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C 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


V

COMPACT DUAL-BAND ANTENNA FOR


SMART WRISTBAND APPLICATION
Yunnan Jin, Jinpil Tak, and Jaehoon Choi
Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering,
Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul,
133-791, Korea; Corresponding author: choijh@hanyang.ac.kr

Received 14 October 2015 Figure 1 Geometry of the proposed antenna (a) Perspective view, (b)
antenna dimension, (c) antenna on arm phantom. [Color figure can be
viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]
ABSTRACT: A compact dual-band antenna for smart wristbands was
proposed. The proposed antenna consisted of a shorted hook-shaped
radiating element and a rectangular ground plane. The antenna satisfied
the 210 dB reflection coefficient bandwidth requirement in WLAN regulation of specific absorption rate (SAR), it is necessary to
(2.45/5.8 GHz) bands both in free space and on the arm phantom. The reduce radiation toward the human body.
gain of the proposed antenna was greater than 2 dBi at the center fre- Recently, various smart wristbands have been introduced.
quency of each operating band. To apply the proposed antenna to a
The antenna used for the smart wristband in [1] operates only in
practical smart wristband, a battery was considered in this letter. This
the 2.45 GHz Bluetooth band and has a size of approximately
antenna attained a multiband performance and size miniaturization com-
pared with an existing antenna used for a commercially available smart 80 mm2. Due to the space limitation imposed on the antenna, it
wristband. In addition, the specific absorption rate (SAR) of the proposed is difficult to achieve multiband operation for a compact
antenna was analyzed. The experimental and simulated results of the pro- antenna. A Fitbit Flex wristband antenna is proposed in Ref. 2.
posed antenna were in good agreement. V C 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. However, the antenna in Ref. 2 is designed as a coplanar type.
Microwave Opt Technol Lett 58:14621466, 2016; View this article
online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.29826

Key words: dual-band antenna; WBANs; smart wristband; compact


size; WLAN

1. INTRODUCTION
With the rapid growth of smart, wearable communication
devices in medical, health, and entertainment applications, the
smart wristband has received a great deal of attention in wire-
less body area networks (WBANs). In modern wearable wireless
communication devices, antennas are required to be compact Figure 2 Photograph of the fabricated antenna. [Color figure can be
and demonstrate multiband operation. In addition, to satisfy the viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

1462 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 58, No. 6, June 2016 DOI 10.1002/mop
Figure 3 Simulated reflection coefficient characteristics for different
L1. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Figure 6 Simulated reflection coefficient characteristics for the short-


ing line (a) different positions of shorting line L3, (b) different W2.
[Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Figure 4 Simulated reflection coefficient characteristics for different In fact, since the screen has a conductive property, the electro-
L2. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at magnetic wave radiated by the antenna is partially reflected
wileyonlinelibrary.com] toward the wrist. The coplanar-type antenna causes

Figure 5 Simulated reflection coefficient characteristics for different Figure 7 Simulated reflection coefficient in free space, on phantoms
W1. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available and with a battery. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue,
at wileyonlinelibrary.com] which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 58, No. 6, June 2016 1463
electromagnetic interference (EMI) directly into the screen,
which affects the electrical signal. Thus, to overcome these
problems, it is desirable to position the antenna on the side of
the main circuit board.
In this letter, with consideration of the effect of the human
body, space limitations, multiband operation, battery, and practic-
ability in real modern wireless communication devices, a compact
dual-band antenna for smart wristbands is proposed. The proposed
antenna operates in WLAN bands (2.392.49 GHz and 5.72
5.86 GHz). By utilizing a shorted hook-shaped radiating element,
the dual-band characteristic is realized. The SAR performance is
analyzed by using SEMCAD X based on the finite-different time-
domain method [3].

