Subhas Chandra Sahana, Bubu Bhuyan
ABSTARCT Identity-Based Cryptosystem was initiated with an aim of simplifying the key management technique but undergoes some inherent drawbacks, called key escrow problem. Moreover, it requires a secure channel at the time of private issuance by the Key Generation Centre (KGC). In our paper, we propose an identity-based signature scheme which neither has the key escrow problem nor requires a secure channel between the user and the KGC. Keywords: Digital Signature, Bilinear pairings, Identity-Based Cryptosystem, Key escrow
Volume & Issue No. = Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2017
pages = 075-079 ,
url = http://ipasj.org/IIJCS/Volume5Issue9/IIJIT-2017-09-22-3.pdf

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Subhas Chandra Sahana, Bubu Bhuyan
ABSTARCT Identity-Based Cryptosystem was initiated with an aim of simplifying the key management technique but undergoes some inherent drawbacks, called key escrow problem. Moreover, it requires a secure channel at the time of private issuance by the Key Generation Centre (KGC). In our paper, we propose an identity-based signature scheme which neither has the key escrow problem nor requires a secure channel between the user and the KGC. Keywords: Digital Signature, Bilinear pairings, Identity-Based Cryptosystem, Key escrow
Volume & Issue No. = Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2017
pages = 075-079 ,
url = http://ipasj.org/IIJCS/Volume5Issue9/IIJIT-2017-09-22-3.pdf

© All Rights Reserved

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Volume 5, Issue 9, September 2017 ISSN 2321-5992

Scheme from Bilinear Parings

Subhas Chandra Sahana1 and Bubu Bhuyan2

1,2

Department of Information Technology

North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, INDIA

ABSTARCT

Identity-Based Cryptosystem was initiated with an aim of simplifying the key management technique but undergoes some

inherent drawbacks, called key escrow problem. Moreover, it requires a secure channel at the time of private issuance by the

Key Generation Centre (KGC). In our paper, we propose an identity-based signature scheme which neither has the key escrow

problem nor requires a secure channel between the user and the KGC.

Keywords: Digital Signature, Bilinear pairings, Identity-Based Cryptosystem, Key escrow

1. INTRODUCTION

Identity Based Cryptosystem was introduced to eliminate the pitfall of traditional public key cryptosystem [1-2] which

arises the presence of huge number of certificates. These certificates act as a ticket for gaining access in the

cryptosystem, which makes it compulsory for all the users. As every user must be equipped with a public key, embedded

in a certificate, issued and witnessed by a Certificate Authority (CA), the CA is responsible for maintaining the list of

all the registered users along with their corresponding public keys and also maintains the list of valid and invalid users

in case any weird situation has occurred. The message sending process needs to perform certificate verification process

before encrypting or signing a message, which adds an extra effort. So, the traditional public key cryptosystem is

considered unsuitable in terms of storage and computation cost due to certification management activities.

In Identity Based Cryptosystem (IBC) [3] it is quite easy to manage public and private key as public key can be easily

obtained from the unique identity of the user and the private key is generated by the Private Key Generator (PKG) or

KGC. No certificates are required here and hence it provides simplest key management technique. Despite of its

simplicity it undergoes certain drawbacks also. The major drawbacks refer to the key escrow problem and the need of a

secure channel between the PKG and the user. Key Escrow problem arises because the users rely on the PKG

completely for the private key which results in enhancing the PKG ability for signing and decrypting a message has

intended for a particular user. A secure channel is required to prevent insecure transmission of private key through the

public channel. IBC was first introduced by Shamir [3]. Many more Identity (ID)- Based schemes [4-5] were introduced

later on based on integer factorization and discrete logarithm problem. But later, an identity-based encryption scheme

were developed based on bilinear pairings over elliptic curves by Boneh and Franklin [6] and finite fields as elliptic

curve cryptography provides lower computation cost. So in this paper we introduce an identity-based signature scheme

merged with a binding-blinding technique [7] to eradicate the drawbacks of the existing ID Based Signature schemes.

The paper is organised as follows: Section 2 includes some mathematical background required for our proposed

scheme. Section 3 defines the proposed signature scheme along with correctness. Section 4 includes the implementation

result of the proposed scheme. Afterwards, in section 5 efficiency analysis of the proposed scheme has been done and

the last section, we conclude our work.

2. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

2.1 Elliptic curve : An elliptic curve is a plane curve defined by the form , where and are real

numbers. An elliptic curve group over real numbers consists of the points on the corresponding elliptic c urve, together

with a special point called the point at infinity.

POINT ADDITION

1. The negative of a point is its reflection in the x-axis and the point is

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2. If and are two distinct points on an elliptic curve, then the curve joining the points and intersects

a point on the elliptic curve which is reflected in the x-axis to the point R and is defined by

3. Addition of point and is a vertical line which does not intersects the elliptic curve at a third point so

the elliptic curve includes a point at infinity O and is defined by .

4. Doubling a point : If

A tangent line to the curve is drawn at the point P, then the tangent line intersects the elliptic curve at

exactly one other point, . is reflected in the x-axis to . This operation is called doubling the

point P on an elliptic curve group and is defined by .

A tangent line to the elliptic curve at P is vertical and does not intersect the elliptic curve at any other

point and is defined as .

Considering two prime numbers and satisfying the condition a random element with order in is

choosen and let generate a random element say . , the probability for finding using any

polynomial time algorithm should be negligible.

Given elliptic curve points and in the group, to find a

number such that (k is called the discrete logarithm of Q to the base P) is referred to as the ECDL problem.

Given , , for computing is referred to as computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

Given , , , for deciding whether mod is referred to as decisional diffie-hellman

problem.

