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Journal of Thermal Stresses

ISSN: 0149-5739 (Print) 1521-074X (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uths20

PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS OF TRANSVERSELY


ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MEDIA

J. N. Sharma & Vinod Kumar

To cite this article: J. N. Sharma & Vinod Kumar (1997) PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS OF
TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MEDIA, Journal of Thermal Stresses, 20:5,
463-476, DOI: 10.1080/01495739708956113

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01495739708956113

Published online: 27 Apr 2007.

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PLANE STRAIN PROBLEMS OF TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC
THERMOELASTIC MEDIA

J.N.Sharma
Department of Mathematics
Regional Engineering College
Hamirpur, India
Vinod Kumar
Department ofPhysics
M.L.S.M. College
Mandi, India
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This article is aimed at investigatingthe plane strain problems in generalized theory of


thermoelasticity in a homogeneous, transversely isotropic medium by employing an
eigenvalue approach after applying the technique of Laplace and Fourier transforms.
An example of a half-space having a step input of temperature has been presented in
order to illustratethe application of the approach. The resultsfor coupled thermoelastic-
ity and in the case of homogeneous isotropic medium have also been deduced as
particular cases. The results obtained can be used for a broad class of problems in
generalized thermoelasticity. The integral transforms have been inverted numerically to
obtain the displacement, temperature, and stress fields in the physical domain. The
resultsfor these quantities are given and illustratedgraphically.

The thermoelastic potential technique has been used to solve most of the problems
of thermoelasticity [1, 2]. Bahar and Hetnarski [3], after discussing the disadvan-
tages of using the potential function approach, introduced the state-space approach
to solve one-dimensional problems in a homogeneous, isotropic medium using the
theory of coupled thermoelasticity. Bahar and Hetnarski [4] also presented a
connection between thermoelastic potential and the state-space approach. Das et
al. [5] discussed the one-dimensional problem in coupled thermoelasticity using an
eigenvalue approach. In [6] Saxena and Dhaliwal studied two-dimensional prob-
lems of axisymmetric and plane strain cases in coupled thermoelasticity employing
an eigenvalue approach. The two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain prob-
lems in homogeneous and isotropic media were previously investigated by Sharma
and Chand [7] using the theories of generalized thermoelasticity developed by Lord
and Shulman [8] as well as Green and Lindsay [9].
In this article we consider the two-dimensional plane strain problems in a
homogeneous transversely isotropic medium in the context of generalized theory of
anisotropic thermoelasticity developed by Dhaliwal and Sherief [10]. The corre-
sponding solutions have been obtained using the eigenvalue approach after em-

Received 13 May 1996; accepted 3 February 1997.


Address correspondence to Dr. J. N. Sharma, Department of Applied Sciences, Regional Engineer-
ing College, Hamirpur (H.P.}-l77OO5, India.

Journal of Thermal Stresses, 20:463-476,1997


Copyright 1997 Taylor & Francis
0149-5739/97 $12.00 + .00

463
464 .1. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

ploying an integral transform technique. The Fourier and Laplace transforms have
been inverted numerically to obtain the results in the physical domain.

BASIC EQUATIONS

The equations governing thermoelastic interactions in homogeneous anisotropic


solid as proposed by Dhaliwal and Sherief [10] are:

A. Strain-displacement relations

. . + uJ,l
erJ = (u l,J .. )/2 i,j = 1,2,3 (0
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B. Stress strain temperature relations

i,j,k,l= 1,2,3 (2)

C. Equation of motion

(3)

D. Energy equation

where C i j k l are the isothermal elastic parameters; fJij are the thermoelastic
couplings; Kij are the thermal conductivities; p, C" and TO are, respectively, the
density, the specific heat at constant strain, and thermal relaxation time; T is the
temperature change; (u!, u 2 , u 3 ) are the displacement components; eij are the
components of strain tensor; Sij are the components of stress tensor; To is the
initial temperature of the medium; F; are the components of the body force; and Q
is the heat source term. The comma notation is used for spatial derivatives and the
superposed dot is used for time differentiation. The parameters in Eqs.. (1) to (4)
are assumed to satisfy the conditions:

