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# SHIP RESISTANCE

COMPONENTS

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Introduction
1. Ship at rest

AIR
r=1.2 kg/m3

## Above waterpart Weight

Air-Water
Interface
p=patm=const
Under water part

Water
r=1000 kg/m3
Buoyancy

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2. Ship is moving at Vs

Vs

RAir

RWMR

RF

REMR

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Ship Resistance Components

Total Resistance

## Under Water Above Water

resistance Resistance

## Still Water Rough Water

Resistance Resistance

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Still Water Resistance Components
Classical division of resistance (Froude assumption)

Still Water
Resistance

Frictional Residuary
Resistance Resistance

Wave-making Eddy-making
Resistance Resistance

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(1) Frictional Resistance

## Viscous Pressure Resistance Skin Friction Resistance

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Frictional resistance is a tangential stresses created by
the frictional force due to the water rubbing against
the ship hull surface.

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Froude assumed that the frictional resistance of the
curved hull surface of the ship is equal to that of a flat
plate of the same length and wetted surface area
moving through water at the same speed.

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The frictional resistance is governed by Reynolds
number
VL
Rn

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The value of frictional resistance depends on:
1- ship speed
2- ship length
3- wetted surface are
4- roughness of the hull surface
5- kinematic viscosity of the fluid

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(2) Wave-making Resistance

Vs

Waves
created by
the ship

RWMR

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It manifests itself in the form of normal pressure on
the hull due to surface wave systems generated by the
ship (forward wave, forward shoulder wave, after
shoulder wave and after wave systems).

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The wave systems consist of divergent waves starting
with a large wave at the bow at an angle of 19o28`
followed by others and transverse waves.

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This type is concerned with dynamic movements of
large masses of the fluid and is governed by Froudes
number Fn

V
Fn
gL

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The value of the wave-making resistance of a ship is
affected by the interference between the different
wave systems, speed, dimensional ratios and form
coefficients of the ship.

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(3) Eddy-making Resistance

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Eddy-making resistance is due to the formation of
eddies behind bluff endings.

## The eddy-making resistance manifests itself in the

form of normal pressure on the hull and it follows
Froudes law.

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V/L1/2 Slow speed ships Medium speed ships High speed ships
0.50-0.65 0.65-0.85 0.85-1.20
Frictional 75-90% 65-75% 50-65%
resistance
Wave-making 10-20% 20-30% 35-50%
resistance
Eddy-making 10-15% 5-10% 3-5%
resistance

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Subdivision of still water resistance
by stresses

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(1) Skin Friction Resistance
Skin friction resistance is the true tangential
resistance due to shear stress on the hull surface.

## Skin friction resistance = frictional resistance (flat

plate) + velocity form effect (due to curved shape of
the hull)

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(2) Normal pressure resistance
This resistance component is due to the normal stress
on the hull surface and can be subdivided into viscous
pressure resistance and wave-making resistance.

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Rough water resistance
This is due to the sea waves encountered by the ship.

## Its value depends on the conditions of the sea and

may amount to 25-35% for service in the North-
Atlantic, about 15-20% for service in the
Mediterranean sea.

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Air resistance
This is due to the resisting forces of the wind acting
on the above water part of the ship.

## Its magnitude depends on the wind speed and

direction as well as the shape and area of the above
water area.

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Its value is very small and amounting to about 1-2%
of the resistance.

## In high speed crafts, it may be about 8-10% of the

total resistance.