Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

4.

23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies


(UPS and UVS)
S. P. JACKSON (1970, 1985) B. G. LIPTK (1995, 2005)

Types: The energy source of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) can be batteries or
engines. In uninterruptible voltage sources (UVS), capacitors allow the system to
ride through an outage of several cycles.

Costs: A UVS rated for 1500 VA costs around $2500. A UPS rated for 3 KW costs about
$7500. For the costs of batteries, alternators, chargers, and inverters, refer to the
Figures in the System Components paragraph of this section.

Partial List of Suppliers: Acopian (www.acopian.com)


Constant Power Manufacturing (www.constantpowermfg.com)
Desert Microsystems Inc. (www.desertmicrosys.com)
EnerSys Inc. (www.enersysinc.com)
Foxboro-Invensys (www.foxboro.com)
Franek Technologies Inc. (www.franek-tech.com)
GE Fanuc Automation (www.gefanuc.com)
Graybar Electric Co. (www.graybar.com)
Ice Qube Inc. (www.iceqube.com)
ITS Enclosures (www.itsenclosures.com)
Kontron (www.kontron.com)
Leviton Manufacturing Co. (www.leviton.com)
MGE UPS Systems (www.mgeups.com)
Omron Electronics Inc. (www.omron.com/oei)
Phoenix Contact Inc. (www.phoenixcon.com)
Phonetics Inc. (www.sensaphone.com)
Quest Inc. (www.questinc.com)
Rice Lake Weighing System (www.rlws.com)
SatCon Power Systems (www.satcon.com)
Schneider Electric/Square D (www.squared.com)
Sola/Hevi-Duty (www.solaheviduty.com)
Superior Electric (www.superiorelectric.com)
Toshiba International Corp. (www.tic.toshiba.com)
Transtector Systems (www.transtector.com)
Westinghouse Process Control (www.westinghousepc.com)
Woodhead Connectivity (www.connector.com)

INTRODUCTION Electric power lines are commonly assumed to be per-


fectly reliable sources of constant voltage. This assumption
After this introduction, the section will first give a general is valid when complete source reliability, particularly on a
description of the features of uninterruptible voltage and short-term basis, is not important. Control and instrument
power supplies (UVS and UPS), followed by a brief discus- engineers frequently make this assumption for power supply
sion of the requirements of buses and networks. This will be systems that do not satisfy this criterion. Obvious long-time
followed by a discussion of the classes of power failures that power outages are fairly rare in modern power systems. Nota-
are likely to occur, the components of UPS and UVS systems, ble exceptions, however, have called attention to the complete
and the types of standby and redundant power supplies. spectrum of possibilities of power failure.

854

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 855

300%

Percent voltage

200%

Voltage 2s
breakdown concern 115%
106%
Computer voltage
100% tolerance envelope
87%
Lack of stored energy in
some manufacturers
equipment
30%
0%
0.001 0.01 0.1 0.5 1.0 6 30 100 1000 Cycles
(.0156) (.166) (1.66) (8.3) (16.66) (99.6) (498) (1,660) (16,600) (ms)

FIG. 4.23a
The safe operation area (SOA) of computers defined in terms of allowable input voltage variations and their duration. (Source: ANSI/IEEE
Standard 4461987.)

Voltage dips too short to be noticed by human senses The purpose of uninterruptible voltage sources (UVS) or
can occur frequently during the lightning season on exposed line conditioners is to provide protection against short-duration
suburban and rural power systems. These systems serve brownouts or outages by guaranteeing that the output voltage
many industrial plants. In addition to the obvious power is not lost and its waveform remains stable for several cycles
failures caused by weather, there are many transient vari- after utility loss. This ride-through time can extend to several
ances resulting from electrical, mechanical, and human cycles (Figure 4.23b) and can prevent processor crashes. As
occurrences. A system designer who assumes a perfectly the ride-through capability is provided by programmable
reliable power source is responsible for any loss of produc- capacitors, it can be extended by the addition of capacitors.
tion and damage to machines and plant facilities resulting UVS units are a little less expensive than the battery-based
from power irregularities. UPS units (to be discussed later) and are designed for the
The trend in control system design is to use faster com- hostile environment of the factory floor. They regenerate new
ponents operating on smaller signals. This results in increas- AC power in pure sine wave form and keep the output voltage
ing system sensitivity to line voltage variation and and frequency within 3% of normal, even if the input voltage
in particular to short transients. As control instrumentation or frequency experiences wide variations. The ride-through
technology advances, the need for standby power sources capability enables the user to continue operation when the
increases. Frequently, the cause of the transients that result in
control or instrument circuit complications is not the lack of
voltage alone. Phase shift, a change in frequency, inadequate
transient response, and noise can be equally damaging. There- Input
fore, an adequate standby power supply system must consider
all types of power failure.

Output

UNINTERRUPTIBLE VOLTAGE SOURCES (UVS)

The IEEE-446 standard defines the Safe Operating Area


for computer-based equipment in terms of the power distur- FIG. 4.23b
bances that are allowable. As the time duration of the distur- An uninterruptible voltage supply (UVS) can allow the computer
bance increases, the allowable magnitude of the disturbances equipment to ride through an input outage of several-cycle dura-
that can be tolerated diminishes (Figure 4.23a). tion. (Courtesy of Falcon Electric.)