Figure 8 Simulated surface current of the proposed antenna. [Color


figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at 2. ANTENNA GEOMETRY
wileyonlinelibrary.com] Figure 1 depicts the geometry of the proposed antenna. The pro-
posed antenna is designed on an FR-4 (er 5 4.4, tand 5 0.02)
substrate with a thickness of 0.8 mm. The antenna consists of a
shorted hook-shaped radiating element and a rectangular ground
plane. It has a compact size of 17.2 mm 3 3.2 mm (50 mm2).
The size of the proposed antenna is reduced by 37.5% compared
with the antenna in Ref. 1. To improve the impedance matching,
a shorted line between the hook-shaped element and ground is
used. The effective electrical length is increased because of the
capacitive coupling between the radiating element and the
ground on the main circuit board. The proposed antenna is
located 5 mm above the arm phantom. In designing the antenna,
the total length of the proposed radiating element can be empiri-
cally approximated using following equation [47].

kg k0 c
LACD ~ 
~ and AEF 5 p 5 p (1)
4 4 eeff 4f0 eeff
er 11
eeff 5 (2)
2
Figure 9 Simulated and measured reflection coefficient of the pro-
posed antenna. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is where k0 is free-space wavelength, f0 is the desired central fre-
available at wileyonlinelibrary.com] quency, and c and eeff are the speed of light and approximated

Figure 10 Measured and simulated radiation patterns at 2.45 and 5.8 GHz air. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com]

1464 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 58, No. 6, June 2016 DOI 10.1002/mop
L2 5 4.6 mm, the resonant central frequencies are matched at
2.45 and 5.8 GHz. Figure 5 shows the simulated reflection
coefficient characteristics for different W1 values of the radi-
ating element. As W1 increases, the capacitive coupling
between the short L-shaped stub and the long inverted L-
shaped stub strengthened. Thus, the central frequency and
optimal impedance matching, W1 5 0.2 mm is chosen for the
width of the long inverted L-shaped stub. Figure 6 shows the
effect of the shorting line on the reflection coefficient charac-
teristics. L3 is the distance between points B and H, while W2
is the width of the shorting line in the proposed structure. In
Figure 6(a), when distance L3 increases, the electrical lengths
of the dual WLAN (2.45/5.8 GHz) bands increase. Thus, the
dual resonant central frequencies shift to lower frequencies.
Figure 6(b) shows that the shorting line improves the imped-
ance matching [8,9] in the WLAN band. In addition, the
impedance matching is also affected by the width of the
Figure 11 Measured gains of the proposed antenna in air shorting line. By adjusting the width of the shorting line
(W3 5 0.1 mm), the antenna attains the optimized impedance
matching. Figure 7 illustrates the comparison of the simulated
reflection coefficient of the proposed antenna in free space,
on phantoms at 2.45 and 5.8 GHz, and with a battery. In the
simulation, the battery (simulated by copper) with a dimen-
sion of 30 mm 3 10 mm 3 3 mm is directly attached to the
main circuit board. The arm phantom (200 mm 3 50 mm 3
30 mm) is modeled considering skin, fat, muscle, cortical
bone, cancellous bone, and bone marrow. The relative permit-
tivity and conductivity (S/m) of the arm phantom at 2.45 and
5.8 GHz are shown in Table 1 [10]. In the simulation, the
proposed antenna is insensitive to the arm phantom. Because
the antenna is located on the side of the arm phantom, the
distance between the proposed antenna and the arm phantom
becomes longer than that of the coplanar-type antenna. Thus,
the proposed structure becomes insensitive to the effective-
ness of the human arm phantom. Due to the effect of the bat-
tery, the impedance matching in the Bluetooth band
deteriorates, and the high resonant frequency shifts to the
lower frequency side. To further understand the operating
principle behind the effect of the battery on this antenna, the
Figure 12 SAR simulation results of the proposed antenna at 2.45 and surface current distributions at 2.45 and 5.8 GHz are analyzed
5.8 GHz. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is avail- and illustrated in Figure 8. Due to the capacitive coupling
able at wileyonlinelibrary.com] between the battery and the radiating element, the impedance
matching at 2.45 GHz deteriorates, and the resonant fre-
effective dielectric constant, respectively. Figure 2 shows the quency at the high band (5.8 GHz) shifts to a low frequency.
photograph of the fabricated antenna. Therefore, in the design of a practical smart wristband
antenna, the length of the radiating element must be adjusted
to account for the effect of the battery. Figure 9 shows the
3. SIMULATED AND MEASURED RESULTS measured reflection coefficient of the proposed antenna in
Figures 3 and 4 show the simulated reflection coefficient air, on a human arm, with a battery, and with a battery on a
characteristics for different lengths of the radiating element. human arm. The measured and simulated results of the pro-
As L1 and L2 increase, the two central frequencies in WLAN posed antenna are in good agreement. Figure 10 shows the
the band shift to lower frequencies. When L1 5 4.9 mm and measured and simulated radiation patterns at 2.45 and

