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GE Oil & Gas

Overspeed Detection Application Guide


3500/53 Electronic Overspeed Detection System or ADAPT 3701/55 Emergency Shutdown Device (ESD)

Bently Nevada* Asset Condition Monitoring


Table of Contents
1. Purpose2

2. Scope2

3. References2

4. Overspeed Fundamentals3

Function 3

The Overspeed Map 3

Independence 4

Redundancy 4

Target (Speed Wheel) location 4

Speed Sensors (Transducers) 5

Events per revolution (EPR) of the Speed Wheel 5

Non-Overspeed related components integrated into the ODS 5

Basic Application Integrity Assessment and Acknowledgement 6

Typical Speed Targets 7

Overspeed Target Design Guidelines for Proximiter Applications 7

Fundamental Dimensional Details 7

Number of Events per Revolutions 8

Target Material 8

5. Components of Overspeed Detection System (ODS)8

3500/53 ODS 8

3701/55 ESD 9

6. Overspeed Applications as a Function of SIL9

3500/53 ODS 9

3701/55 ESD 9

Appendix A 10

Appendix B 11

Appendix C 12

Appendix D 13

All drawings and diagrams contained herein were produced by GE and cannot be
reproduced or copied without GEs express consent. application guide
application guide

1 Purpose designed overspeed setpoint, major components of the turbine


wheel can break free of the rotor and potentially penetrate the
This best practices document contains recommendations and turbine casing causing significant damage to the turbine and driven
requirements for the selection and installation of GE's Bently equipment with the possibility of injuries to individuals.
Nevada* overspeed detection products. The words detection Note: The 3500/53 product has been included in this application guide to support our
and protection are not used interchangeably with respect to existing installed base where the 3500/53 product is in operation. The 3500/53 is no
overspeed systems. The distinction is important both in terms of longer available for new installations and 3701/55 ADAPT.ESD should be considered
for all Bently Nevada Overspeed Detection and Emergency Shutdown applications
understanding the primary purpose and function of each system, moving forward.
and in understanding the scope of responsibility assumed by the
suppliers of each system.
An Overspeed Protection System is the complete 2 Scope
electro-mechanical system (hydraulic-mechanical or electro- This document describes the fundamentals of an overspeed
pneumatic) that senses the onset of an overspeed condition protection system and how an overspeed detection device is
and automatically shuts the unit down by closing (or opening) applied as an integral part of the protection system.
valves, solenoids, and other devices necessary to bring the unit
GE's Bently Nevada product line includes two overspeed detection
to a safe halt.
devices, the 3500/53 ODS and the 3701/55 ESD, for overspeed

An Overspeed Detection System (ODS) is one part of the detection as part of an overspeed protection system. The overall
larger overspeed protection system. It is responsible only for performance of the protection system is dependent on all
sensing the onset of overspeed and providing a signal suitable components that comprise the system including the 3500/53 ODS
for triggering the rest of the overspeed protection system, or 3701/55 ESD systems.
which then removes energy from the machine and brings it to a
All of these components need to be incorporated into a working
safe halt. The ODS supplies this signal in the form of activation
system by a system integrator who is familiar with overspeed
of one or more electrical relays.
protection systems. The system integrator and the end user are
The 3500/53 Electronic Overspeed Detection System (3500/53 ODS) ultimately responsible for proper functioning of the overspeed
or ADAPT 3701/55 Emergency Shutdown Device (3701/55 ESD) are protection system.
designed to detect and output a relay actuation upon a machine
overspeed as part of an overall emergency overspeed protection
system. These recommendations and requirements apply to new, 3 References
as well as existing, machines targeted for retrofit installations. Bently Nevada, 3500/53 Specifications and Ordering Information Part
Note: 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 ESD will be used in this guide in place of the full Number 141539-01
description for brevity.
Bently Nevada, 3500/53 Operation Manual Part Number 134939
Bently Nevada 3500/53 ODS and 3701/55 ESD can be applied
to a wide variety of industrial machinery. Steam turbines, gas Bently Nevada, 3701/55 product Data Sheet 100M8833-01
turbines, hydro turbines, and turbo-expanders found in refinery, Bently Nevada, 3701/55 Operation Manual Part Number 100M8834-01
petrochemical, power, and process industries can use these
Application of Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process Industries,
products as part of their overspeed protection systems. If the
ANSI/ISA-84.01-1996, First Edition, The Instrumentation, Systems, and
governor overspeed trip protection system fails to function at the
Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC (1996)