2006 by Bla Liptk


856 Control Room Equipment

AC AC
Rectier Inverter TABLE 4.23d
Input Output Summary of Standby System Classifications and Most Used
Component Parts
Diode
Standby System Classification
Battery
charger + No-Break
Battery System (Minimum
Componet Multi-Cycle Sub-Cycle Transient)

Secondary Engine-driven Engine- or motor- Battery
FIG. 4.23c power alternator or driven alternator
Standby system with battery charger redundancy. source generator starting on or generator
primary source failure running with
flywheel
outage is short or, when the duration of the outage is longer,
to anticipate the loss of power in time to signal the processor Inverter Rotating or static Rotating or static Static
to stop at a known state. Bus transfer Electromechanical Static Static
switches

UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS) FEATURES


of the inverter, on the output side, or on both sides. A tabulation
Standby systems (UPS) can be quite complex. They involve of components in a single- and a double-source redundant
the use of a number of components that may be of the static system is provided in Table 4.23e. Both input redundancy and
type, the electromechanical type, or some combination of output redundancy are included.
both. The selection of the standby system and the components
for it should be based upon the degree of integrity required
of the application. NETWORKS AND BUSES
It is frequently possible to improve standby system reli-
ability and to decrease cost. An example is that of the redundant Fieldbus devices work with supply voltages in the range of 9 to
input circuit shown in Figure 4.23c. By separating system 32 V DC. The 9 V DC is a minimum and a margin of at least
functions, it is possible to purchase the component that does 1 V (a minimum of 10 V DC) is recommended to be maintained.
the precise job required. The documentation of the bus segment should always show the
Much attention has been focused on the problem of failure minimum voltage, and a warning concerning additional loads
of the incoming power line. Although this is an important should be posted on segments operating under 15 V.
consideration, it is not the only consideration. Attention If an ordinary power supply were used to power the
should also be given to the equipment constituting the standby fieldbus, it would absorb the communication signals on the
power supply system. Should critical pieces of the standby cable, due to its attempt to maintain a constant voltage level.
equipment be less reliable than the incoming power line, fail- Fieldbus power supplies are therefore conditioned by placing
ure will be more frequent, and little improvement will have an inductor between the power supply and the field cable,
been accomplished.
Also of importance is the load circuit. If a number of
load branches are connected to the output of a standby power
TABLE 4.23e
supply system, the failure of any one load may result in the Standby System Component Redundancy
failure of the remaining loads. Proper design of the load
system will minimize or eliminate this possibility. Level of Redundancy Input Side Output Side
The importance of system redundancy cannot be over- One source Battery and battery Inverter
emphasized. Once designed, the system must be evaluated to charger
determine its weakest link. The cost of redundant equipment One source with some Battery, battery charger, Inverter with
may then be assessed in light of the importance of maintain- equipment and rectifier transfer to line
ing the load. redundancy
Table 4.23d summarizes the standby system classifica- Two sources Battery, battery charger, Inverter with
tions and lists the most commonly used components. Obvi- and engine-driven transfer to
ously, special arrangements may be found that extend some generator alternate inverter
of the components into an additional classification. This table Two sources with Battery, battery charger, Inverter with
is intended as a means of outlining the discussion that follows. some equipment rectifier, and engine- transfer to
Various degrees of redundancy may be designed into the redundancy driven generator alternate inverter
standby system. This redundancy may occur on the input side and then to line

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 857

TABLE 4.23f
Examples of Power Component Used in Foundation Fieldbus and PROFIBUS-PA Systems
Type Us Is RQ Remarks

MTL 5053 18.4 V 80 mA 105 IS power supply with power conditioner and switchable terminator
MTL 5995 19.0 V 350 mA <2 Non-IS power supply with power conditioner and switchable terminator
Relcom PCS-PC Vinput 5 V 330 mA Power conditioner
Relcom FCS-PCT Vinput 5 V 330 mA Power conditioner with terminator
a
Siemens 6ES7-157-0 AD00 0XA0 12.5 V 100 mA PROFIBUS segment coupler EEx [in] IIC
a
Siemens 6ES7-157-0 AC00 0XA0 19.0 V 400 mA PROFIBUS segment coupler for safe areas
a
Pepperl + Fuchs KFD2-BR-EX1.2PA.93 13.0 V 110 mA PROFIBUS segment coupler EEx [ia] IIC
a
Pepperl + Fuchs KFD2-BR-1PA.93 25.0 V 380 mA PROFIBUS segment coupler for safe areas

Note: Inclusion in this table does not imply a recommendation; other suppliers exist.
a
The bus current has already been subtracted from these specifications.

and a resistor is added to the inductor to prevent ringing. The amount of time to transfer. In general, this characterization
power conditioner might consist of a 50-ohm resistor and a of the standby power system by transfer time is disappearing,
5-mH inductor in series. The fieldbus conditioning unit is since a large percentage of present standby systems are of
normally installed at the start of the fieldbus segment and the no-break variety.
often contains a bus terminator. If the segment runs into an Another means of characterizing standby systems is by
explosion-proof area, a barrier is also required. Table 4.23f type of failure. Ones first thought is to protect the critical
gives some examples of conditioning unit components. loads from failure of the commercial power line. A careful
Several layers of UPS might be required in a plant-wide scrutiny into the system suggests that there also are other
SCADA process control system. First, the clock and memory points worthy of consideration. Among these is the failure of
of all digital equipment, computers, and remote terminal units standby power supply components and the failure of the load.
(RTUs) must be continuously supplied by power. A small
dedicated battery with a life of several years can be used for Source Failure
this. Next, the critical sensors, transmitters, and RTU logic
need to be supplied until normal power is restored. In some A very simple standby power system is shown in Figure 4.23g.
installations the requirement is for 35 days of UPS power. It consists of an AC power line feeding a battery charger. The
battery charger, in turn, floats a battery that provides power to
the inverter. The inverter provides an AC output through a
POWER FAILURE CLASSIFICATIONS distribution panel to a number of loads. Should the AC line
fail, the battery charger will cease to provide the current to the
inverter. The current will then be provided by the battery that
Standby power systems can be characterized according to the
time it takes to achieve full output from the standby power is floating on the system.
source after failure of the primary source. This transfer time In this fashion, the inverter supplies the loads until such
might be as long as many cyclesfor large electromechan- time as the AC line is reenergized, at which point the battery
ical switching devices or for engine-driven alternators or charger again provides the power for the inverter and for the
generators that start up on failure of the primary source or loads and at the same time provides recharge current to the
as short as fractions of a cyclefor some of the solid-state battery. Thus, the simple standby system of Figure 4.23g
switching devices or for motor-alternator or generator sets protects against a line failure since there is no cessation of
with flywheels. Additionally, no-break systems are available. power to the loads when the AC line fails.
Most early standby systems necessitated an interval dur-
ing which there was no voltage to the load on transfer from AC Battery AC
the primary source to the standby source or on retransfer charger
Inverter
Input Output
from the standby source to the primary source. As control +
and instrumentation circuits have become more critical,
Battery
standby systems have been developed that include new tech-
niques for transferring power sources such that essentially
no transfer time occurs. For the most part, these no-break FIG. 4.23g
systems cost little more than those requiring a significant Basic AC standby system.