If in a group , decisional Diffie-Hellman problem is solvable using any probabilistic polynomial time algorithm but

computational diffie-hellman problem is not solvable, then that group is referred to as gap Diffie-Hellman group.

problem.

The parties involved in the scheme are as follows:

Key Generation Centre (KGC) : furnishes the signer with partial private key if the signers identity is valid.

Verifier: has the ability to check or determine the correctness of the received signature for a message.

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This technique is put forward with an aim of preventing the leakage of useful information. Using this technique, the

user at first chooses two secrets blinding parameters, using which four binding parameters are generated. These

blinding parameters are then forwarded to the KGC over a public channel along with the users identity so that it can

avoid unregistered identity attack. For avoiding the unregistered attack the email id should act as the ID of the user also

the KGC validates the users ID asking confirmation message from the email-id owner. The KGC provides the user

with the partial private key, sent through an insecure channel, only after the confirmation message is received and the

validation of the blinding parameters. After receiving the partial key, the user calculates its private key after validation

of the partial key.

The proposed scheme is fitted in the VIDS model proposed by M.L. Das [7]. The scheme consists of the following

algorithms:

System Parameters Generation: This algorithm is employed for generating the parameters used for generating

the signature. The parameters include (additive group) and (multiplicative group) of prime order , a

bilinear pairing is the generator of group and a map-to-point hash function

KGCs Key Generation: KGC sets its public and private key in this step. A secret value is selected by

the KGC which is set as its private key and its public key is set as

Users Key Generation : Users private key and public key is calculated using the blinding-binding technique

[8].

1. Binding Parameter Generation: In this step two secret binding factors are chosen using which binding

parameters are generated along with the system parameters.

Two secret blinding factors are chosen randomly by the user using which

creates the four binding parameters , , and

Afterwards has been sent to the KGC with the ID through

the public channel.

If the ID doesnot exists in its directory, the KGC validates the user asking for a

confirmation message from the email id owner. This step is used to prevent unregistered

ID attack.

verification of the user is done by checking the condition

KGC if the above condition holds and is published in the KGCs

directory and send to the user by the KGC.

3. Private Key Generation : Using this algorithm the users private key is evaluated using one of the

blinding factor a and generator and the partial key in the following way

The user unbinds and evaluates the private key if the above

condition holds.

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1. )

2.

3.3. Correctness.

4. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

We have compared the proposed key escrow free identity-based signature scheme with some previously similar

established existing signature scheme [7]. We have implemented both the proposed signature scheme and Dass scheme

in linux systems with system configuration intel core i3 CPU 2.53GHz and 2GB RAM using Pairing Based

Cryptography (PBC) library [10] in C. Table 1depicts the running time consumption for both the schemes. As both the

schemes undergo the same private key generation process therefore consumes same amount of time, but differs in terms

of the signature generation process and signature verification process.

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We use the identity-based signature scheme proposed by Sakai et al. [11] as a base scheme which is merged with the

binding-blinding technique occurs as an efficient scheme removing the key escrow problem and the necessity of the

secure channel. Different operations in signature generation and verification process are denoted as

exponentiation, hash operation, operation, scalar multiplication in group , -inversion in , -point

addition in , -pairing operation, -the point inversion in , -Multiplication in group ,

Map-to-Point hash function.

5. CONCLUSION

We have proposed a scheme which has same number of operations in the process of private-key generation but less

number of operations in the processes of both signing and verification than the similar type of scheme proposed by

M.L. Das. So the proposed scheme is more efficient than the Dass scheme. Like the Dass scheme, our scheme is also

key escrow-free and does not require any secure channel for the transmission of the private generated by the KGC. It

has been observed that the proposed scheme consumes lesser running time compare to the other scheme.

References

[1] Al-Riyami, S. and K.Paterson (2003). Certificateless public key cryptography, Advances in Cryptology-

ASIACRYPT03LNCS 2894: 452473.

[2] A.Menezes, P. v. O. and S.Vanstone (1996). Handbook of applied cryptography, CRC Press .

[3] A.Shamir (1984). Identity-based cryptosystems and signatureschemes, Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO84, LNCS

196, edited by G.R.Blakeley and D.Chaum. Springer-Verlag pp. 4753.

[4] A.Fiat and A.Shamir (1986). How to prove yourself:practical solutions to identification and signature problems,

Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO86,LCNS 263,edited by A.M.Odlyzko.Berlin:Springer-Verlag pp. 186194.

[5] L.Guillou and J.J.Quisquater (1998). A paradoxical identity-based signature scheme resulting from zero-

knowledge, Advances in Cryptology-CRYPTO88,LCNS 403, edited by S.Goldwasser.Berlin:Springer-Verlag pp.

216231.

[6] D.Boneh and M.Franklin (2001). Identity-based encryption from the weil pairing, Advances in Cryptology -

CRYPTO01 Springer-Verlag LCNS 2139: 213229.

[7] Das, M. L. (2010). A key escrow-free identity-based signature scheme without using secure channel, Taylor

Francis Group,LLC pp. 5872.

[8] M. Choudary Gorantla, R. G. and Saxena, A. (n.d.). A survey on id-based cryptographic primitives, Institute for

Developmentand Research in Banking Technology .

[9] M.L.Das, A. and Phatak, D. (2007). Proxy signature scheme with effective revocation using bilinear pairings,

International Journal of Network Security 4(3): 312317.

[10] The pairing based cryptography (pbc) library (n.d.). https://crypto.stanford.edu/pbc/

[11] R. Sakai, K. Ohgishi and M. Kasahara. Cryptosysytems based on pairing. In Proceedings of Symposium on

Cryptography and Information Security, SCIS 2000, 2000.

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