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application guide
Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for ESD detect the onset of an overspeed event as a component of
Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services, API Standard 617, the emergency overspeed protection system. The emergency
Seventh Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. overspeed protection system is used in conjunction with the
(2002) standard speed governor or control system and cannot act as a
Electronic Overspeed Detection Systems, ORBIT magazine, Vol. 20 sole overspeed protection system. This stance is a change from the
No. 2, Second/Third Quarters 1999, pp. 44-45 earlier position that required that the 3500/53 ODS be one of two
backup safety systems. (For example, mechanical overspeed bolt
Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic
and the 3500/53 ODS system).
Safety-Related Systems, IEC 61508, Latest Edition, International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland (1998). The Overspeed Map
Functional Safety: Safety Instrumented Systems for the Process The time required to detect an overspeed condition and then
Sector,IEC 61511, Latest Edition, International Electrotechnical shut the machine down must be factored into the design of the
Commission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland (2003). overspeed protection system. As shown in the following figure,
Process Instrumentation and Control, API Recommended Practice the maximum speed reached by the machine is Nos, the Maximum
554, First Edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. Temporary Overshoot Speed. This speed must be less than the
(1995) yield speed of the machine and should be determined through
consultation with the machine OEM and consideration of relevant
Machinery Protection Systems, API Standard 670, latest edition, industry standards. To account for the time to detect an overspeed
American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (2000) condition and then execute the various steps necessary to trip the
Petroleum, Petrochemical, and Natural Gas Industries Steam unit, the Overspeed Trip Speed (Nost) is set at a lower level than Nos.
Turbines Special-purpose Applications, API Standard 612, latest Nost is generally set as low as possible to provide maximum time
edition, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C. (2003) for the overspeed protection system to respond, but without being
set so low that normal speed fluctuations about the machines
maximum continuous operating speed Nmc will trigger a false
4 Overspeed Fundamentals overspeed alarm and shutdown.
Function As an example, American Petroleum Institute Standard 612
The primary path for overspeed protection is typically the governor (pertains to Special-Purpose Steam Turbines) uses the following
or control system. A secondary or back-up system, usually called values:
the emergency overspeed protection system, is required to provide Nost is 10% above Nmc
an additional degree of protection should the primary overspeed Nos is 10% above Nost (i.e., 21% above Nmc).
system suffer a failure. An emergency overspeed protection
Thus, an overspeed protection system designed to comply with API
system is a fast-response back-up safety system that must act in
612 must begin to act when turbine speed reaches 110 percent of
addition to, and independently of, the primary machinery controls
maximum continuous operating speed and keep the machine from
mechanism. For this safety-critical application two independent
ever exceeding 121 percent of maximum continuous operating
paths for shutdown capable of responding to an overspeed event
speed.
must be in place. GE's Bently Nevada 3500/53 (ODS) or the 3701/55