2006 by Bla Liptk


858 Control Room Equipment

AC AC Battery Diode no. 1


Rectier AC
charger Inverter
Input Input no. 1 + Output
no. 2 no. 1 Battery
no. 1 Diode
AC
AC Battery no. 2
Rectier Inverter AC
Input Output charger
no. 1 Input no. 2 +
Thyristor no. 2 Battery
no. 2
Battery
charger +
FIG. 4.23i
Battery
Standby system with multiple-input redundancy.

FIG. 4.23h Alternative sources may include other AC lines and the output
Standby system with multiple AC inputs. from engine-driven alternators, or, indeed, from any alterna-
tor regardless of the number of phases, the voltage, the fre-
A suggested improvement in the basic system is shown quency, or the variation in frequency.
in Figure 4.23h. Because the functions of the battery charger It may be desirable to stagger the input voltage ranges
are separated into (1) supplying steady-state running current of the sources to favor one or another source. Since this
to the inverter and (2) supplying recharge current to the staggering of sources results in an increase in input voltage
battery, two rectifiers can be used. An unregulated rectifier variation over which the inverter must operate, a thyristor has
is adequate to supply load current by means of the inverter. been included to provide a dynamic switching of sources,
The battery charger rectifier must be regulated to ensure long minimizing the input voltage variation. The peak value of the
battery life. Since the unregulated supply is less likely to fail, alternative sources when rectified must be greater than the
some additional reliability is gained. This can be seen when battery potential in order to turn off the thyristor.
one considers the results of failure of the battery charger. The ultimate in input redundancy occurs with more than
In the circuit of Figure 4.23g, should the battery charger one complete power source. Shown in Figure 4.23i is a sys-
fail, the system is no longer operable after the energy stored tem with source, battery charger, and battery redundancy. It
in the battery is consumed by the load. In the case of is also wise to separate the power feeds to the inverter. This
Figure 4.23c, however, should the battery charger fail, the system can be extended to any desired degree.
system continues to function as long as the AC input is avail- The systems of Figures 4.23c, g, h, and i offer a contin-
able. Should the AC input source fail, the system will continue uous source of power to a load without regard to the state of
to operate until the energy stored in the battery is consumed. the AC input source as long as the standby source has suffi-
If, prior to this time, the AC input source is restored, the cient energy to supply the load. The options noted provide
system continues to function properly but the battery charger any degree of redundancy desired for the standby power
is not capable of recharging the battery. While the system source. These figures show that this redundancy is adequate
continues to operate properly, the battery charger may be to ensure the most critical loads. The diagrams also make it
repaired if it is possible to do so between the time that the clear that, should a failure occur in the inverter, the load
failure of the battery charger is noticed and the next failure of source is no longer protected. Thus, our next concern must
the AC input source. Indeed, if nothing else can be done, it is be the failure of equipment within the inverter block.
generally possible to bypass the diode with some available
resistance (even a light bulb) that will restore some energy to Equipment Failure (Inverter)
the battery. Even a small amount of battery capacity is ample
for a number of short, transient outages. In many applications of standby power, the integrity of the
In addition to the increased reliability of the two sources line must be maintained in spite of equipment failure. Failure
noted in Figure 4.23c, a lower cost for this system frequently to preserve this integrity can result in loss of output, scrap
results. This lower cost is attained because the unregulated material, plant damage, or loss of life. The degree of the
rectifier in most cases is providing a larger current than the protection necessary depends on the damage that can result.
battery charger. Thus the rectifier capacity is greater than that Process control computers are particularly important in plant
of the battery charger. Since it is less expensive to buy unreg- operations because failure of the computer system results in
ulated power than to buy regulated power, it is possible under an uncontrolled process. Loss may be sufficiently high to
many circumstances to achieve a lower cost. This combina- justify greater system redundancy.
tion of lower cost and increased reliability is the optimum The simplest form of output redundancy is illustrated by
objective of the system designer. Figure 4.23j. A bypass switch is provided from the output of
The system of Figure 4.23c can be extended to include the inverter to the AC input line. In this diagram, and in many
more than one AC source, as illustrated by Figure 4.23h. to follow, the symbol for an electromechanical switch (relay)

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 859

Synchro- Bypass Synchro- Bypass


nization switch nization switch
circuit circuit

AC Battery AC AC AC
Inverter Rectier Inverter
Input charger Output Input Output
+
Diode
Battery
Battery
charger
+

FIG. 4.23j Battery


Output redundancy to AC input.

