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SHIP RESISTANCE

COMPONENTS

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 1
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Introduction
1. Ship at rest

AIR
r=1.2 kg/m3

Above waterpart Weight


Air-Water
Interface
p=patm=const
Under water part

Water
r=1000 kg/m3
Buoyancy

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
2. Ship is moving at Vs

Vs

RAir

RWMR

RF

REMR

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Ship Resistance Components

Total Resistance

Under Water Above Water


resistance Resistance

Still Water Rough Water


Resistance Resistance

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 4
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Still Water Resistance Components
Classical division of resistance (Froude assumption)

Still Water
Resistance

Frictional Residuary
Resistance Resistance

Wave-making Eddy-making
Resistance Resistance

Dr. Adel Banawan


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(1) Frictional Resistance

Viscous Pressure Resistance Skin Friction Resistance

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Frictional resistance is a tangential stresses created by
the frictional force due to the water rubbing against
the ship hull surface.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Froude assumed that the frictional resistance of the
curved hull surface of the ship is equal to that of a flat
plate of the same length and wetted surface area
moving through water at the same speed.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
The frictional resistance is governed by Reynolds
number
VL
Rn

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
The value of frictional resistance depends on:
1- ship speed
2- ship length
3- wetted surface are
4- roughness of the hull surface
5- kinematic viscosity of the fluid

Dr. Adel Banawan


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(2) Wave-making Resistance

Vs

Waves
created by
the ship

RWMR

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 11
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
It manifests itself in the form of normal pressure on
the hull due to surface wave systems generated by the
ship (forward wave, forward shoulder wave, after
shoulder wave and after wave systems).

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 12
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Dr. Adel Banawan
October 1, 2009 13
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
The wave systems consist of divergent waves starting
with a large wave at the bow at an angle of 19o28`
followed by others and transverse waves.

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 14
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Dr. Adel Banawan
October 1, 2009 15
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
This type is concerned with dynamic movements of
large masses of the fluid and is governed by Froudes
number Fn

V
Fn
gL

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 16
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
The value of the wave-making resistance of a ship is
affected by the interference between the different
wave systems, speed, dimensional ratios and form
coefficients of the ship.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
(3) Eddy-making Resistance

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 18
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Eddy-making resistance is due to the formation of
eddies behind bluff endings.

The eddy-making resistance manifests itself in the


form of normal pressure on the hull and it follows
Froudes law.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
V/L1/2 Slow speed ships Medium speed ships High speed ships
0.50-0.65 0.65-0.85 0.85-1.20
Frictional 75-90% 65-75% 50-65%
resistance
Wave-making 10-20% 20-30% 35-50%
resistance
Eddy-making 10-15% 5-10% 3-5%
resistance

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 20
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Subdivision of still water resistance
by stresses

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
(1) Skin Friction Resistance
Skin friction resistance is the true tangential
resistance due to shear stress on the hull surface.

Skin friction resistance = frictional resistance (flat


plate) + velocity form effect (due to curved shape of
the hull)

Dr. Adel Banawan


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(2) Normal pressure resistance
This resistance component is due to the normal stress
on the hull surface and can be subdivided into viscous
pressure resistance and wave-making resistance.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Rough water resistance
This is due to the sea waves encountered by the ship.

Its value depends on the conditions of the sea and


may amount to 25-35% for service in the North-
Atlantic, about 15-20% for service in the
Mediterranean sea.

Dr. Adel Banawan


October 1, 2009 24
Ship Hydrodynamics-1
Air resistance
This is due to the resisting forces of the wind acting
on the above water part of the ship.

Its magnitude depends on the wind speed and


direction as well as the shape and area of the above
water area.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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Its value is very small and amounting to about 1-2%
of the resistance.

In high speed crafts, it may be about 8-10% of the


total resistance.

Dr. Adel Banawan


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