showed# that# the# efficiency# had# increased# for# TK25# and# TK26# but# decreased# for#
MK30.# The# result# from# the# follow]up# time# study# was# carried# out# during# one# day,# it# is# therefore#
important#to#consider,#that#these#measurement#does#not#have#high#reliability#since#the#cranes#were#
not#monitored#sufficient#enough.##

The#researcher#recommends#the#Management#in#Phase#6#to#dismantle#MK30#earlier#than#originally#
planned#(end#of#May#2013)#since#it#is#not#efficient#enough.#The#work#carried#out#by#MK30#can#in#the#
future#be#done#by#TK25#and#with#better#planning#the#two#remaining#tower#cranes#will#reach#a#higher#
efficiency.##

# !

40#
#
7.1.#CONCLUSIONS#
#

7 CONCLUSIONS!AND!RECOMMENDATIONS!

7.1 Conclusions!!
The# results# from# the# time# studies# revealed# that# the# cranes# at# NKS# were# used# inefficiently.# By#
expanding#the#time#studies#with#observations#and#interviews,#it#was#clarified#that#the#inefficiency#was#
caused#by#several#different#factors.#Daily#planning#of#the#cranes#is#a#major#factor#causing#the#some#of#
the#inefficiency,#however#the#Program#in#Phase#6#also#plays#a#major#part#in#this.##

The#examples#from#chapter#6.2#on#how#to#improve#work#performances,#reveals#that#the#cranes#can#
be#utilized#differently#in#order#to#achieve#higher#efficiency.#When#planning#operational#schedules#for#
the# cranes,# the# different# challenges# must# be# considered;# the# unique# workplace# design,# the# cranes#
capacity# and# radius,# the# daily# tasks# and# what# deliveries# are# expected# on# that# specific# day.# When#
improving#the#efficiency#of#the#tower#cranes,#costs#such#as#the#mobile#cranes#crane#operator#can#be#
saved.#

Limitation# of# the# current# study# needs# to# be# discussed.# Methodologically,# the# follow]up# time# study#
was#only#carried#in#one#day;#therefore#an#insufficient#number#of#data#has#been#collected#and#this#will#
most# probably# influence# the# results# reliability.# Alternatively,# the# follow]up# time# study# should# have#
been#carried#out#for#additional#days#to#increase#the#reliability#of#the#results.#

The#statistical#method#Time#Study#is#a#suitable#method#for#collecting#data,#and#afterwards#creating#
an#overview#of#how#the#resources#are#being#used.#Carrying#out#time#studies#is#a#small#investment#
that#can#be#made#in#order#to#improve#profits.#To#enable#waste#reduction,#a#projects#Management#
Team#will#have#to#invest#in#the#possibility#for#personnel#to#identify#waste,#brainstorm#improvements#
and#implement#innovative#thinking#into#the#building#process.#Hopefully,#construction#companies#will#
in#the#near#future#focus#on#conducting#more#time#studies#to#identify#and#reducing#waste.##

7.2 Recommendations!!
What# Byggprocesstyrning# (2013)# and# Forsberg# (2008)# earlier# have# described# is# in# line# with# the#
researchers# recommendation.# Currently# huge# amounts# of# profit# are# being# wasted# within# the#
construction# industry;# therefore# the# construction# industry# should# improve# their# measuring# of#
activities#in#order#to#identify#and#reduce#waste.##

The#researcher#recommends#Skanska#and#the#Management#Team#in#Phase#6#to#monitor#productivity#
statistics# within# the# Phase.# The# researcher# also# recommends# the# Team# to# earmark# resources# for#
measuring# waste,# brainstorming# improvements# and# implementing# innovative# thinking# into# the#
building#process.##

Based#on#the#results#from#this#report#the#researcher#recommends#Skanska#and#Phase#6#to#dismantle#
MK29.#The#researcher#also#recommends#the#Phase#to#dismantle#MK30#since#it#was#had#the#highest#
inefficient#percentage#of#all#the#observed#cranes.#