FIG. 4.23k
will be used. This symbol should be construed to include
Input and output redundancy.
both static and electromechanical devices.
Two items are essential in the operation of the circuit of eliminates the transfer resulting from short transients, it causes
Figure 4.23j: a synchronization circuit and a means of sensing a greater output transient when a transfer is made because of
source failure. A synchronization circuit has been added to equipment failure.
ensure that both the AC input and the inverter are in phase The difficulties noted strongly suggest that consideration
in order to minimize the switching transient. The switching be given to early failure detection. The importance of this
device or devices have also been added, together with appro- portion of the standby power supply system cannot be over-
priate sensing circuitry. emphasized. It is wise to provide a double sensor system,
At this point, it is easy to gloss over an essential discussion which on either the failure of a component such as thyristor
masked by the obviousness of the preceding remark. Consider or on the failure of a bearing (resulting in abnormal vibration)
for a moment the fact that both voltage waveforms must be will provide a delay, as well as an integrating sensor circuit
of the same frequency and in phase. On failure of the input and detecting the reduction of the output voltage.
AC line, no transfer occurs since the output of the inverter is Input and output redundancy is shown in Figure 4.23k.
not impaired. In the event of a loss of output from the inverter, Any of the previously discussed redundant input schemes can
transfer to the AC source takes place. Retransfer to the inverter be used.
can occur when the inverter output is established and when With AC input redundancy, the integrity of the AC line
synchronization of the outputs has been restored. The retrans-
must be considered. Naturally, if frequent line disturbances
fer may occasion an output voltage transient, as well as the
occur, little is achieved by such an arrangement. The only
transfer, since stored energy in the filter or the inertia of the
gain is the possibility of not having a line failure until some-
rotating alternator used in the inverter requires some time to
thing can be done to reestablish source redundancy.
bring up to full output current.
The degree of redundancy can be improved if a backup
Note that the addition of the line synchronization capac-
inverter standby system is provided. Figure 4.23l illustrates
ity has increased the number of components in the inverter,
this emergency power supply backing up an emergency power
thereby decreasing its reliability. The synchronization circuit
supply but with dual loads. Here, each inverter is capable of
must be carefully designed to eliminate any AC transients
that may cause a failure in inverter output.
The point of detection of inverter output failure is instant.
Synchronizing
Sensing as early in the circuit as possible provides a better
circuit
transfer since energy stored in the filter may be used to reduce
the transient. Early detection of thyristor failure or of abnor- AC Battery AC
mal vibration is preferable to the simple detection of reduced Inverter
Input charger Output
output voltage.
Difficulties can occur in providing a sensing circuit that +
operates on an adjustable reduced output voltage level. If no
Battery
delay is built into the sensing circuit, transfer can occur on
line transients, causing frequent operation. If the normal Battery
Inverter
delay is included in the retransfer circuit, no system redun- charger Output
dancy occurs in the interval defined by the time of transfer
and the delay before the retransfer. Synchronizing
To minimize transfers on simple line transients, which circuit
may be caused by sudden load demands, an integrating circuit FIG. 4.23l
may be inserted in the voltage level sensor. Although this Redundancy with dual loads.

2006 by Bla Liptk


860 Control Room Equipment

Fuse 1 Load 1
Battery
C1 no. 1
Battery +
charger
no. 1 C2 Fuse 2 Load 2
Diode
no. 1 Inverter
Power
(current limited
C2 source
AC power source)
Rectier Main Load 3
Fuse 3
Input no. 1 inverter
C1
no. 1 AC

C2 C3 Output
C2 Load N
AC Rectier Auxiliary Fuse N

Input no. 2 inverter


C2
no. 2 FIG. 4.23n
Diode
no. 2 Inverter system, which is supplying N fused load branches.
Battery C3
charger
+ power supplied to the remaining branches. In reality, however,
no. 2
Battery
a fuse requires a finite amount of time to clear. If the power
no. 2
source is current-limited, the supply voltage will drop to a
value near zero until the fault is cleared. Unless rapid opening
FIG. 4.23m of the fuse occurs, other loads will become inoperable.
Threefold redundancy. Assuming, for any given supply output capacity, that all
branches of an n-branch load consume nearly equal parts of
handling the full output capacity (both loads). On failure of the supply power, it follows that the larger the number of
either, the remaining unit assumes the full load. Momentary load branches, the smaller the average branch fuse rating. A
paralleling is possible to use the stored energy in the filter of 10 KVA power source, for example, may have five equally
the unit going off. As noted previously, this energy can help loaded (2 KVA) branches. Another 10 KVA supply may have
to minimize the transfer transient. ten equally loaded (1 KVA) branches. In the latter case, the
Complete input and output redundancy are diagrammed average branch fuse has approximately one half the current
in Figure 4.23m. Battery, battery charger, rectifier, and invert- rating of those in the former case.
ers are repeated. Each is sized to handle the full load. Further In general, the larger the current capacity of a power
redundancy is provided by the AC line. If the main set fails, source, the shorter the time required to clear a fuse in a short-
the auxiliary set supplies the load. If it, in turn, fails before circuited branch. Looking at the same relationship in a slightly
the main is repaired, the load is supplied by the line. different way, we can see that the smaller the fuse rating of a
short-circuited branch, the less time required to clear
Common Bus Branch (Load) Failure itassuming the short-circuited supply capacity remains
constant.
In addition to providing a means of transfer from the output The preceding two paragraphs lead to the generalization
of an inverter that has failed to an alternate power source, that the smaller the fraction of total supply capacity carried
the transfer switch provides a means of clearing branch cir- by a fused load branch, the smaller the time required to clear
cuit fuses sufficiently fast to protect other loads from a faulted a branch fuse and the less serious the load power disturbance.
load. The inverter is frequently current-limited to provide a Conversely, the larger the fraction of total capacity carried
finite overload capability. Thus, on failure of one load, the by each branch, the larger the fuses in each and the longer
current limit provides a known amount of current for opening the time required to clear the fault.
the fuse in the faulted branch. Figure 4.23o demonstrates this generalization. Assuming
By referring to available fuse characteristics, one derives that (1) all branches consume equal fractions of load power,
the information that a number of branches are required with (2) the source always current-limits at 15 amperes, and (3) the
even the fastest of available fuses in order to provide load short-circuit load impedance is zero, fuse clearing time is
clearing within one half cycle. By using a transfer switch, shown as a function of the number of load branches. The
which allows the transfer of the load from the inverter output graph illustrates these data for three different fuse speeds.
to the AC line, one can, in effect, increase the short-circuit A well-designed standby power supply system requires
current capability, thus providing a means of rapidly clearing that consideration be given to all types of failure. The most
the fuse in the branch circuit. After clearing the faulted branch, often neglected area of consideration is the load bus system.
one can retransfer back to the inverter standby systems. Selection of the type of branch circuit protector must be
Ideally, a short circuit in one fused branch of an n-branch coordinated with the short-circuit characteristic of the
load, such as in Figure 4.23n, would have no effect upon the inverter as well as the requirements of the loads.