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application guide

It is useful to think of the total time top required for the overspeed Redundancy
protection system to act as being composed of two parts: The
Emergency overspeed protection systems are designed to
detection time tod and the execution time toe where
assure that no single point failure within the system will cause
top = tod + toe. a false overspeed shutdown or a missed overspeed event. This
The detection time is the latency for the overspeed detection requirement is implemented in the 3500/53 ODS and 3701/55 ESD
system to detect the onset of overspeed conditions and generate where they act as a three-channel redundant safety system from
a shutdown signal; the execution time is the latency for the transducer input through to individual relay outputs. This mandates
remainder of the overspeed protection system to act on this signal. that each transducer input to the overspeed system must be
Table 1 summarizes typical values for top, tod, and toe along with a discrete transducer input providing speed information. An
some of the items that would normally contribute to these latencies overspeed input cannot be paralleled, jumpered, or buffered from
in a typical system consisting of a fully electronic overspeed one channel to another in the overspeed system.
detection system and an electro-hydraulic shutdown system. Bently Nevada overspeed detection systems provide three
As shown in the table, a typical application will require a total channels of independent speed monitoring and can be configured
overspeed protection system response time of between 140 and to provide either 2 out of 3 (2oo3), or triplicated 1 out of 1 (1oo1)
250 ms. ODS response time will generally be 50 ms or less (API 670 voting on alarming. With a 2oo3 voting scheme the alarm outputs
requires that ODS tachometers be capable of responding within 40 from each module are compared and two modules must agree
ms when an input signal of 300 Hz or greater is present). before a trip relay is driven. When configured for a triplicated 1oo1
voting scheme, each overspeed detection system channel acts
Independence
independently of the others to assess the overspeed condition of
The emergency overspeed system must be installed and operate the machine. In this configuration, the outputs from the system
such that it is independent from the primary machine speed may be voted externally by the system integrator or end user
controls. The transducer inputs to the 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 to achieve the desired trip response from the overall overspeed
ESD must be dedicated to that system, and cannot be paralleled, protection system. System alarm and fault indications must be
jumpered or buffered to or from additional input devices regardless processed and responded to in a timely manner as part of the
of the function of the device. Any speed signal outputs from the site-specific installation and work practices. Continuing to run for
emergency overspeed protection system that are shared (4-20mA extended periods of time with one or more overspeed detection
outputs, buffered outputs) are to be used strictly for information system channels faulted is highly discouraged, and can impact any
purposes only, and cannot serve in a safety or controls loop. It is system SIL certifications that may exist.
acceptable to use the buffered outputs or 4-20 mA outputs as a
supplemental indication of the emergency overspeed channel fault Target (Speed Wheel) Location
or removal from the system. This is considered acceptable, as this is The target must be directly attached to or be an integral part of the
an additional system diagnostic check rather than a fast-response driven section of the machine rotor. There must be no couplings or
safety system application or control function. Alternately, each gearboxes between the driver and the location of the transducers.
3701/55 processor module features a protection fault relay output Additionally, the target gear or speed feature cannot be located
that serves in this capacity. on a driven shaft, or gear driven by another gear located on the
machine rotor. Any coupling or driven gear between the driver and
the transducer location introduces a potential failure mode that can
leave the overspeed system blind to an overspeed event.