To#improve#the#logistics#affecting#the#cranes,#the#researcher#recommends#the#Management#Team#in#
Phase#6#to#clarify#the#rules#and#invite#the#workforce#to#be#more#accurate#regarding#their#breaks,#in#
order#to#reduce#waste.#A#final#recommendation#to#reduce#waste#is#to#investigate#the#possibilities#to#
divide#the#crane#operators#into#different#teams#overlapping#each#other#during#the#breaks.##

41#
#
7.3.#RECOMMENDATIONS#FOR#FUTURE#RESEARCH#
#

7.3 Recommendations!for!Future!Research!
This# study# mainly# focused# on# the# cranes# efficiency# and# logistics# surrounding# the# cranes# and# from#
these#findings#new#research#questions#emerge.#Since#the#cranes#and#the#deliveries#represent#just#a#
small# part# of# the# entire# logistic# chain,# similar# time# studies# can# be# done# on# other# machinery# and/or#
equipment#used#in#the#production#in#order#to#identify#waste.#Such#studies#would#shed#further#light#
on#where#the#waste#is#hidden#within#the#logistic#chain.#Examples#of#future#research#can#be;#what#is#
the# efficiency# of# a# hoist,# what# is# the# efficiency# of# a# side# tractor# ]# and# can# their# efficiency# be#
improved?##

Future#studies#can#also#be#to#examine#actual#savings#from#improving#efficiency#of#the#tower#cranes.#
Since# these# figures# are# kept# confidential# within# Skanska,# they# were# not# taken# into# consideration# in#
this#study.#

42#
#
#

REFERENCES!
!
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#
Bell,#J.#(1993)#Introduktion%till%forskningsmetodik.#Lund#studentlitteratur.#

Bengtsson,#S.#(2012)#Europas#strsta#bygge.#Byggvrlden.%Published#2012]02]13.#Available#from:#
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Donghoon,#L.,#Kiyoung,#S.#and#Sunkuk,#K.#(2008)#Analysis%of%operation%efficiency%of%tower%crane%in%
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Ek,#M.#(2008)#Effektivisering%av%logistik%p%byggarbetsplatsen,%en%fallstudie%vid%NCC%construction%
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Forsberg,#A.#and#Saukkoriipi,#L.#(2007)%Measurement%of%waste%and%productivity%in%relation%to%LEAN%
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Fredriksson,#D.#and#hman,#E.#(2012)#Effective%internal%logistics%in%a%construction%project.#Kungliga#
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Ghauri,#P.#and#Grnhaug,#K.#(2010)#Research%methods%in%business%studies.#Pearson.#

Hindersson,#P.#Forskningsprojekt%som%ska%granska%myter.#Byggindustrin.#Published#2012]01]26.##
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Josephsson,#P.E.#and#Saukkoriipi,#L.#(2009)#31%rekommendationer%fr%kad%lnsamhet%i%byggnadet.#
Chalmers#Tekniska#Hgskola.#

Katranuschkov,#P.#(2012)#Optimizing%location%of%tower%cranes%on%construction%sites%through%GIS%and%
BIM%integration,#ITCON.#Published#September#2012.#
Available#from:#http://www.itcon.org/data/works/att/2012_23.content.06091.pdf##
[1#December#2012].

Leung,#A.#and#Tam,#C.M.#(1999)#Prediction%of%hoisting%time%for%tower%cranes%for%public%housing%
construction%in%Hong%Kong.#Construction#Management#and#Economics.#City#University#of#Hong#Kong.##
#
Lindh,#C.#(2004)#Logistik%och%Supply%chain%management.%Kungliga#tekniska#hgskolan.#

43#
#
#

Womack,#J.P.#and#Jones,#D.T.#(2013)#Lean%thinking%second%edition.%Simon#&#Schuster,#Inc.

Web&based&sources&

Aviation#Management#Associates,#AMA#(2013)##
Available#from:#http://www.avmgt.com/AMA/AMA_Six_Sigma.html##[20#April#2013].#

B.O#Tecnico#(2004)#Fretaget#som#erbjuder#tjnster#inom#produktionsteknik#och#produktionslogistik#
Available#from:#http://www.botecnico.se/Ordbesk/Frekvensstudier.htm#[15#February#2013].