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 861

4,000
1000
Fuse clearing time (milliseconds)

3,200

driven alternator ($/k VA)


Cost of gasoline engine-
100
Type A 2,400
Type B
10 1,600

800
1
Type C
0
1 10 100
0 Alternator capacity (k VA)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of load branches FIG. 4.23p
Cost of gasoline engine-driven alternators as a function of their
FIG. 4.23o capacity.
Fuse clearing time expressed as a function of the number of load
branches. material that under normal circumstances would have been a
usable product, the greatest possible reliability should be built
into the standby power source. On the other hand, if the loss
SYSTEM COMPONENTS of power results in some annoyance but not in the loss of plant
capacity or deterioration of product quality, then the ultimate
It is frequently true that the characterization of the system in redundancy and reliability is not warranted.
itself is dependent on the components available for use in the The costs of some standby power supply systems using
system. For each system function, there are a number of engines are shown in Figure 4.23p. The engine has been
components from which to choose. Arbitrary selection of any proved to be a reliable device in many situations and in very
single component without regard to the others can result in adverse environments. Unfortunately, the engine itself is not
an unworkable or, at best, an inefficient system. the most frequent cause of failure. Most complaints of poor
Thus, the designers problem is to choose a compatible reliability of engine-driven sets can be traced to unreliable but
set of components that will satisfy the requirements. Specif- necessary peripheral equipment, such as fuel pumps, cooling
ically, the designer seeks the optimum compatible set of systems, and so forth. Care should therefore be exercised in
components. In order to select the appropriate component for the specification of all the engine system components.
a given function, it is necessary to understand the character- Two typical standby power supply systems involving
istics of the components from which one must select. motors, generators, and alternators are shown in Figures 4.23q
and 4.23r. In Figure 4.23q, the AC line provides power until
Rotating Equipment
it fails. On failure, the battery supplies power to the alternator,
Rotating equipment may be subdivided into two general which, in turn, supplies the output voltage.
classes. The first class includes all devices operating from a In Figure 4.23r, the AC motor has been replaced by a
source of electric power. This set includes motors and, rectifier of the static variety. Now referring to Figure 4.23r and
because of their intimate relationship, alternators and gener- to Figure 4.23g, it is easy to see that the two are identical, with
ators. The other general category of rotating equipment the motoralternator set replacing the block marked inverter.
includes those devices driven by engines that have the ability A system involving an engine is shown in Figure 4.23s.
to operate from liquid or gaseous fuels.
The preceding discussion has not covered the nature of DC
the equipment in the blocks. As an example, the battery AC motor/ AC
motor generator alternator
charger could be a motor generator set with appropriate con-
AC AC
trols. The inverter could, of course, be a DC motor driving
an alternator. The selection of these components is deter- Line Output
mined by economic considerations. The economics involve
not only the initial cost, operating cost, and maintenance cost
of the equipment itself but also an evaluation of the need for Battery
reliability based on the importance of the load. FIG. 4.23q
If load failure results in a vacant lot characterized by a hole Standby power supply system consisting of AC motor, generator,
or by the need to repipe a plant because of the solidification of and alternator.

2006 by Bla Liptk


862 Control Room Equipment

Static DC AC
rectier motor alternator 400

Cost per battery cell ($/cell)


AC Battery AC
charger Output 320
Line
Nickel-cadmium Lead-calcium
240
Battery
160
FIG. 4.23r Lead-antimony
Standby power supply system utilizing a static rectifier. 80

0
Batteries 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
Cell capacity (ampere hour)
Three types of batteries are in general use for standby sys-
tems: lead antimony, lead calcium, and nickel cadmium. For FIG. 4.23t
their approximate costs refer to Figure 4.23t. Battery cell unit costs as a function of battery type and capacity.

Lead Batteries The lead antimony and lead calcium are


of the rated charging current and the float voltage as shown
lead acid batteries deriving their name from the hardening
in Figure 4.23u. They are characterized by relatively constant
material in the lead alloy. Both have approximately the same
output voltage to recharge the battery because their output
ampere-hour characteristics on discharge. The lead antimony
current varies from almost zero to rated value. Beyond their
construction costs less, requires more maintenance because
rated current, output voltage drops rapidly with increased
of its higher internal losses, and evolves more hydrogen than
load current. This current limit protects the charger when
the lead calcium. Life expectancies of 14 to 30 years are
applied to the battery in the discharge state.
frequently quoted. The life depends on the construction of
Satisfactory battery life is dependent on the design and
the plate and the plate thickness. It also depends in large
operation of the battery charger, and so are maintenance
measure on the care given the batteries in service.
costs. The feedback techniques used to maintain the constant
Both types can operate over a temperature range of 10
output voltage and current limit of battery chargers are well
to 110F (23 to 43C). The lead calcium cell may be floated
known and will not be discussed in detail. The rectifiers
at 2.25 volts per cell without the necessity for equalizing
themselves may take the form of either a polycrystalline cell,
charge or, at worst, with long periods between equalizations.
such as selenium or copper oxide, or a monocrystalline cell,
Nickel Cadmium Batteries Nickel cadmium batteries are such as germanium or silicon. The trend is toward the silicon
the alkaline type. They differ from lead acid batteries in that rectifier. Control devices include the magnetic amplifiers and
they have a larger short-time current capability, higher cost, thyristors.
and lower volts per cell. Little hydrogen is generated by this Motor-generator battery chargers are also available for
cell, and frequent overcharge is recommended. Life expectancy standby system recharging service. The use of motor genera-
and operating temperature range are similar to those of the tors in this application predates that of the drive-type rectifiers.
lead acid types.
LEGEND
Battery Chargers The battery chargers generally used for Single-phase input
standby systems are float chargers. Their cost is a function Three-phase input
1,000