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application guide
Speed Sensors (Transducers) Events per Revolution (EPR) of the Speed Wheel
GE's Bently Nevada product line includes eddy current proximity The overspeed system allows from one to 255 (3500/53) or 1000
transducers and monitors that constitute an electronic overspeed (3701/55 ESD) events per revolution for the input to the overspeed
detection system. Such a detection system is one part of an system. While an overspeed safety system is fundamentally a
overall overspeed protection system. The items below are fast-response safety system, there is no set or defined minimum
issues that should be considered when applying eddy current EPR value that must be adhered to in order to achieve the required
proximity transducers in such an application. Typical probes for or worst case response time allowable for a given application. A
ODS applications are GE's Bently Nevada 3300XL 8 mm and 11 single event per revolution may be acceptable for an overspeed
mm proximity sensors; 3300 NSV proximity sensors. Other Bently application.
Nevada proximity probes can be used for ODS application with There is a fundamental delay associated with receiving speed
proper configuration of the 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 ESD systems. information from the notches/projections on the speed feature.
Bently Nevada 3500/53 ODS or 3701/55 ESD systems are also The delay results from the time that elapses between the
compatible with passive magnetic pickups (MPUs). transducer observing individual speed features, which provide
As a best practice, GE recommends using proximity probes as part speed information to the overspeed detection device. This tooth/
of the ODS. notch detection delay time is a component of the overall response
Advantages of proximity probes for ODS application: time of the overspeed detection system, which is dependent
on the variables of the specific application. This delay time can
Constant amplitude at any machine speed (the transducer
potentially be significant in relation to the typical 40 ms response
system provides information at all machine speeds)
time requirement established for many applications. Tooth/notch
Enhanced OK checking (upper and lower voltage limits can be detection delay is governed by the overspeed setpoint value and
checked to determine system health) the Events Per Revolution (EPR) for the application. For applications
Wider gap allowances (50 mil typical) that have higher overspeed setpoints, the response time for the
detection portion of the delay decreases because at higher speeds
Electrical gap function and amplitude checking
the time delay between pulses is smaller. Similarly, for applications
Ease of troubleshooting that feature greater numbers of speed events per revolution, the
Consistent Bently Nevada sensor between the ODS and the time to detection decreases. Again, this is because at a given speed,
position and vibration measurements. This offers a spares higher EPR values generate pulses separated by smaller time
advantage where all sensors can be made to be common intervals. Therefore, the minimum EPR required for an application is
Possible disadvantages of proximity probes for ODS set by the response time requirements specific to the application.
application: Any application that has an overspeed detection system danger
response time that is determined to be 40 ms or longer must be
Lower temperature range (as compared to some MPUs) reviewed and signed off by the GE Measurement & Control chief
Required place for Proximitor* Sensor (i.e. Prox. Box) engineer. . GE's Bently Nevada product line provides alarm delay
Minimum space requirements between each probe calculators which will determine the detection system response
time. The calculations include both the tooth/notch detection delay
Advantages of Passive Magnetic pickups (MPUs) for ODS
time as well as the internal system delay through to relay output.
application:
Widely available Non-Overspeed Related Components Integrated into
Higher available temperature range with some MPUs the ODS
Possible disadvantages of Passive Magnetic pickups for ODS To enhance reliability and availability of the overspeed safety
application: system, it is recommended that the overspeed system be placed
in a stand-alone rack containing no other monitors or modules.
No signal at low speeds However, it is permissible that other, non-overspeed monitors
Tighter gap requirements (10 to 30 mil) reside in the 3500 system with the overspeed system. The 3500/53
Variable amplitude with speed ODS is designed to operate in a 3500 rack chassis and co-exist
with any of the other monitors and modules offered as part of
No OK voltage limit checking
the 3500 product line. Additionally, it is permissible that multiple
No electrical gap function overspeed systems reside in the 3500 system if the correct rack
Potentially high signal swing about the zero-centered ground slot placements are used, and an appropriate Custom Products
plane at high speed modification is applied to the rack backplane. However, it should
be recognized that additional components that are not essential to
the overspeed detection system functionality introduce increased
complexity to the system. Complexity that is non-essential for