TABLE 1 Permittivity and conductivity of an arm phantom

Skin Fat Muscle Bone Cortical Bone Cancellous Bone Marrow


Arm Phantom at 2.45 GHz
Permittivity 38 5.28 52.7 11.38 18.55 5.3
Conductivity (S/m) 1.46 0.1 1.74 0.39 0.81 0.1
Arm Phantom at 5.8 GHz
Permittivity 35.1 4.95 48.48 9.67 15.40 4.96
Conductivity (S/m) 3.72 0.29 4.96 1.15 2.15 0.28

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 58, No. 6, June 2016 1465
5.8 GHz in air. It shows that the proposed antenna in air has 11. SEMCAD X by SPEAG: EM/T simulation platform. Available at:
quasi-omnidirectional radiation patterns in H-plane (yz- http://www.speag.com.
plane). Figure 11 shows the measured gains in the operating 12. A. Christ, A. Klingenbook, T. Samaras, C. Goiceanu, and N. Kuster,
The dependence of electromagnetic far-field absorption on body tis-
bands in air. The measured gains are 2.01 dBi at 2.45 GHz
sue composition in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 6 GHz,
and 2.1 dBi at 5.8 GHz. The measured antenna efficiencies IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 54 (2006), 21882195.
are 54.73% at 2.45 GHz and 37.95% at 5.8 GHz, respectively.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the US
C 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
V
limits exposure to less than 1.6 W/kg over a volume of 1 g of
tissue [2]. Standard of 802.11 limits the transmitter power to
less than 17 dBm for 2.4 GHz WiFi, 12 dBm for 5 GHz FABRYPEROT LASER-BASED OPTICAL
WiFi, and 7.5 dBm for Bluetooth. In this work, we used 17 SWITCH FOR MULTICAST
dBm as the input power for SAR analysis in the SEMCAD TRANSMISSION IN BIDIRECTIONAL
[11,12] simulation. The peak SAR values of the proposed OPTICAL ACCESS NETWORKS
antenna are 1.56 W/kg at 2.45 GHz and 0.363W/kg at
5.8 GHz. Therefore, the proposed antenna satisfies the SAR Andrea Chiuchiarelli, Cristiano M. Gallep* Member IEEE, and
Evandro Conforti Life Senior Member IEEE
limitation imposed by the FCC (Figure 12). FEEC, *FT University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP,
Brazil; Corresponding author: anchiuc@decom.fee.unicamp.br
4. CONCLUSION
In this letter, a compact dual-band antenna for smart wrist- Received 20 October 2015
band applications is proposed for the WLAN band (2.45/
5.8 GHz). The proposed antenna attains good radiation gains
ABSTRACT: Optical multicasting based on multiwavelength injection
greater than 2 dBi in free space. The antenna realizes dual- locking of a FabryPerot laser diode is proposed as a viable solution to
band operation in spite of its compact size. The SAR values implement real-time optical switching in WDM optical networks, reduc-
of the proposed antenna at 2.45 and 5.8 GHz satisfy the ing the impact of Rayleigh backscattering induced crosstalk in bidirec-
exposure limitation of less than 1.6 W/kg. Therefore, the pro- tional transmission, and allowing full wavelength reuse. Efficient low-
posed antenna is a good candidate for smart wristband power optical injection for full duplex transmission at 1.25 Gb/s over
applications. 25 km of SMF is demonstrated. V C 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Microwave Opt Technol Lett 58:14661469, 2016; View this article


online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.29823
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research was supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT &
Key words: FabryPerot; optical multicasting; access networks
Future Planning (MSIP), Korea, under the Information Technology
Research Center (ITRC) support program (IITP-2015-H8501-15-
1006) supervised by the Institute for Information & Communica- 1. INTRODUCTION
tions Technology Promotion (IITP). New generations of optical access systems are facing an increas-
ing demand of bandwidth and transmission distance, in order to
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1466 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 58, No. 6, June 2016 DOI 10.1002/mop