AC AC
800
Cost of battery charger

vo es

Line DC starter Output


ct tag
)
lt s

motor Battery
ire ol
($/ampere)

600
(d at v
Flo

25
0
400 12
48 0
24
200
AC
motor
generator 0
Clutch 1 10 100
Engine
Flywheel Rated charging current (amperes)

FIG. 4.23s FIG. 4.23u


Standby power supply system using an internal combustion engine Battery charger costs as a function of their current and voltage
as the source of the power. ratings.

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 863

where
= change in flux level
10,000
N= turns in N3 and N4 coil (identical)
E= supply voltage (appearing across N3)
Static inverter cost ($/k VA)

8,000 t= time

6,000 Eventually the core saturates, requiring an increase in


exciting current. To supply this increased collector current,
4,000 the transistor must have an increased base current. This can-
not be supplied because of the decreased coupling between
N2 and N3 resulting from core saturation; thus, Q1 begins to
2,000
open, reducing exciting current. At this point, the change of
flux reverses, reversing the coil voltage polarity. Q2 is then
0
1 10 100 turned on by N1 and Q1 is turned off by N2. The half cycle
Inverter capacity (K VA) begun in this fashion is similar to that described until a
reversal occurs again, completing the cycle.
FIG. 4.23v
Starting resistor R2 provides enough base bias current to
Static inverter costs as a function of its capacity.
allow exciting current to flow. Natural circuit imbalance ensures
that only one transistor closes, thus starting the oscillator.
Static Inverters Should the load be short-circuited, no feedback is pro-
The static inverter used in a standby system tends to be the vided by N1 and N2, and oscillations cease. Other modes of
most complex piece of equipment in that system. The approx- operation are also possible. Care must be taken to provide
imate costs of static inverters are given in Figure 4.23v, and the correct base current (which is dependent on transistor
a brief discussion of their operation is provided here. current gain) so that loading does not excessively shift the
Transistor inverters are the least expensive of the static frequency. The amount of this shift is also dependent on the
inverters. Their principal area of usefulness is the low input rounding of the B-H loop.
voltage (24 direct volts and less) and low output capacity In the center-tap inverter circuit, each transistor must
(500 volt-amperes and less) range. This type of inverter can withstand a voltage equal to or greater than twice the supply
operate at high frequency and can cease operation under potential. Transistors having a sufficiently high rating to with-
dangerously high output current overloads. Figure 4.23w stand a 48-volt source are more expensive. Usually, above
shows a typical circuit for the center-tap transistor inverter; 24 volts it is less expensive to use the bridge circuit shown
N1 and N2 are feedback windings, R1 is the feedback resistor, in Figure 4.23x.
and R2 is the starting resistor. The bridge circuit operates in a manner similar to that
The operating cycle can be traced by assuming Q1 closed described for the center-tap circuit. Two starting resistors, Rs1
and Q2 open. Substantially all the supply voltage E appears and Rs2, are necessary. The diodes CR 1, 2, 3, 4 provide
across N3 causing a change in flux level by Faradays law: transient voltage suppression for unsymmetrically wound
transformers.
10 8 Et
= 4.23(1)
N3
RS1

R1
1
R1 CR2
Q1 Q2
2 R2
CR1

Q1 Load
Load
+
R2 3
+ CR4
RS2
R3
E Q4 Q3
4

R4 CR3
Q2

FIG. 4.23w FIG. 4.23x


Typical circuit showing a center-tap transistor inverter. Bridge-type transistor inverter.

2006 by Bla Liptk


864 Control Room Equipment

+
T1 L
RT2
T2
RT1 SCR1
SCR1 SCR2
Source C
Load

Oscillator
SCR1
+
E
Load
+ SCR2

SCR2 SCR1 SCR2


RT2

FIG. 4.23y RT1


L
Typical means of stabilizing inverter frequency.

FIG. 4.23aa
A typical means of stabilizing frequency is shown in Bridge-type SCR static inverter.
Figure 4.23y. Since the saturation flux density and turns are
relatively constant, frequency is controlled by the supply Turn-on is accomplished by the application of the voltage to
voltage E. Use of a zener diode stabilizes the voltage and the gate leads of the controlled rectifiers by the oscillator.
therefore, frequency. Rectifiers diodes RT1, RT1, RT2, and RT2 are not a part
Silicon-controlled rectifier-inverters are the work horse of the basic inverter switching circuit. They serve to clamp
of static inverters. They operate efficiently and reliably at the amplitude of the load voltage to a value approximately
high input voltage (130 to 600 direct volts) and high output equal to the magnitude of source voltage.
capacities (500 volt-amperes and larger). Proper specification Figure 4.23aa shows the diagram of a bridge-connected
of the equipment is essential to obtaining reliable operation. static inverter. This arrangement is frequently used for source
The operation of a static inverter may be stimulated by voltages of 130, 260, and 600 volts. For source potentials of
switches as shown, in Figure 4.23z. Switches 1 and 1 are 12, 24, and 48 volts, the circuit of Figure 4.23bb is frequently
operated in unison, as are switches 2 and 2. When 1 and 1 used. Its operation is seen to be similar to that of the bridge
are closed and 2 and 2 are open, load current flows in a circuit. It differs in that half the number of controlled recti-
direction shown by the arrow in Figure 4.23z. With 2 and 2 fiers is used, and each must hold off a voltage approximately
closed and 1 and 1 open, load current flows in the reverse equal to twice the supply voltage.
direction. Thus, whereas the source current is flows in the Various types of output waveforms may be obtained from
same direction when either set of switches is closed, the load the square wave, which is the basic output waveform of the
current i1 reverses polarity as each set is alternately closed static inverter. Sinusoidal waveforms are most common, but
and opened. Consequently, the current has been inverted by triangular, sawtooth, and many rectangular combinations are
the circuit. also possible. Voltage stabilization may be a welcome bonus
The switches used in Fig. 4.23z are not static since a provided by the output wave-shaping circuitry. Current lim-
switch contains moving parts. In Figure 4.23aa, the mechan- iting is also possible.
ical switches have been replaced with electrical switches
(silicon-controlled rectifiers). Also shown are the commutat-
ing indicators L and communicating capacitor C. These com- +
ponents are necessary to turn the controlled rectifiers off. L
SCR1
Oscillator