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application guide
support of the overspeed function may have a slight tendency to Gear Dimensions
reduce the availability of the safety function. The speed target width, and tooth/gap dimensions, such as
Basic Application Integrity Assessment and notch depth, are used to assess the transducer system response
to determine signal amplitude at idealized slow rotational
Acknowledgement
speed conditions. Less common speed targets, such as phone
For each overspeed system sales opportunity, an application review wheels, radial holes and dimples, and helical threads, can also be
must be conducted prior to providing a quote for the system. The evaluated.
application review concentrates on defining the signal integrity of
Signal Frequency
a proximity transducer system. To do this, the details of the speed
feature geometry (speed wheel) must be known, as well as details The speed signal input frequency is a function of the number
regarding the overspeed application such as transducer mounting of speed features on the target (teeth or notches) and the
location, overspeed trip setpoint, and non-ideal mechanical rotational velocity of the machine at the overspeed trip setpoint.
characteristics. An overspeed checklist worksheet is completed At extremely high input frequencies, the ability of the transducer
that requests all of the pertinent information. The collected data system to fully transition its voltage output from a tooth to
is input into an application review tool. The calculator generates a notch may be a consideration. While this is very seldom an
a conservative estimate of the signal strength at the overspeed issue in these applications, this factor is a consideration that is
trip setpoint, and provides an Approved/Review required status. evaluated.
For proposed non-standard overspeed applications that require Transducer Gap
additional assistance, an appropriate Field Applications Engineer
The gap that is established between the transducer and the
can be consulted for additional support. Once an application review
tooth or flat portion of the speed target can have a significant
has been conducted and approved, an acknowledgement of the
effect on the final signal amplitude from the transducer system.
successful review completion must be entered as part of the order
If the speed target is designed such that the transducer system
entry of the overspeed system. (See flow chart in Appendix D.)
cannot detect the bottom of a notch, the peak-to-peak (Pk-Pk)
Each 3500/53 or 3701/55 module accepts a transducer signal amplitude of the input signal is directly related to the probe
from a set of proximity probes or magnetic pickups. The proximity gap. The closer the probe is gapped to the target, the greater
transducer sensor viewing a gear will generate a complex signal. the Pk-Pk amplitude output from the system. The probe should
The signal may contain vibration and electrical runout components be gapped as closely as possible to the speed target without
in addition to the speed signal of interest in these applications. risking contact between the target and the probe tip under
Other signal variations could come from mechanical runout sources worst-case conditions, which would result in transducer damage.
such as inconsistencies in speed target characteristics. Normally GE recommends a probe gap of 0.75 to 1.0 mm (30 to 50 mils)
these components of the signal are small compared to the speed when using a 3300 XL 8mm Proximity Transducer System
component of the signal. However, when a machine approaches (approximately -6 Volts to -10 Volts).
overspeed there must be no doubt which component of the signal
Field Wiring Length
represents the speed of the gear.
Excessive field wiring lengths can have an effect on the input
Note that for passive magnetic pickup (MPU) applications, the
signal received at the monitoring system due to the tendency
signal qualities at the overspeed trip point cannot accurately
for the cable capacitance to attenuate the signal edges at higher
be determined. While application assessments for overspeed
frequencies. Typically, if cable lengths between the overspeed
systems interfaced with MPU transducers are still conducted,
monitor and the transducer are kept below 1000 feet (300
the signal amplitude at the point of overspeed is not estimated.
meters), the effects of the field wiring length are negligible.
This means that the details of the gear geometry are not used in
the assessment process in these cases. However, the amplitude Non-Ideal Operating Characteristics
and quality of the input signal at the overspeed trip point must be Non-ideal operating characteristics include sources of
confirmed during final system commissioning. mechanical runout. The three non-ideal characteristics
The amplitude and signal quality of a transducer signal produced addressed when predicting signal quality are the maximum Pk-Pk
by a proximity transducer system observing a speed wheel at radial vibration at the location of the speed target, maximum
overspeed is dependent upon the following factors: variation in tooth height, and maximum speed wheel non-
concentricity. If the values of non-ideal characteristics cannot be
determined, the application review assumes conservative worst-
case values of:
250 m (10 mils) Pk-Pk Radial Vibration
50 m (2 mils) Variation in Tooth Height
125 m (5 mils) Target Non-Concentricity

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application guide
Typical Speed Targets Helical Target for Radial Probe Location
Traditionally the speed target for an overspeed application utilizes
a notched wheel or true gear. In addition to these, there are other
common speed targets that can be encountered. A phone wheel
target utilizes holes drilled in the axial surface of a collar, which are
observed by a set of probes mounted axially over the track that the
holes rotate on. A helical target is a speed feature composed of one
or more coarse screw thread-like features machined around the
rotating shaft. In these applications, the speed probes are mounted
radially and observe the thread as it progresses down the shaft, as
seen by the probe once per rotation.
Overspeed Target Design Guidelines for Proximitor
Examples of the most common wheel types: Applications
Not a True Gear In the event that a new overspeed target is being developed, the
designer often looks for guidance regarding the parameters that
are critical to the reliable long-term performance of the detection
system. As is the case in most designs, there are few absolutes that
must be adhered to, but rather a set of considerations that should
be worked into the overall design that will help ensure success.

Fundamental Dimensional Details


Phone Wheel for Axial Probe Location The dimensional details are key in the successful specification of a
speed target. The following figure illustrates the basic dimensional
guidelines for a speed wheel. These dimensions assume a 3300XL
8mm proximity transducer system application. The minimum
recommended tooth and notch details are shown in the following
diagram.

True Gear

The A dimension guideline assumes that no axial shift in the


position of the target relative to the probes occurs during machine
operation over its entire speed range, including overspeed. If
Keyway Notch Wheel axial shift is expected to occur, the relative axial shift must be
considered, and used to increase the A dimension so that the
target is not lost or partially lost as it shifts under the probe set
across all the different machine running conditions.
For applications other than those that use the 3300XL 8mm, the
minimum target dimension requirements for the chosen transducer
system would be used to establish the A, C, and D dimensions. The
B dimension would be defined by the linear range of the transducer
system. This dimension should be greater than the linear range
minus the typical gap for the chosen transducer system. This
causes the transducers to be unable to sense the bottom of the
notch feature resulting in the transducer system providing a Pk-Pk
signal which has the maximum negative peak value possible.