Bygglogistik#(2012)##
Available#from:#http://www.bygglogistik.se/sv/tjaenster/logistikanalyser##[25#November#2012].

Byggprocesstyrning#(2013)#Available#from:#http://www.byggprocessmatning.se/effektivt]
byggande/verksamhetsutveckling/#[25#April#2013].

Ennova#(2013)##
Available#from:#http://ennova.com.au/blog/2011/09/agile]lean]compared]applied]construction##
[25#March#2013].#

Graduates#First#(2013)##
Available#from:#http://www.graduatesfirst.com/Interviews/Informal_Interviews.aspx##
[15#February#2013].#

IDG#(2012)#Nordens#strsta#IT]ntverk.##
Available#from:#http://bloggar.cio.idg.se/freddie/2012/08/27/blanda]inte]ihop]produktivitet]och]
effektivitet/#[26#March#2013].

Landstingsrevisorerna#(2010)#Stockholms#Lns#Landsting.##
Available#from:#http://www.sll.se/upload/Landstingsrevisorerna/Projektrapp_2010/Rapport_10]
2010_Offentlig%20privat%20samverkan%20NKS.pdf,#[2#March#2013].#

Lognet#(2012).#Available#from:#http://lognet.bygglogistik.se/nks#[20#November#2012].

Nationalencyklopedin#(2012a)#Effektivitet.##
Available#from:#http://www.ne.se/lang/effektivitet/159058#[14#December#2012].#

Nationalencyklopedin#(2012b)#Logistik.##
Available#from:#http://www.ne.se/logistik/244069#[25#November#2012].#

Nationalencyklopedin#(2013)#Produktivitet.##
Available#from:#http://www.ne.se.focus.lib.kth.se/kort/produktivitet/1453381#[25#March#2013].#

Nordisk#Produktivitet#(2013)#Frekvensstudier.##
Available#from:#http://nordiskproduktivitet.com/?id=53##[15#February#2013].#

44#
#
#

Ogrady#(2013)#Economic#and#Statistical#Analysis.#Available#from:##
http://www.ogrady.on.ca/Downloads/Papers/Productivity%20in%20the%20Construction%20Industr
y.pdf#[26#March#2013].#

Penn#State#(2002)#Collage#of#engineering.##
Available#from:#http://www2.ie.psu.edu/Freivalds/courses/ie327new/WORKSAMP.htm##
[28#November#2012].

Skanska#(2012a)#Our%targets.%%
Available#from:#http://www.skanska.co.uk/About]Skanska/Our]targets/#[9#December#2012].

Skanska#(2012b)#Our#history.##
Available#from:#http://www.skanska.co.uk/About]Skanska/Our]history/#[1#March#2013].#

Skanska#(2013a)#Nya%Karolinska%Solna.##
Available#from:#http://www.skanska.se/sv/Projekt/Projekt/?pid=7379##[2#March#2013].#

Skanska#(2013b)#Nya%Karolinska%Solna%Universitetssjukhus.##
Available#from:#http://www.skanska.se/sv/kampanjer/125/nya]karolinska]solna/#[1#March#2013].#

Skanska#(2013b)#Skanska%in%brief.##
Available#from:#http://www.group.skanska.com/en/About]us/Skanska]in]brief/#[1#March#2013].#

Skanska#(2013c)#Skanska%Maskin.##
Available#from:#http://www.skanska.se/sv/bygg]och]anlaggning/produkter]och]
maskiner/maskinuthyrning/##[26#March#2013].#

Stockholm#lns#landsting#(2013)#Nya%Karolinska%Solna.##
Available#from: http://www.nyakarolinskasolna.se/sv/#[2#March#2013].#

Wrye,#M.#(2011)#Beyond#Lean.##
Available#from#http://beyondlean.wordpress.com/2011/07/#[25#April#2013].