1. The thermal conductivity tensor Kij is symmetric and positive definite.


2. The thermoelastic coupling tensor fJij is nonsingular.
3. The specific heat C, at constant strain is positive.
4. The isothermal linear elasticities are positive-definite in the sense that
TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MEDIA 465

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SOLUTION

We consider a homogeneous transversely isotropic, thermally conducting elastic


medium at uniform absolute temperature To in the undisturbed state. We assume
that the medium is transversely isotropic in such a way that the planes of isotropy
are perpendicular to the z-axis, We take the origin on the plane surface and z-axis
normally into the half-space, which is thus represented by z ~ O. The disturbance is
caused by a thermal load that is applied on the rigidly fixed surface of the initially
undisturbed elastic solid (Figure 1). The load is applied along the y-axis, which
implies that the y-component of the displacement vector vanishes everywhere and
the remaining quantities are independent of the y-coordinate. We further assume
that the field quantities vanish as (x 2 + Z2)1/2 --> 00. In linear generalized theory of
thermoelasticity the fundamental equations (3) to (4) for such a medium in the
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absence of heat sources and body forces for the plane strain case are given by [10]

(6)

where

Cij are the isothermal elastic parameters; p, C t , and TO are, respectively, the
density, specific heat at constant strain, and the thermal relaxation time; K 3 , K I
and a 3 , al are thermal conductivities and thermal expansions along and perpen-
dicular to the axis of symmetry, respectively.
The initial and regularity conditions are given by

u(x, z,O) = 0 = u(x, z,O)

w(x, z.D) = 0 = w(x, z.O)

T(x,z,O)=o=t(x,z,O) for z z O, -oo<x<oo

and

u(x,z,t)=O

for t > owhen (x 2 + Z2)


1/2
w(x, z,t) = 0 = Tt x, z,t) --> 00
466 J. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

I
fill.
,I
I
I

,I

/ THERMAL LOA I)
RIGII)~Y FIXED SURFACE
_--=---:'!!l1~L.-_--_.x
.1=0

~710
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Figure 1. Geometry of the problem.

The boundary conditions on the surface z = 0 are given by


U(X,O,t)=O

W(X,O,t)=O

T(x,O,t)=O forlxl>a
T(x,O,t) = (JoH{t) for lxl s e

where ()o is a constant temperature and H(t) is the Heaviside unit step function.
We define the quantities
w*X w*z
x'=-- z'=-- t' = w*t
up up

T' = T/To

(9)
TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MEDIA 467

Using quantities (9) in Eqs. (6) to (8) we get on (suppressing the dashes)

The stresses in the dimensionless form become


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The initial and regularity conditions become

U=o=u w=O=w T=O=T for t = 0, z ~ 0, [x] < 00 (l3a)

and

U=o w=O T=O for t> when (X Z + zZ)


I/Z
---> 00 (13b)

The boundary conditions in the dimensionless form become

U(x,O,t)=o w(x,O,t)=O T(x,O,t)=H(t) for Ixl < 71


(l4)
T(x,O,O=O for lxl c- n

where T/=aw*lvp
Applying Laplace transform with respect to time defined by

(u(x,z,p),w(x,z,p), T(x,z,p)} = (u,w,T)exp( -pt)dt (l5)


o
and then Fourier transform with respect to x defined by

{a(q,z,p),w(q,z,p),T(q,z,p)} = r-'"
(U,w,T)exp(-iqx)dr (l6)

to Eqs. (10) to (12) and using conditions (l3a), we obtain

a" = [(qZ -pZ)a -iqc 3w' -iqTj/c z (17)

w" = [(czqZ + pZ)w + iqc 3a' + liT' IIC l (18)

Til = [(qZ + TpZ)T - iqETPJ + ETP13W'] Ii< (l9)


468 J. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

where 'T = 'To + P -I. The system of Eqs. (13) to (15) may be expressed as
U'Lq, z,p) =A(q,p)U(x, z,p) (20)
where