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application guide
Number of Events per Revolutions (EPR) will cause either a missed overspeed alarm or a false machine
shutdown. The 3701/55 ESD can only be applied as a three-channel
Overspeed detection system applications are designed such
system using three independent inputs. Redundant power supplies
that the response time of the system is minimized. The primary
are required for any 3500 rack containing a 3500/53 ODS and
controllable variable that allows this is the EPR (the number of
redundant power inputs are required for all 3701/55 ESD systems.
speed features on the target) of the application. Speed is measured
by calculating the time interval between consecutive speed
pulses. For a given machine speed setpoint, the response time of
the system is limited by the time interval between the pulses. As
3500/53 ODS
the trip speed decreases, the EPR for the application may need to When a 2oo3 voted 3500/53 ODS suffers a fault the three-channel
increase to keep the time interval between the events received overspeed detection system will revert from a 2oo3 voting scheme
by the overspeed detection system short, and by extension, to a 1oo2 scheme in the event of a single channel failure. If the
the response time of the detection system fast. The detection overspeed detection system is further degraded by an additional
system has a fundamental internal signal processing speed of the channel failure, the system may either be configured such that the
overspeed card itself. For a given trip setpoint, there is a minimum second fault causes a trip indication, or that the machine is allowed
number of events per revolution below which the time interval to run as long as the remaining channel is determined to be healthy.
between consecutive pulses becomes too long so more events per Overspeed detection system alarms and faults are annunciated for
turn are required. For lower speed applications or applications that all channels to indicate that the overspeed detection system has
will also use the target for low speed measurements, such as Zero been degraded and the cause of the fault should be corrected as
Speed and Reverse Rotation, resolution may be an issue. soon as possible.

To assess the response time of a specific combination of overspeed A two-channel 3500/53 ODS is available which provides two
setpoint and EPR, system response time calculations are available channels of independent speed monitoring and provides either 1
to assist in the design. For the 3500 system, the calculator can be out of 2 (1oo2), or redundant 1 out of 1 (1oo1) voting on alarming. In
found in the configuration screens for the overspeed system in the the event that the voted 1oo2 system experiences a single channel
3500 Rack Configuration Software. The equivalent calculator for failure, the system can be configured by the system integrator
the 3701/55 system is a simple formula that can be found in the or end user to either degrade to a 1oo1 system or generate a trip
product documentation. condition.
The 3500/53 ODS provides its own set of relays that are exclusively
Target Material designed to support the overspeed protection function. The normal
If the choice of the target material is a design parameter that must 3500 system relay modules, 3500/32M, and the 3500/33 relay
be addressed, most often the material should be ANSI 4140 as modules, are not required and they must not serve as part of the
this is the standard material to which Bently Nevada Proximitor overspeed detection system. However, it is acceptable that the
sensors are calibrated. Additionally, this material is widely available. system relay modules be used as an ancillary indication of alarm,
In cases where the machine has shaft material chemistry other overspeed, and Not OK, as long as these relay outputs are not used
than ANSI 4140, such that the vibration and position transducers as part of the protection function.
being applied are custom calibrated, consideration may be given to
The overspeed detection system includes the 3500 rack, 3500
making the target material consistent. This approach may facilitate
power supplies, Transient Data Interface Module, and three (or
the use of a common custom calibrated transducer system which
two) separate 3500/53 overspeed detection modules with three
will simplify the site spares. There are cases where the material
(or two) separate dedicated transducer inputs. Surge protection
chemistry is not known or the material is something other than
for 3500 AC power supplies is required in those systems that must
ANSI 4140, and a standard proximity transducer system may be
meet Machinery Directive requirements. A stand-alone ODS is
applied for overspeed. In these cases the standard transducers are
the recommended best practice as well as is recommended by
acceptable only if the working scale factor of the transducer/target
API 670. However, the 3500/53 ODS is designed to operate in a
can be positively determined, and the impact does not significantly
3500 rack chassis and co-exist with any of the other monitors and
reduce the Pk-Pk amplitude output.
modules offered as part of the 3500 product line. Additionally, it
is permissible that multiple overspeed detection systems reside
5 Components of Overspeed Detection in the 3500 ODS, if the correct rack slot placements are used
and an appropriate Custom Products modification is applied to
System (ODS) the rack backplane. However, as previously discussed, additional
The 3500/53 ODS can be applied as either a two-channel or three- components that do not support the safety function can potentially
channel system. GE strongly recommends the use of a three- introduce additional failure modes that have the ability to affect the
channel overspeed detection system. A three-channel overspeed overspeed detection function.
detection system can be configured so that no single point failure