Verbal&sources&

Crane#Operator,#Skanska#NKS#Phase#5,#dialogue#July#2012#
#
Head#of#planning#at#Skanska#NKS,#dialogue#3rd#May#2013#
#
Deputy#Logistics#Managers#at#Skanska#NKS,#dialogue#2nd#May#2013#

Delivery#Coordinator#Skanska#NKS,#Phase#6,#dialogue#17th#April#2013#

Operations#Manager#for#Commercial#and#Administration#at#Skanska#NKS,#Phase#6,#dialogue#April#
2013#

Operations#Manager#for#Internal#and#Finishes#at#Skanska#NKS#Phase#6,#dialogue#April#2013#

Phase#and#Logistics#Manager#at#Skanska#NKS.#FCIOB,#dialogue#19th#November#2012#

45#
#
#

Logistics#Manager#at#Skanska#NKS#Phase#4,#dialogue#April#2013#
#
Logistics#Manager#at#Skanska#NKS#Phase#6,#dialogue#April#2013#
#
#
#
#
#
#

!
# !

46#
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APPENDIXES!!
Data# collection# from# the# time# studies,# basis# for# the# bar# charts.# Notes# of# the# cranes# activities# were#
taken#with#an#interval#of#five#minutes.#A#zero#represents#a#non]working#activity,#a#one#represents#a#
working#activity.##