[~ ~]
0
U=[i:.] A = [J2 lJ 0= 0
0
iqc-;

W~ [~]
1 .
Al = - - - [ iqc;
c lc2k
0
0
0
'TP13 :] (21)
]
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A 2=---
1 [ q' + . p'
0
0
C2q2 + p2
-~
c 1c 2k . 2
-Iqup 0 q2 :'Tp2

[~ ~]
0
1= 1
0

The solution of Eq. (20) may be taken as


W(q,z,p) =X(q,p)exp(kz) (22)
Using Eq. (22) in Eq. (20), we get
A(q,p)W(q, z p) i = kW(q, z,p) (23)
which leads to the eigenvalue problem. The characteristic equation corresponding
to matrix A is given by
det(A - kl ) = 0, (24)
which on expansion provides us

(25)
where

.\2 = {K(q2 + p2)( C2q2 + p2) + (Pq2 +Jp 2)( q 2 + 'Tp2) (26)

+ 'Tp2 [ j32p2 + (cI - 2c] j3 + /3-2 )q2]) / KCIC2

.\]= (C2q 2 + p2)[(q2 + p2)(q2 + 'Tp2) + 'Tp2 q2]jKc IC2


TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC TIIERMOELASTIC MEDIA 469

(27)

The eigenvalues of the matrix A are the characteristic roots ki , i = 1,2,3, of Eq.
(25). We assume that real parts of k, are positive. The eigenvector X(p, q)
corresponding to the eigenvalue k can be determined by solving the homogeneous
equations

(A - kI)X(q,p) = 0 (28)

The set of eigenvectors Xj(q,p), i = 1,... ,6, may be obtained as

Xi(q,p) = [Xi1(q,P)]
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(29)
X;zCq,p)

where

k=k j , i = 1 , 2 , 3 (30)

j=i+3,k= -ki,i=1,2,3 (31)

and

a, = - 2+ (C3 - {3-) q 2- {3p


[C 2 {3k
j
- 21 /!:J.
b, = [(q2 + p2 - c 2k?)( C2q2 + p2 - clk?) + c;q 2kf] /!:J. (32)
!:J. = (c 1 -c3l3)kl- c2q2 _p2 i= 1,2,3

The solution of Eq. (20) is given by

3
W(q,z,p) = 1: (BjXj(q,p)exp(kjz) + B i + 3Xj + 3(q,p)exp( -kjz)} (33)
i= 1

where B, (i = 1, .. . ,6) are arbitrary constants. Thus Eq. (33) represents the solution
of the general problem in the plane strain case of generalized homogeneous
thermoelasticity by employing the eigenvalue approach and therefore can be
applied to a broad class of problems in the Laplace and Fourier transform
470 J. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

domains. Displacements and temperature that satisfy the regularity conditions


(13b) are given by

w(q, z, p) = - [B 4a 1k t expf -k1z) + B5a 2k 2 exp( -k 2z) + B6a 3k 3 exp( -k 3z)]


(35)

Using the boundary conditions (14), we get


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B 4 = 20 0 sin(aq)(a 3k3 - a2k2)/Toqp!::.0 (37)

B 5 = 20 0 sin(aq)(a 3k3 - a1k1)/Toq!::.0 (38)

B6 = 20 0 sin(aq)(a 2k 2 -atkt)/Toq!::.o (39)

where

The transformed stresses uxx ' uz z ' and uz z can be computed as

+ [a 2(c3 - c 2)k2 - iq 2 - b 21B5 expf -k;)

+ [a 3(c3 - c2) k 3 - iq2 - b31B6 exp( -k:), (40)

(41)

(42)

If we set

f3=1 K=1

then Eqs. (32) to (33) provide a i = 1 and b, = k;- q2 - p2, i = 1,2,3, and the above
results reduce to those obtained by Sharma and Chand [7] in the case of homoge-
TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC THERMOELASTIC MEDIA 471

neous isotropic thermoelastic media. The results in the context of coupled theory
of thermoelasticity can be obtained by setting 'To = 0 in the above analysis, and in
this case these results agree with those obtained by Saxena and Dhaliwal [6] in
dimensionless form.