+
is SCR1 SCR2 SCR2
1 & 1 closed
1 il 2
2 & 2 open
N N
Direct input
from battery LOAD
1 & 1 open
2 il 1 C
2 & 2 closed
is Load

FIG. 4.23z FIG. 4.23bb


Simulated static inverter using mechanical switches. Center-tap-type SCR static inverter.

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 865

within a system, it is necessary to urge that one pay careful


Alternate attention to the selection. In-rush current on start-up, transient
source Failure variation of the input voltage, and transient load variation
sensing each present particular problems. A frequent experience is
Synch
that the protective system may be the least reliable of the
Battery Filter system components. This is not intended to mean that the
disconnect component itself fails, but rather that the system fails through
+ contactor
action of the protective device under normal operating con-
Inverter Filter Load
ditions. Whenever the standby power supply system fails to
provide output, whether the components are damaged or not,
FIG. 4.23cc the resulting damage is the same.
No-break power system with hybrid transfer switch.

STANDBY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS


Bus Transfer Switches
A number of standby power supply systems have been pre-
Bus transfer switches have historically been of the electro- sented in the previous discussion. These have been catego-
mechanical type. Various techniques have been used to speed rized in terms of the type of power failure but not in terms
the transfer from one source to the other. These techniques of the class of system they represent. It was noted earlier that
have included a pulsing arrangement on the coil of the elec- the systems themselves could be classified by virtue of the
tromechanical switch in order to overcome the inherent iner- time it takes to transfer from the primary to the secondary
tia. Make-before-break sequences have also been used. power source. This grouping is more nearly akin to the think-
A newer development has been the use of the static switch ing of the purchaser than is the classification by power failure
for more rapid transfers. Generally, thyristors have been used noted previously.
as the power-handling switching component. Figure 4.23cc
represents a hybrid transfer switch on the output side of the Multicycle Transfer System
inverter. Momentary paralleling of sources is achieved by the
drop out time of the electromechanical contactor. Fast turn- In general, multicycle transfer systems involve either elec-
on is achieved by the thyristors. Sensing is performed at the tromechanical transfer switches or engine- or motor-driven
output of the inverter switch (prior to the filter) in order to equipment that must start up. Figures 4.23ee and 4.23ff show
anticipate output failure. two composite systems using both rotating and static equip-
A static set that serves the same function is shown in ment. In Figure 4.23ee both a battery input and an engine-
Figure 4.23dd. In this case, momentary paralleling is driven generating input are provided to the inverter.
achieved by the logic circuit that supplies the gating pluses.

Commercial Commercial
Protective Components AC input AC input

It is essential to the proper operation of the emergency power


supply system that adequate thought be given to the protec- K1
tive devices. Available as protective devices are fuses of var- Battery
charger K1
ious speeds and circuit breakers. The application of fuses to
the load circuit was discussed earlier in this section.
Although it is not possible to provide a clear definition DC
of the components to be used for the specific applications load K1 K1
Or
AC
Inverter
load
K2
K1
Line input (Ignition) K2
engine-driven
generator
Ground
Load DC
Inverter load
input
FIG. 4.23ee
FIG. 4.23dd Composite multicycle transfer system using both batteries and an
Static no-break power system. engine-driven generator.

2006 by Bla Liptk


866 Control Room Equipment

AC input in output power results. No-break may also be applied to


those systems having a redundant source on the output side
K1 of the inverter. Figures 4.23c, g, h, i, and 4.23ff are examples
K1
of no-break systems with redundant input sources so that no
break occurs in the output power should the AC commercial
Inverter
Battery AC source fail.
(solid-state
charger load
switching) The switching systems shown in Figures 4.23cc and dd
can be used in many of the previously defined circuits to
DC load
provide no-break switching under the right sequence of oper-
K2
K2 ations. Figures 4.23j, k, l, and m are of this type.