Day$1,$17th$April Day$2,$18th$April Day$3,$20th$April


Start%Time End%Time TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% Start$Time End$Time TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% Start$Time End$Time TK25 TK26
09:30 09:35 0 0 0 0 07:00 07:05 0 0 0 0 07:00 07:05 0 0
09:35 09:40 0 0 0 0 07:50 07:10 0 0 0 0 07:05 07:10 1 1
09:40 09:45 0 0 0 0 07:10 07:15 0 0 0 0 07:10 07:15 1 0
09:45 09:50 1 0 1 0 07:15 07:20 0 0 1 0 07:15 07:20 1 0
09:50 09:55 1 1 1 0 07:20 07:25 0 0 1 0 07:20 07:25 0 0
09:55 10:00 1 1 1 0 07:25 07:30 0 1 0 0 07:25 07:30 1 1
10:00 10:05 1 1 1 0 07:30 07:35 0 0 0 0 07:30 07:35 0 1
10:50 10:10 1 1 1 0 07:35 07:40 0 0 0 0 07:35 07:40 0 1
10:10 10:15 1 0 1 0 07:40 07:45 0 0 0 0 07:40 07:45 1 1
10:15 10:20 1 1 1 0 07:45 07:50 0 1 0 0 07:45 07:50 1 0
10:20 10:25 1 1 1 0 07:50 07:55 0 1 0 1 07:50 07:55 1 0
10:25 10:30 1 1 1 0 07:55 08:00 0 1 0 1 07:55 00:00 1 0
10:30 10:35 1 0 1 0 08:00 08:05 0 1 0 1 08:00 08:05 1 0
10:35 10:40 1 1 1 0 08:05 08:10 1 1 0 1 08:05 08:10 1 0
10:40 10:45 1 1 1 1 08:10 08:15 1 0 0 0 08:10 08:15 1 0
10:45 10:50 1 1 1 1 08:15 08:20 1 0 0 0 08:15 08:20 1 0
10:50 10:55 1 1 1 1 08:20 08:25 1 1 1 0 08:20 08:25 0 0
10:55 11:00 1 1 1 1 08:25 08:30 1 0 0 0 08:25 08:30 1 0
11:00 11:05 1 0 1 1 08:30 08:35 1 0 0 0 08:30 08:35 1 0
11:50 11:10 1 0 1 1 08:35 08:40 0 1 1 0 08:35 08:40 0 0
11:10 11:15 1 0 1 1 08:40 08:45 0 0 1 0 08:40 08:45 0 0
11:15 11:20 1 0 1 1 08:45 08:50 0 0 0 0 08:45 08:50 0 0
11:20 11:25 0 0 1 1 08:50 08:55 0 0 0 0 08:50 08:55 0 0
11:25 11:30 0 0 1 1 08:55 09:00 0 0 0 0 08:55 09:00 0 0
11:30 11:35 0 0 0 1 Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break
11:35 11:40 0 0 0 1 09:30 09:35 0 0 0 0 09:30 09:35 0 0
11:40 11:45 0 0 0 1 09:35 09:40 0 0 0 0 09:35 09:40 0 0
11:45 11:50 0 0 0 1 09:40 09:45 0 0 0 0 09:40 09:45 0 0
11:50 11:55 0 0 0 0 09:45 09:50 0 0 0 0 09:45 09:50 0 0
11:55 12:00 0 0 0 0 09:50 09:55 0 0 1 0 09:50 09:55 1 1
Break Break Break Break Break Break 09:55 10:00 0 1 0 0 09:55 10:00 1 0
12:45 12:50 0 1 1 0 10:00 10:05 0 0 0 0 10:00 10:05 1 0
12:50 12:55 0 1 1 0 10:05 10:10 0 1 1 0 10:05 10:10 1 0
12:55 13:00 0 0 1 0 10:10 10:15 1 1 1 0 10:10 10:15 1 1
13:00 13:05 0 0 1 0 10:15 10:20 0 1 0 0 10:15 10:20 1 0
13:50 13:10 0 0 1 0 10:20 10:25 0 0 0 0 10:20 10:25 1 0
13:10 13:15 0 0 1 0 10:25 10:30 1 0 0 0 10:25 10:30 1 0