INVERSION OF THE TRANSFORMS

To obtain the solution of the problem in the physical domain, we have to invert the
transforms in Eqs. (34) to (42). These expressions can be formally expressed as a
function of z and the parameters of the Fourier and Laplace transforms, q and p,
of the form !(q,z,p). First we invert the Fourier transform, which gives the
Laplace transforms expression lex, z, p) of the function f(x, z, t) as
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.
[t;x, z, p) = -
1 foo f(q,
. z,p)expCiqx) dq
27T _00

= -1 100 {Cos(qx)feA+ i sin(qx)foA} dq


7T 0
(43)

where t: and j;, denote the even and odd parts of the function !(q, z, p),
respectively, with respect to q. For fixed values of q, x, and z the function inside
braces in the last integral (43) can be considered as a Laplace transform g(p) of
some function get). The inversion formula for Laplace transform is

1 1C+ioo
get) = -. g(p)exp(pt)dp
27T1 C-ioo

where C is an arbitrary real number greater than all of the real parts of the
singularities of g(p). Taking p = C + iy, the above integral takes the form

exp(Cr ) 00
f(t) = 27T t)(C + iy )expCity) dy

Expanding the function h(t)=g(t)exp(-Ct) in a Fourier series in [O,2L], the


approximate formula [11] is given as

where

(44)
472 J. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

and
exp(C,)
CK = L Re[g(C + ik7rIL)exp(ik7rtIL) (45)

ED, the discretization error, can be made arbitrarily small by choosing C large
enough [11).
Since the infinite series in Eq. (44) can only be summed up to a finite number
of N terms, the approximate value of get) becomes

C '"
gN(t)=-i" + ECK foro:$t:$2L (46)
k=1
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Using this formula to evaluate get), we introduce a truncation error E T that must
be added to the discretization error to produce the total approximation error. The
"korrecktur" method is used to reduce the discretization error, and then the
e-algorithm is used to reduce the truncation error and hence to accelerate
convergence.
The korrecktur method formula to evaluate the function get) is

g(t) = g=(t) - g=(2L + t)exp( -2CL) + EiJ where IEiJl IEol [11)
Thus, the approximate value of get) becomes

gN,(t) = gN(t) - gN,(2L + t)exp( -2CL) (47)

where N' is an integer such that N' < N.


We shall now describe the e-algorithm that is used to accelerate the conver-
gence of the series in Eq. (46). Let N be an odd natural number, and let
Sm = LZ'_tCk be the sequence of partial sums of Eq. (46). We define the e-
sequence by

1
eO,m = 0 En + l, m En-l,m+l + ----- n,m = 1,2,3, ...
En,m+l- En,m

It can be shown [11) that the sequence e l 1, e3 1, ... , eN. I converges to get) +
ED - C o/2 faster than the sequence of partial sums Sm' m = 1,2,3, .... The actual
procedure used to invert the Laplace transforms consists of using Eq. (47) together
with the e-algorithm. The values of C and L are chosen according to the criteria
outlined by Honig and Hirdes [11).
The last step in the inversion process is to evaluate the integral (43). This was
done using Romberg integration with adaptive step size. This method uses the
results from successive refinements of the extended trapezoidal rule followed by
extrapolation of the results to the limit when the step size tends to zero. The
details can be found in Press et al. [12). The whole process of inversion has been
carried out on an Intel-486 Dx-2 66-MHz personal computer.
TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC THERMOElASTIC MEDIA 473