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application guide
3701/55 ESD Redundant power supplies are required
Three (3) module systems only
The 3701/55 ESD system is a stand-alone overspeed detection/
emergency shutdown system featuring three monitor-relay module All three monitors in the system must be located adjacent to
sets. The system offers 1oo1 or 2oo3 voted functionality with one another. Due to inter-module communications (IMC) on the
the degradation response upon a channel failure of a 2oo3 voted backplane
3701/55 ESD depending on its specific trip logic configuration. The Inter-module comparison enabled
configuration software allows the user to configure combinations
Not OK voting set to OR Channel not OK voting
of logic blocks to manage the system trip logic. This logic dictates
with overspeed voting
how the trip mechanisms for the system are driven. Using the most
basic, directly-connected trip logic between the overspeed alarm CE Mark required
and the 2oo3 voted relay, the system degrades to a 2oo2 scheme in Agency approvals required
the event of the first fault and an unprotected state in the event of
Only 3300XL 8 mm, Proximitor sensors and certain magnetic
a second fault (2oo3 2oo2 unprotected).
pickups (AIRPAX part number 70085-1010-XXX) are allowed
This voting configuration can be augmented through OR voting
For hazardous area certifications, reference current FS Mark
the basic channel trip logic with the channel Not OK to yield
certificate for a list of intrinsically safe barriers allowed for use in
(2oo3 1oo2 trip).
a Functional Safety System
With the 3701/55 ESD, it is not readily possible to achieve the
Only Normally Energized relays are allowed for use
traditional 2oo3 degradation response (2oo3 1oo2 1oo1 trip)
that is available in with the 3500/53 ODS design.
CAUTION: Due to the extremely open and unrestricted configurability 3701/55 ESD
of the 3701/55 ESD, it is imperative that the specific logic configuration When used in a safety shutdown system for the purposes of
of the system trip function be completely understood, documented, Functional Safety, the 3701/55 ESD system, as certified by Exida,
and tested. Thorough validation is necessary to be certain that the must comply with certain installation requirements as outlined
system responds as desired to all possible input scenarios under all below:
machinery operational conditions.
Each signal input source must have a dedicated sensor
The system features a normally energized 5th relay in each relay
Redundant power supplies are required
module that serves as a protection fault relay which de-energizes
upon detection that the protection function for the channel Redundant relays must be used
(transducer input, monitor and relay) has been compromised. The All monitors in the system must have identical configurations
output of this relay must be made visible to the end user operator
Relays must be set for de-energize to trip (normally active)
so that corrective action can be initiated upon the detection
of a fault. Monitor configuration must be validated prior to system being
placed in the safety function to ensure proper operation
Before attempting to update any firmware for a certified system,
6 Overspeed Applications as verify that the new firmware revision is included in the latest
a Function of SIL Functional Safety Certificate. Do not download a firmware
version that is not listed in the certificate
A complete validation test must be performed whenever a new
3500/53 ODS configuration is downloaded to certified systems
When used in a safety shutdown system for the purposes of A complete validation test (proof test) must be performed at
Functional Safety, the 3500/53 ODS, as certified by TUV Rheinland, least every 12 months
is restricted in its available configurations. Additionally, the
certificate is contingent upon certain requirements of use as
indicated below (the 3500/53M ODS is not SIL capable):
3500/53 ODS is required
Dependent voting
Installation or onsite audit performed by GE personnel
Discrete configuration only
(each monitor channel has dedicated transducers)