13:15 13:20 0 0 1 0 10:30 10:35 1 1 0 0 10:30 10:35 1 0
13:20 13:25 0 1 0 0 10:35 10:40 0 0 0 0 10:35 10:40 1 1
13:25 13:30 0 1 0 0 10:40 10:45 0 0 0 0 10:40 10:45 1 0
13:30 13:35 0 1 1 0 10:45 10:50 0 1 0 0 10:45 10:50 1 0
13:35 13:40 0 0 1 0 10:50 10:55 1 1 1 0 10:50 10:55 0 1
13:40 13:45 0 1 1 0 10:55 11:00 0 1 0 0 10:55 11:00 0 1
13:45 13:50 0 1 1 0 11:00 11:05 0 1 1 0 11:00 11:05 0 0
13:50 13:55 0 1 1 0 11:05 11:10 0 1 1 0 11:05 11:10 0 0
13:55 14:00 0 0 1 0 11:10 11:15 0 1 1 0 11:10 11:15 0 0
14:00 14:05 0 0 0 0 11:15 11:20 0 1 1 0 11:15 11:20 1 1
14:50 14:10 0 0 0 0 11:20 11:25 1 1 1 1 11:20 11:25 1 1
14:10 14:15 0 0 0 0 11:25 11:30 0 1 1 1 11:25 11:30 1 1
14:15 14:20 0 0 0 0 11:30 11:35 0 1 1 0 11:30 11:35 0 1
14:20 14:25 0 1 0 0 11:35 11:40 0 1 1 0 11:35 11:40 0 1
14:25 14:30 0 1 0 0 11:40 11:45 0 1 0 1 11:40 11:45 0 1
14:30 14:35 0 0 0 0 11:45 11:50 0 1 0 0 11:45 11:50 0 1
14:35 14:40 0 1 0 0 11:50 11:55 0 0 0 0 11:50 11:55 0 1
14:40 14:45 0 0 0 0 11:55 12:00 0 0 0 0 11:55 12:00 0 1
14:45 14:50 0 1 0 0 Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break
14:50 14:55 0 0 0 0 12:30 12:35 0 0 0 0 12:30 12:35 0 0
14:55 15:00 0 0 0 0 12:35 12:40 0 0 0 0 12:35 12:40 0 0
Summary TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% 12:40 12:45 0 0 0 0 12:40 12:45 0 0
Working 32% 42% 60% 25% 12:45 12:50 0 1 1 0 12:45 12:50 0 1
NonAWorking 68% 58% 40% 75% 12:50 12:55 0 1 0 0 12:50 12:55 0 0
12:55 13:00 0 1 0 0 12:55 13:00 0 0
13:00 13:05 0 1 1 0 13:00 13:05 0 0
13:05 13:10 0 1 1 0 13:05 13:10 0 0
13:10 13:15 0 1 0 1 13:10 13:15 0 0
13:15 13:20 0 1 0 1 13:15 13:20 0 0
13:20 13:25 0 1 1 1 13:20 13:25 0 0
13:25 13:30 0 1 1 1 13:25 13:30 0 0
13:30 13:35 0 1 0 0 13:30 13:35 0 0
13:35 13:40 0 1 1 0 13:35 13:40 0 1
13:40 13:45 0 1 0 0 13:40 13:45 0 1
13:45 13:50 0 1 0 0 13:45 13:50 0 1
13:50 13:55 0 1 0 0 13:50 13:55 0 0
13:55 14:00 0 1 0 0 13:55 14:00 0 0
14:00 14:05 0 1 1 1 Summary TK25 TK26
14:05 14:10 0 1 1 0 Working 40% 32%
14:10 14:15 0 1 1 0 NonAWorking 60% 68%
14:15 14:20 0 1 1 0
14:20 14:25 0 1 1 0
14:25 14:30 0 0 1 0
14:30 14:35 0 1 1 0
14:35 14:40 1 1 1 0
14:40 14:45 1 0 0 0
14:45 14:50 1 0 0 0
14:50 14:55 1 1 0 0
14:55 15:00 1 1 0 0
Summary TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30%
Working 19% 60% 37% 14%
NonAWorking 81% 40% 63% 86%