K1

(Ignition) SYSTEM REDUNDANCY


engine-driven
alternator
The subject of system redundancy has been frequently men-
FIG. 4.23ff tioned in the previous discussions. Two basic classifications
Alternative arrangement of a multi-cycle transfer system. of system redundancy are made on the basis of input and
output. Redundancy in the input circuit to the inverter results
from the use of multiple battery sources, multiple input lines
If the engine-driven generator is started prior to the coming from separate power feeders, or various types of
time the energy contained in the battery is completely used by rotating alternators and generators with either motor or engine
the inverter and the load, no interrupt time occurs. Note that drives. Figures 4.23c, h and i illustrate the various types of
the commercial AC power input provides the load normally. input redundancy.
On failure of the power lines, the contactor K1 operates to Redundancy in the output circuit of the inverter is
insert the inverter. Since the inverter is started on the fallout obtained by use of a switch that will provide a path to an
of the contactor K1, some start-up transient must occur in the alternate source. Output redundancy may involve switching
inverter, requiring some time between the failure of the com- from the inverter output to the power line. More complex
mercial AC input source and the inverter source. Note that the schemes involve switching from one inverter standby system
use of a static switch in position K1 would increase the speed to another inverter standby system. Figures 4.23j, k, l, and
of operation of the electromechanical contactor but would not m provide examples of output redundancy.
materially affect the start-up of the inverter. The previous examples have shown the wide number of
Note that a rearrangement of the components of choices available for component redundancy in standby
Figure 4.23ee results in the system shown in Figure 4.23ff. power supply systems. In order to select the best system for
This system may not have a transfer time since the battery a given application, it is necessary first to evaluate the degree
would normally be chosen to have a capacity sufficient to of integrity required for the application. It is then essential
cover the energy required by the inverter and load during the that the standby system be evaluated to determine which
time it takes to start the engine-driven alternator. Should that component is most likely to fail. A decision can then be made,
interval be long, multicycle startup will result. Note, however, balancing the cost of redundancy versus the needs of the
that in this system there is no protection for inverter failure. application.
The system of Figure 4.23ff does have a bypass to the AC
commercial line, providing some protection in the event of
component failure in the system. SPECIFICATIONS
Sub-Cycle Transfer System Considerable activity is underway to attempt to provide spec-
Sub-cycle transfer systems are generated by the use of static ifications for standby power supply systems and system com-
switches on the output side of the inverter. Thus, the circuits ponents. It is essential that the user provide in the specifications
of Figures 4.23j, k, l, m, dd and ee may be sub-cycle transfer certain types of information that are important in ensuring
systems depending entirely on the arrangement of the switch system reliability.
itself and, in the case of Figure 4.23ee, the start-up time of It is suggested that consideration be given not only to the
the inverter. immediate load requirements but also to future load require-
ments. It is generally less expensive to purchase additional
No-Break Transfer System capacity when the system is first acquired than to add capac-
ity to that system at a later date.
The so-called no-break transfer system may be no-break in In many cases, the characteristics of the loads are most
the sense that if the AC commercial source fails, no cessation important. Power factor as well as transient characteristics

2006 by Bla Liptk


4.23 Uninterruptible Power and Voltage Supplies (UPS and UVS) 867

should be clearly defined. These definitions are particularly together with the transient voltage characteristics on transfer
important if static equipment is involved. or retransfer. These characteristics can be defined by an eval-
Transient data on the input sources are important in uation of the sensitivity of the loads to varying phase angle,
proper design of the system. If a battery source is used, it frequency, and transient voltage. If dynamic loads are
is desirable to know the transients that can exist on the included, the transient response and time constant of these
battery bus. These transients should be specified in terms of loads should be stated.
their maximum voltage as well as their energy content. If
an existing battery installation is used, any loads that are
switched will generally institute a transient voltage because Bibliography
of the inductance of the lines themselves. A knowledge of
Conger, N. L., How to Install and Maintain UPS Systems, Instrumentation
this transient voltage is particularly important in the proper
Technology, April 1970.
design of static equipment. Dyer, S. A., Survey of Instrumentation and Measurement, New York: John
Although it is difficult to obtain any meaningful data Wiley & Sons, 2001.
regarding the number and duration of outages of the utility Graf, R. F, Measuring Circuits, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.
power lines, it is necessary to provide information concerning Guide to Selecting Uninterruptible Power Systems, Instruments and Con-
the length of time the power supply must produce power for trol Systems, March 1973.
Horowitz, P., and Hill, W., The Art of Electronics, New York: Cambridge
the loads without having the primary input source available.
University Press, 1980.
This evaluation can best be performed on the time required Jazinski, G., Uninterruptible Power Systems for Industrial Computers,
to shut down the load system rather than with reference to 1991 ISA Conference, Anaheim, October 1991.
the input failure. Johnson, W. J., Use of Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Chemical Plants,
Particular note should be taken of the characteristics of ISA Conference Paper #76-835, Instrument Society of America, Houston,
static inverters. Three overload ratings are important. In order Texas, October 1976.
Key Items for UPS Selection, Instruments and Control Systems, October
that sufficient commutating capacity can be designed into the
1977.
inverter, it is necessary to know the maximum instantaneous Lapuh, R., Simple Power Measurement System, Proc. of the 18th IEEE
current. It is also necessary to know the overload current for 1035, Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference,
a one- to two- minute interval in order that ample cooling be IMTC 2001, Vol. 2, 2001.
provided to the semiconductor devices. The final overload McPartland, J. F., and McPartland, B. J., National Electric Code Handbook,
rating of importance is the one- or -two hour overload nec- New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.
National Electrical Code 1999 (NFPA 70) Quincy, MA: NFPA, 1998.
essary in order to provide ample thermal capacity in the
Northrop, R. B., Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements, Boca
magnetic components. This third overload rating is also of Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997.
importance in defining rotating equipment. Teets, R., Dont Let Power Failures Plague Your System, Instruments and
In the event that the standby system includes a means of Control Systems, January 1977.
transferring the load of the inverter output to an alternate Warren, E. G., Uninterruptible Power Systems in Refineries, Instrumen-
source, the characteristics during transfer and retransfer tation Technology, March 1977.
Waterbury, R. C., UPS Protects Electric Utility, InTech, September 1992.
should be amply defined. Among those characteristics is the
Witte, R. A., Electronic Test Instruments: Analog and Digital Measurements,
length of time, during which switching between the two 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
sources, that zero voltage can be tolerated. Phase shift in Yuen, M. H., How to Specify and Select UPS Systems, Instrumentation
voltage from one source to the other should also be stated, Technology, April 1970.

2006 by Bla Liptk