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Appendix A
3500 Overspeed System Quick Reference Application Guideline

Function Acts as a safety backup system


Independence Independent from the primary machine speed controls
Redundancy Discrete XDCR input per channel
Target Location Target must be directly attached to or be an integral part of the driven section of the machine rotor
Events per Revolution (EPR) of the Speed Target System allows for 1 to 255 EPR 1 EPR is acceptable. Minimum EPR is a function of
multiple parameters
Monitor and Other Non-Overspeed Related Components in the 3500 Rack Other functions may co-exist in the rack. A stand-alone
ODS is the recommended best practice
Basic Application Integrity Assessment and Acknowledgement Basic application parameters must be reviewed prior to sale
Scope of Overspeed Applications with GE Machines If applied to a GE machine must be a three-channel system and GE must supply
the full scope protection system
Consideration for SIL-rated Overspeed Applications SIL-rated systems have special application restrictions (configuration)

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Appendix B
Overspeed Detection System Check List

Answer all questions and submit to Custom Products for review and approval prior to quoting or ordering.

Customer _________________________________________________________ Customer Profile? OEM End User Other __________________


End User _________________________________________________________ End User Country _________ System Integrator ____________

Monitor? 3701/55 3500/53


Are there multiple overspeed systems in a single rack (3500/53)? NO YES, positions__________________

Have you established a high degree of comfort with this application? YES NO
Have you reviewed the specifications with the customer? YES NO
Machine type? Steam Turbine Gas Turbine Turbo Expander Other __________________
Manufacturer______________________________________________________ Model # ________________ Power _________
Rated speed _______________________________________________________ Overspeed Trip Speed in RPMs ____________

Driven machine type? Compressor Generator Other __________________


Transducer type? Magnetic 3300XL 3300 (non-XL) NSV Other __________________
Transducer location? Gear on turbine shaft on driver side of coupling Other __________________
Are the overspeed system and the governor using separate transducers? YES NO
How many transducers are being used to monitor overspeed?* _________
*For 3500/53 applications, the minimum number of transducers recommended to monitor overspeed is two. Three 3500/53 monitors with
three different transducers is strongly recommended (see 3500/53 manual for more details).
*For 3701/55 applications, three transducers must be used.

If the observed wheel is not AISI 4140 Steel, please supply the material of the wheel: ______
Events per revolution** ________
The observed wheel is a true gear; it is designed to turn The observed wheel is not a true gear; it is a toothed wheel
another gear. designed for a magnetic pickup or proximity probe.
Dimensions?** Dimensions?**
A=_______ A=_______
B=_______ B=_______
C=_______ C=_______
D=_______ D=_______
Diameter=_______ Diameter=_______

**If the tooth dimensions are smaller than those shown in the figures, or if the wheel center line peak-to-peak radial vibration exceeds 1/4
of the tooth depth or if (Events Per Rev.) x (Overspeed Trip Speed in RPMs) > 180000 then answer the following questions:
Maximum peak-to-peak radial vibration of the toothed wheel__________________________________
Maximum variation in the tooth height (dimension B)__________________________________________
Maximum runout of the wheel due to non-concentricity________________________________________
Cable length between the transducer and the monitor if greater than 300 meters _______________
Has the output of the transducer viewing the toothed wheel been measured? ____ Volts peak-to-peak

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Appendix C
Turbine Overspeed Protection System Overview

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Appendix D
Overspeed Detection System Sales Flowchart

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application guide

2015 General Electric Company. All rights reserved. Information


provided is subject to change without notice.
*Denotes a trademark of Bently Nevada, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of
1631 Bently Parkway South General Electric Company. The GE brand, GE logo, Bently Nevada, System
Minden, Nevada USA 89423 1, Keyphasor, Proximitor, Velomitor, RulePaks, Bently PERFORMANCE SE,
Phone: 775.782.3611 and SmartSignal are registered trademarks of General Electric Company.
Fax: 775.215.2873 AIRPAX, TUV, and EXIDA are a trademarks of their respective companies.
www.ge-msc.com/bently GEA32294 (12/2015)

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