47#
#
#

l Day$3,$20th$April Day$4,$4th$May
e TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% Start$Time End$Time TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% Start$Time End$Time TK25 TK26 MK30%
5 0 0 0 0 07:00 07:05 0 0 0 0 07:00 07:05 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 07:05 07:10 1 1 0 0 07:50 07:10 0 1 0
5 0 0 0 0 07:10 07:15 1 0 0 0 07:10 07:15 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 07:15 07:20 1 0 0 0 07:15 07:20 0 0 0
5 0 0 1 0 07:20 07:25 0 0 0 0 07:20 07:25 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 07:25 07:30 1 1 0 1 07:25 07:30 1 1 0
5 0 0 0 0 07:30 07:35 0 1 0 1 07:30 07:35 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 07:35 07:40 0 1 0 1 07:35 07:40 1 1 0
5 0 0 0 0 07:40 07:45 1 1 0 0 07:40 07:45 1 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 07:45 07:50 1 0 0 1 07:45 07:50 1 1 1
5 0 1 0 1 07:50 07:55 1 0 0 0 07:50 07:55 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 1 07:55 00:00 1 0 0 0 07:55 08:00 1 1 1
5 0 1 0 1 08:00 08:05 1 0 0 0 08:00 08:05 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 08:05 08:10 1 0 0 0 08:05 08:10 1 1 0
5 1 0 0 0 08:10 08:15 1 0 0 0 08:10 08:15 1 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 08:15 08:20 1 0 0 0 08:15 08:20 1 0 0
5 1 1 1 0 08:20 08:25 0 0 0 0 08:20 08:25 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 08:25 08:30 1 0 0 1 08:25 08:30 1 0 0
5 1 0 0 0 08:30 08:35 1 0 0 1 08:30 08:35 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 08:35 08:40 0 0 0 0 08:35 08:40 1 0 0
5 0 0 1 0 08:40 08:45 0 0 0 0 08:40 08:45 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 08:45 08:50 0 0 0 0 08:45 08:50 1 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 08:50 08:55 0 0 0 0 08:50 08:55 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 08:55 09:00 0 0 0 0 08:55 09:00 0 0 0
ak Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break
5 0 0 0 0 09:30 09:35 0 0 0 0 09:30 09:35 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 09:35 09:40 0 0 0 1 09:35 09:40 1 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 09:40 09:45 0 0 0 1 09:40 09:45 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 09:45 09:50 0 0 0 1 09:45 09:50 1 1 1
5 0 0 1 0 09:50 09:55 1 1 0 1 09:50 09:55 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 09:55 10:00 1 0 0 1 09:55 10:00 1 1 0
5 0 0 0 0 10:00 10:05 1 0 0 1 10:00 10:05 0 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 10:05 10:10 1 0 0 1 10:05 10:10 0 1 0
5 1 1 1 0 10:10 10:15 1 1 0 1 10:10 10:15 0 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 10:15 10:20 1 0 0 1 10:15 10:20 1 1 1
5 0 0 0 0 10:20 10:25 1 0 0 1 10:20 10:25 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 10:25 10:30 1 0 0 1 10:25 10:30 0 1 1
5 1 1 0 0 10:30 10:35 1 0 0 1 10:30 10:35 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 10:35 10:40 1 1 0 1 10:35 10:40 1 1 1
5 0 0 0 0 10:40 10:45 1 0 0 1 10:40 10:45 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 10:45 10:50 1 0 0 0 10:45 10:50 1 1 1
5 1 1 1 0 10:50 10:55 0 1 0 0 10:50 10:55 1 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 10:55 11:00 0 1 0 1 10:55 11:00 1 1 1
5 0 1 1 0 11:00 11:05 0 0 0 1 11:00 11:05 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 11:05 11:10 0 0 0 0 11:05 11:10 0 1 0
5 0 1 1 0 11:10 11:15 0 0 0 0 11:10 11:15 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 11:15 11:20 1 1 0 1 11:15 11:20 1 1 0
5 1 1 1 1 11:20 11:25 1 1 0 0 11:20 11:25 0 1 0
0 0 1 1 1 11:25 11:30 1 1 0 1 11:25 11:30 0 1 0
5 0 1 1 0 11:30 11:35 0 1 0 1 11:30 11:35 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 11:35 11:40 0 1 0 0 11:35 11:40 0 0 0
5 0 1 0 1 11:40 11:45 0 1 0 0 11:40 11:45 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 11:45 11:50 0 1 0 0 11:45 11:50 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 11:50 11:55 0 1 0 0 11:50 11:55 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 11:55 12:00 0 1 0 0 11:55 12:00 0 0 0
ak Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break Break
5 0 0 0 0 12:30 12:35 0 0 0 0 12:30 12:35 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 12:35 12:40 0 0 0 0 12:35 12:40 0 0 0
5 0 0 0 0 12:40 12:45 0 0 0 0 12:40 12:45 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 12:45 12:50 0 1 0 0 12:45 12:50 0 0 0
5 0 1 0 0 12:50 12:55 0 0 0 0 12:50 12:55 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 12:55 13:00 0 0 0 0 12:55 13:00 0 1 0
5 0 1 1 0 13:00 13:05 0 0 0 0 13:00 13:05 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 13:05 13:10 0 0 0 1 13:05 13:10 1 1 0
5 0 1 0 1 13:10 13:15 0 0 0 1 13:10 13:15 1 1 0
0 0 1 0 1 13:15 13:20 0 0 0 1 13:15 13:20 1 1 0
5 0 1 1 1 13:20 13:25 0 0 0 0 13:20 13:25 0 1 0
0 0 1 1 1 13:25 13:30 0 0 0 0 13:25 13:30 0 1 0
5 0 1 0 0 13:30 13:35 0 0 0 1 13:30 13:35 0 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 13:35 13:40 0 1 0 0 13:35 13:40 0 1 0
5 0 1 0 0 13:40 13:45 0 1 0 0 13:40 13:45 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0 13:45 13:50 0 1 0 0 13:45 13:50 0 1 0
5 0 1 0 0 13:50 13:55 0 0 0 0 13:50 13:55 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 13:55 14:00 0 0 0 0 13:55 14:00 1 1 0
5 0 1 1 1 Summary TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% 14:00 14:05 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 Working 40% 32% 0% 40% 14:05 14:10 1 1 0
5 0 1 1 0 NonAWorking 60% 68% 100% 60% 14:10 14:15 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 14:15 14:20 0 1 0
5 0 1 1 0 14:20 14:25 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 14:25 14:30 0 1 0
5 0 1 1 0 14:30 14:35 1 1 0
0 1 1 1 0 14:35 14:40 1 1 0
5 1 0 0 0 14:40 14:45 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 14:45 14:50 0 0 0
5 1 1 0 0 14:50 14:55 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 14:55 15:00 0 0 0
y TK25 TK26 MK29 MK30% TK25 TK26 MK30%
19% 60% 37% 14% 52% 60% 21%
rking 81% 40% 63% 86% 48% 40% 79%

48#
#