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The material chosen for the purpose of numerical evaluations was zinc. The
numerical data for a single crystal of zinc is given as [2)

e= 0.0221 C2 = .2385

C3 = 0.549

p = 7.14 X 10 3 Kgm ? w* = 5.01 X 1011 S-1

k = 1.0 i3 = 0.9 To = 0.02 7/=0.1


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The computations were carried out for four values of time, namely, t =
0.05,0.1,0.2,0.5 at z = 1.0. The numerical technique outlined above was used to
invert the iterated transforms in Eqs. (34) to (42) giving the displacement compo-
nents u, w; the temperature T; and the stress components uxx ' U xz ' and lTzz on the
surface z = 1.0.
The results for temperature and stress fields are shown in Figures 2 to 5,
respectively. From the figures it is observed that the horizontal stress, vertical
stress, and shear stress are negative and small for short times and increase in
magnitude with the passage of time. On the other hand, the temperature is positive
and comparatively large for short times and decreases in magnitude with the
passage of time. All these quantities vanish when we move a certain distance away
from the heat source for all times. This shows the existence of the wave front and
ascertains the fact that the generalized theory of thermoelasticity admits finite

14
-COUPLED
... lZ - - - \!IENERALIZED
~
..
0-
lD

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 7 1.&

Figure 2. Temperature change distribution.


474 J. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

--COUPL.ED
------- GENERALIZED
5

.,0
0 _...... -
'ii
~ -5
'"
-fO

-15
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-20

- 25 "--"'----_..1.-_--'-_----'-_----'_ _"'----_..1.-_--'-_----'-_--'-_
0.2 0.'1- 0.6 08 1.2 1.4 16 2
-----------~~:x:

Figure 3. Horizontal stress distribution.

_-COUPLED
Ij
------- GENERALIZED

....'0
x
..:l -5

-20 L--'-_--L._---L_ _' - - _ - ' - _ - ' - _ - - '_ _-'-_--L._----'_


0.2 0.4 06 0.8 1 18 2

Figure 4. Vertical stress distribution.


TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC TheRMOELASTIC MEDIA 475

---COUPLED
GENERALIZED
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04 0.6 z
,"
Figure 5. Shear stress distribution.

velocity of heat propagation. The effect of thermal relaxation time is observed to


be more prominent at short times, which establishes the fact that the "second
sound" effect is short lived. The shear stress effect is observed to be small as
compared to the other stresses in magnitude but changes from a negative to a
positive value with an increase in time.

REFERENCES

I. W. Nowacki, Thermoelasticity, Int. Ser Monographs in Aronautics and Astronautics, PWNPolish Sci.
Publ. Warsaw, Poland, 1962, pp. 295-320.
2. R. S. Dhaliwal and A. Singh, Dynamic Coupled Thermoelasricity, Hindustan Publ. Corp., New Delhi,
India, 1980.
3. L. Y. Bahar and R. B. Hetnarski, State Space Approach to Thermoelasticity, J. Thermal Stresses, vol.
I, pp. 135-145, 1978.
4. L. Y. Bahar and R. B. Hetnarski, Connection Between the Thermoelastic Potential and the State
Space Formulation of Elasticity, J. Thermal Stresses, vol. 2, pp. 283-290, 1979.
5. N. C. Das, S. N. Das, and B. Das, Eigenvalue Approach to Thermoelasticity, J. Thermal Stresses, vol.
6, pp. 35-43, 1983.
6. H. S. Saxena and R. S. Dhaliwal, Eigenvalue Approach to Coupled Thermoelasticity, J. Thermal
Stresses, vol. 13, pp. 161-175, 1990.
7. J. N. Sharma and D. Chand, On the Axisymmetric and Plane Strain Problems of Generalized
Thermoelasticity, Int. J. Engrg. Sci., vol. 30, pp. 223-230, 1992.
8. H. W. Lord and Y. Shulman, A Generalized Dynamical Theory of Thermoelasticity, J. Mech. Phys.
Solids, vol. 15, pp. 299-300, 1967.
476 J. N. SHARMA AND V. KUMAR

9. A. E. Green and K. A. Lindsay, Thermoelasticity, J. Elasticity, vol. 2, pp. 1-7, 1972.


10. R. S. Dhaliwal and H. H. Sherief, Generalized Thermoelasticity for Anisotropic Media, Quart. J.
Appl. Math., vol. 38, pp. 1-8, 1980.
II. G. Honig and U. Hirdes, A Method for the Numerical Inversion of the Laplace Transform, J.
Compo Appl. Math., vol. 10, pp. 113- 132, 1984.
12. Willian H. Press et aI., Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1992.
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